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The overall incidence of non-fatal cardiovascular events was the highest for patients taking glyburide (169.1 per 1000 person-years), followed by for those taking glimepiride and metformin (95.2 and 49.1 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Compared with the adjusted hazard ratio for patients taking glyburide, the adjusted hazard ratio for those taking glimepiride was 0.52 (95% CI 0.40-0.69) and for those taking metformin was 0.31 (95% CI 0.24-0.40).
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Hypoglycaemia due to inadvertent use of oral hypoglycaemic agents is a recognised problem, particularly in cases where family members living in the same household are taking similar medications. Possible drug administration errors in residential care homes for the elderly should be investigated, and procedures rectified if confirmed. Health care providers should be vigilant to such potential errors, especially in cases of unexplained hypoglycaemia.
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The number of patients analysed as intention to treat were: liraglutide n = 230, placebo n = 114, insulin glargine n = 232. Liraglutide reduced HbA(1c) significantly vs glargine (1.33% vs 1.09%; -0.24% difference, 95% CI 0.08, 0.39; p = 0.0015) and placebo (-1.09% difference, 95% CI 0.90, 1.28; p < 0.0001). There was greater weight loss with liraglutide vs placebo (treatment difference -1.39 kg, 95% CI 2.10, 0.69; p = 0.0001), and vs glargine (treatment difference -3.43 kg, 95% CI 4.00, 2.86; p < 0.0001). Liraglutide reduced systolic BP (-4.0 mmHg) vs glargine (+0.5 mmHg; -4.5 mmHg difference, 95% CI 6.8, -2.2; p = 0.0001) but not vs placebo (p = 0.0791). Rates of hypoglycaemic episodes (major, minor and symptoms only, respectively) were 0.06, 1.2 and 1.0 events/patient/year, respectively, in the liraglutide group (vs 0, 1.3, 1.8 and 0, 1.0, 0.5 with glargine and placebo, respectively). A slightly higher number of adverse events (including nausea at 14%) were reported with liraglutide, but only 9.8% of participants in the group receiving liraglutide developed anti-liraglutide antibodies.
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The addition of sitagliptin 100 mg/day produced a statistically significant reduction in mean HbA1c level (mean HbA1c reduction of 0.99±0.85%, P<0.01). In the group taking a combination of sitagliptin and metformin (n=143, initial mean HbA1c level=7.48%), the reductions in HbA1c, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and fasting glucose levels were 0.72±0.76% (P<0.01), 47±65 mg/dL (P<0.01), and 15±44 mg/dL (P<0.01), respectively. In the group taking a combination of sitagliptin, glimepiride, and metformin (n=125, initial mean HbA1c level=8.42%), the reductions in HbA1c, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and fasting glucose levels were 1.09±0.86% (P<0.01), 62±64 mg/dL (P<0.01), and 31±45 mg/dL (P<0.01), respectively. In the group taking a combination of sitagliptin, glimepiride, metformin, and α-glucosidase inhibitor (n=63, initial mean HbA1c level=9.19%), the reductions in HbA1c, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and fasting glucose levels were 1.27±0.70% (P<0.01), 72±65 mg/dL (P<0.01), and 35±51 mg/dL (P<0.01), respectively. In the group that had previous hypoglycemic events and that changed from glimepiride to sitagliptin, HbA1c level did not change but fasting glucose increased significantly (14±29 mg/dL, P<0.01).
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Protection by PostC against endothelial IR injury in humans depends on K(ATP) channel activation and is mimicked by inhibition of the mPTP at reperfusion.
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To project and compare long-term outcomes of morbidity and mortality, and costs of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus from a randomized controlled trial of patients receiving liraglutide versus glimepiride monotherapy.
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To study the effects of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of glimepiride, a new sulphonylurea antidiabetic drug.
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CARdiovascular Outcome Trial of LINAgliptin Versus Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes (NCT01243424) is an ongoing, randomized trial in subjects with early type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk or established complications that will determine the long-term cardiovascular impact of linagliptin versus the sulphonylurea glimepiride. Eligible patients were sulphonylurea-naïve with HbA1c 6.5%-8.5% or previously exposed to sulphonylurea (in monotherapy or in a combination regimen <5 years) with HbA1c 6.5%-7.5%. Primary outcome is time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or hospitalization for unstable angina. A total of 631 patients with primary outcome events will be required to provide 91% power to demonstrate non-inferiority in cardiovascular safety by comparing the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval as being below 1.3 for a given hazard ratio. Hierarchical testing for superiority will follow, and the trial has 80% power to demonstrate a 20% relative cardiovascular risk reduction. A total of 6041 patients were treated with median type 2 diabetes duration 6.2 years, 40.0% female, mean HbA1c 7.2%, 66% on 1 and 24% on 2 glucose-lowering agents and 34.5% had previous cardiovascular complications. The results of CARdiovascular Outcome Trial of LINAgliptin Versus Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes may influence the decision-making process for selecting a second glucose-lowering agent after metformin in type 2 diabetes.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and progressive β cell failure; therefore, β cell secretagogues are useful for achieving sufficient glycemic control. Glimepiride is a second-generation sulfonylurea that stimulates pancreatic β cells to release insulin. Additionally, is has been shown to work via several extra pancreatic mechanisms. It is administered as monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in whom glycemic control is not achieved by dietary and lifestyle modifications. It can also be combined with other antihyperglycemic agents, including metformin and insulin, in patients who are not adequately controlled by sulfonylureas alone. The effective dosage range is 1 to 8 mg/day; however, there is no significant difference between 4 and 8 mg/day, but it should be used with caution in the elderly and in patients with renal or hepatic disease. In clinical studies, glimepiride was generally associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia and less weight gain compared to other sulfonylureas. Glimepiride use may be safer in patients with cardiovascular disease because of its lack of detrimental effects on ischemic preconditioning. It is effective in reducing fasting plasma glucose, post-prandial glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and is a useful, cost-effective treatment option for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We conclude that the addition of a thiazolinedione to glimepiride treatment in type 2 diabetic subjects with the metabolic syndrome is associated with a slight but significant reduction of PAI-1 value, related to a similar reduction in insulinresistance.
HbA1c improved in both treatment arms (pioglitazone: 7.52 +/- 0.85% to 6.71 +/- 0.89%, p < .0001; glimepiride: 7.44 +/- 0.89% to 6.83 +/- 0.85%, p < .0001). Insulin-resistance decreased significantly in the pioglitazone group (6.15 +/- 4.05 to 3.85 +/- 1.92, p < .0001) and remained unchanged in the glimepiride group. The microvascular response to heat significantly improved in both treatment groups (pioglitazone 48.5 [15.2; 91.8] to 88.8 [57.6; 124.1] arbitrary units [AU], p < .0001; glimepiride 53.7 [14.1; 91.9] to 87.9 [52.9, 131.0] AU, p < .0001, median [lower and upper quartile]). Endothelial function as measured with the acetylcholine response improved in the pioglitazone group (38.5 [22.2; 68.0] to 60.2 [36.9; 82.8], p = .0427) and remained unchanged in the glimepiride group.
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Diabetes is associated with aberrant coagulation. Relaxin, an insulin-like peptide hormone, is a candidate to be involved in the underlying molecular mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated the correlation of relaxin expression with fibrinogen levels in diabetes patients undergoing oral antidiabetic treatment.
The proportion of patients achieving control was taken from a meta-analysis that was based on the Phase III trial program of liraglutide. Treatment costs, estimated from a health care payer perspective, were calculated on the basis of the trials included in the meta-analysis and captured the study drug, needles, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) test strips, SMBG lancets, and other antidiabetes medications received. Cost-effectiveness in terms of cost per patient achieving the composite end point (cost of control) was evaluated with an economic model developed in Microsoft Excel. No discounting was applied to cost or clinical outcomes because these were not projected beyond a 1-year time horizon. Sensitivity analyses were performed.
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Liraglutide (Victoza) is an acylated analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In phase III studies, once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide improved glycaemic control compared with placebo or active comparator in adult patients with type 2 diabetes, both as monotherapy and in combination with one or two oral antidiabetic drugs such as metformin, sulfonylureas or thiazolidinediones. Liraglutide provided significantly better glycaemic control than rosiglitazone or insulin glargine in combination trials. At appropriate dosages, liraglutide was noninferior to glimepiride with respect to glycaemic control in a combination trial, but provided significantly better control than glimepiride or glibenclamide in monotherapy trials. Liraglutide improved pancreatic beta-cell function, generally led to weight loss, and was associated with a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Liraglutide was generally well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being gastrointestinal events, such as nausea, which decreased over time. Thus, liraglutide is an effective treatment option for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Compared with glimepiride, dapagliflozin as monotherapy for T2DM is a more cost-effective treatment for T2DM patients on monotherapy in China. The weight control has been identified as the major contributor for the higher cost-effectiveness of dapagliflozin.
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The sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits of K(ATP) channels are the targets for several classes of therapeutic drugs. Sulphonylureas close K(ATP) channels in pancreatic beta-cells and are used to stimulate insulin release in type 2 diabetes, whereas the K(ATP) channel opener nicorandil acts as an antianginal agent by opening K(ATP) channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. The predominant type of SUR varies between tissues: SUR1 in beta-cells, SUR2A in cardiac muscle, and SUR2B in smooth muscle. Sulphonylureas and related drugs exhibit differences in tissue specificity, as the drugs interact to varying degrees with different types of SUR. Gliclazide and tolbutamide are beta-cell selective and reversible. Glimepiride, glibenclamide, and repaglinide, however, inhibit cardiac and smooth muscle K(ATP) channels in addition to those in beta-cells and are only slowly reversible. Similar properties have been observed by recording K(ATP) channel activity in intact cells and in Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned K(ATP) channel subunits. While K(ATP) channels in cardiac and smooth muscle are largely closed under physiological conditions (but open during ischaemia), they are activated by antianginal agents such as nicorandil. Under these conditions, they may be inhibited by sulphonylureas that block SUR2-type K(ATP) channels (e.g., glibenclamide). Care should, therefore, be taken when choosing a sulphonylurea if potential interactions with cardiac and smooth muscle K(ATP) channels are to be avoided.
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A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine glimepiride (GPD) and fluoxetine (FLU) in human plasma using diazepam as the internal standard (IS) simultaneously. The presented method used an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column for chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection on a QTrap5500 mass spectrometer operated in positive ESI mode. The mobile phase is a mixture of acetonitrile and 1% formic acid in water with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.40mL/min. The GPD, FLU and IS were eluted at 1.46, 1.27 and 1.39min, respectively. The MRM transitions of m/z 491.3→126.3 and m/z 310.5→148.1 were used to quantify for GPD and FLU, respectively. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 2.5-300ng/mL and 0.1-20ng/mL for GPD and FLU in human plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) were less than 10.3% and accuracy (RE%) was within ±7.3%. The matrix effect were 95.3-100.7% for GPD and FLU. GPD and FLU were sufficiently stable under all relevant analytical conditions. The method was also successfully applied to the clinical samples after a single oral dose of 2mg GLP and 40mg FLU in patients.
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A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an academic health center enterprise-wide electronic health record system to identify 7320 patients with Type 2 diabetes (3768 initiators of glyburide (glibenclamide) and metformin, 2277 initiators of glipizide and metformin and 1275 initiators of glimepiride and metformin), ≥ 18 years of age and not on insulin or a non-insulin injectable at baseline. The patients were followed for mortality by documentation in the electronic health record and Social Security Death Index. Multivariable Cox models with propensity analysis were used to compare cohorts.
We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Randomized controlled trials of EMPA as add-on to MET for T2DM were included. Two investigators independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. A meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.3 software and Stata 12 software.
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Glibenclamide, metformin, and metformin/glimepiride combination were regularly prescribed by 45.64-87.25% of the physicians but gliclazide, pioglitazone, pioglitazone/metformin and pioglitazone/glimepiride combinations were prescribed occasionally by 41.61-61.74% of them. Majority of the physicians (87.25%) prescribe glibenclamide to the older patients and do not also always consider dosage reduction on account of older age. Some of these (30.2%) of these physicians equally prescribed chlorpropamide to the patients. Postgraduate qualification was the only significant factor associated with prescription of chlorpropamide (p < 0.05).
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Change in A1C was -0.80% (95% CI -0.90 to -0.68) (p < 0.001). Change in BMI, systemic and diastolic blood pressure, and urinary albumin excretion were -0.38 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.72 to -0.04) (p < 0.05), -6.7/-3.6 mmHg (95% CI -10.0 to -3.4/-4.8 to -2.4) (p < 0.001), and -43.2 mg/gCr (95% CI -65.7 to -20.8) (p < 0.001) respectively. Mild hypoglycaemia was observed in three cases. The unresponsive rate was 6.1%. Glucagon loading test showed that 0-min and 6-min CPR at baseline and 52-week were not significantly changed: 0-min CPR, 1.58 ± 0.58-1.71 ± 0.73 ng/ml; 6-min CPR, 3.48 ± 1.47-3.58 ± 1.21 ng/ml. Insulin secretion capacity, CPI and SUIT index at baseline did not predict the efficacy of the combination therapy. The final dosages of glimepiride and gliclazide were 1.44 ± 0.90 mg and 34.5 ± 15.3 mg respectively. The dosage of sitagliptin was increased from 50 mg to 69.0 ± 24.5 mg in 52-week.
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A total of 100 mg of sitagliptin were added once daily to the two most popular therapy regimens (group 1: metformin, group 2: metformin plus glimepiride). Before adding sitagliptin, mean initial glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) and mean diabetes duration was 8.3 years.
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After the launch of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), a new oral hypoglycemic drug (OHD), in December 2009, severe hypoglycemia cases were reported in Japan. Although the definite cause was unknown, co-administration with sulfonylureas (SU) was suspected as one of the potential risk factors. The Japan Association for Diabetes Education and Care (JADEC) released a recommendation in April 2010 to lower the dose of three major SUs (glimepiride, glibenclamide, and gliclazide) when adding a DPP-4 inhibitor. To evaluate the effectiveness of this risk minimization action along with labeling changes, dispensing records for 114,263 patients prescribed OHDs between December 2008 and December 2010 were identified in the Nihon-Chouzai pharmacy claims database. The adherence to the recommended dosing of SU co-prescribed with DPP-4 inhibitors increased from 46.3% before to 63.8% after the JADEC recommendation (p < 0.01 by time-series analysis), while no change was found in those for SU monotherapy and SU with other OHD co-prescriptions. The adherence was significantly worse for those receiving a glibenclamide prescription. The JADEC recommendation, along with labeling changes, appeared to have a favorable effect on the risk minimization action in Japan. In these instances, a pharmacy claims database can be a useful tool to evaluate risk minimization actions.
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31 type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria were randomly allocated to receive exenatide (group Exe, n = 13) or glimepiride treatment (group Glm, n = 18) for 16 weeks. Body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A(1c), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, 24-hour urinary albumin, urinary TGF-β(1) and type IV collagen concentration were analyzed between the two treatment groups. 20 age- and BMI-matched healthy subjects were chosen as the normal control group (group NC, n = 20).
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We randomly assigned 1791 military veterans (mean age, 60.4 years) who had a suboptimal response to therapy for type 2 diabetes to receive either intensive or standard glucose control. Other cardiovascular risk factors were treated uniformly. The mean number of years since the diagnosis of diabetes was 11.5, and 40% of the patients had already had a cardiovascular event. The goal in the intensive-therapy group was an absolute reduction of 1.5 percentage points in the glycated hemoglobin level, as compared with the standard-therapy group. The primary outcome was the time from randomization to the first occurrence of a major cardiovascular event, a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, death from cardiovascular causes, congestive heart failure, surgery for vascular disease, inoperable coronary disease, and amputation for ischemic gangrene.
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Glimepiride appears to improve insulin resistance and atherosclerotic disorders.