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Arjunolic acid, a new triterpene and a potent principle from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, has been shown to provide significant cardiac protection in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats. To further explore the mechanism of action of arjunolic acid, antiplatelet activity, anticoagulant assays, electrocardiographic changes, serum marker enzymes, antioxidant status, lipid peroxide and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been measured and the results are compared with a potent cardioprotective drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Administration of isoproterenol produces electrocardiographic changes such as decreased R amplitude and increased ST segment elevation and has resulted in an increase in serum marker enzyme levels as well as a decrease in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels. Arjunolic acid at an effective dosage of 15 mg/kg body wt. (pre and post treatment), when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), effects a decrease in serum enzyme levels and the electrocardiographic changes get restored towards normalcy. Arjunolic acid treatment is also shown to prevent the decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ceruloplasmin, alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid, lipid peroxide, MPO and the cardioprotection is confirmed by the histopathological studies. This study shows that the cardioprotection of arjunolic acid pre and post treatment could possibly be due to the protective effect against the damage caused by myocardial necrosis.
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Response rate in various groups varied from 86% to 91%. No significant changes in total, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels were seen in Groups I and II (paired t-test p > 0.05). In Group III there was a significant decrease in total cholesterol (-9.7 +/- 12.7%), and LDL cholesterol (-15.8 +/- 25.6%) (paired t-test p < 0.01). Lipid peroxide levels decreased significantly in both the treatment groups (p < 0.01). This decrease was more in vitamin E group (-36.4 +/- 17.7%) as compared to the T. arjuna group (-29.3 +/- 18.9%).
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Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction along with impaired autonomic control functions. Herbal drugs are increasingly being used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of Terminalia arjuna (T arjuna) bark extract on LV and baroreflex function in CHF and to elucidate the possible mechanistic clues in its cardioprotective action. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate (HR) with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). T arjuna bark extract and fluvastatin were tested/administered therapeutically and prophylactically in isoproterenol-induced rat model of CHF. Fifteen days after isoproterenol administration, rats exhibited cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and LV remodeling along with reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with T arjuna improved cardiac functions and baroreflex sensitivity. It also attenuated hypertrophy and fibrosis of the LV. Fluvastatin treatment exerted a similar protective effect against myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Further, T arjuna and fluvastatin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine level in CHF rats. In conclusion, T arjuna exerts beneficial effect on LV functions, myocardial remodeling, and autonomic control in CHF possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and cytokine levels.
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The herbal toothpaste brand presented significant anticandidal activity over conventional toothpastes and may be useful in reducing the pathogenic potential of Candida species.
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Results of our study demonstrate the antioxidant and antiarthritic activity of TABE in CIA in rats. We believe that TABE could find clinical application in the management of rheumatoid arthritis and associated disorders.
Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community.
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Herbal plants with antioxidant activities are widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for cardiac and other problems. Arjunolic acid is one such novel phytomedicine with multifunctional therapeutic applications. It is a triterpenoid saponin, isolated earlier from Terminalia arjuna and later from Combretum nelsonii, Leandra chaeton etc. Arjunolic acid is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The scientific basis for the use of arjunolic acid as cardiotonic in Ayurvedic medicine is proven by its vibrant functions such as prevention of myocardial necrosis, platelet aggregation and coagulation and lowering of blood pressure, heart rate and cholesterol levels. Its antioxidant property combined with metal chelating property protects organs from metal and drug induced toxicity. It also plays an effective role in exerting protection against both type I and type II diabetes and also ameliorates diabetic renal dysfunctions. Its therapeutic multifunctionality is shown by its wound healing, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection conferred by arjunolic acid can be explained by its property to reduce the oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant levels. Apart from its pathophysiological functions, it possesses dynamic insecticidal property and it is used as a structural molecular framework in supramolecular chemistry and nanoscience. Esters of ajunolic acid function as gelators of a wide variety of organic liquids. Experimental studies demonstrate the versatile effects of arjunolic acid, but still, further investigations are necessary to identify the functional groups responsible for its multivarious effects and to study the molecular mechanisms as well as the probable side effects/toxicity owing to its long-term use. Though the beneficial role of this triterpenoid has been assessed from various angles, a comprehensive review of its effects on biochemistry and organ pathophysiology is lacking and this forms the rationale of this review.
Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is commonly consumed as a herbal remedy for various ailments in tropical countries. However, the dangers associated with consumption of star fruit are not commonly known. Although star fruit induced oxalate nephrotoxicity in those with existing renal impairment is well documented, reports on its effect on those with normal renal function are infrequent. We report two unique clinical presentation patterns of star fruit nephrotoxicity following consumption of the fruit as a remedy for diabetes mellitus-the first, in a patient with normal renal function and the second case which we believe is the first reported case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to prolonged and excessive consumption of star fruits.
Several medicinal plants have been described to be beneficial for cardiac ailments in Ayurveda like Ashwagandha and Arjuna. Ashwagandha-categorised as Rasayanas, and described to promote health and longevity and Arjuna primarily for heart ailments. coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, anginal pain and can be considered as a useful drug for coronary artery disease, hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy.
Candidal adhesion has been implicated as the initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) has been implicated in adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic pathogen associated with recurrent oral candidiasis. Chlorhexidine gluconate is by far the commonest antiseptic mouth wash prescribed in dentistry. At dosage intervals the intraoral concentration of this antiseptic fluctuates considerably and reaches sub-therapeutic levels due to the dynamics of the oral cavity. Hence, the organisms undergo only a limited exposure to the antiseptic during treatment. The impact of this antiseptic following such exposure on CSH of C. dubliniensis isolates has not been investigated. Hence, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of brief exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate on the CSH of C. dubliniensis isolates. Twelve oral isolates of C. dubliniensis were briefly exposed to three sub-therapeutic concentrations of 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% chlorhexidine gluconate for 30 min. Following subsequent removal of the drug, the CSH of the isolates was determined by a biphasic aqueous-hydrocarbon assay. Compared with the controls, exposure to 0.005% and 0.0025% chlorhexidine gluconate suppressed the relative CSH of the total sample tested by 44.49% (P < 0.001) and 21.82% (P < 0.018), respectively, with all isolates being significantly affected. Although exposure to 0.00125% of chlorhexidine gluconate did not elicit a significant suppression on the total sample tested (7.01%; P > 0.05), four isolates of the group were significantly affected. These findings imply that exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate may suppress CSH of C. dublinienis isolates, thereby reducing its pathogenicity and highlights further the pharmacodynamics of chlorhexidine gluconate.
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A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs.
Five oral isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida guilliermondii (total of 30 isolates) were examined for the presence of PAFE after 1 h of exposure to the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. The PAFE was determined as the difference in time (hours) required for the growth of the drug-free control and the drug-exposed test cultures to increase to 0.05 absorbance level following removal of amphotericin B.
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The data show that activated BV-2 microglia cells (+ LPS 1μg/ml) release >10-fold greater IL-6, MIP1/2, RANTES and nitric oxide (NO2-), where RAW 264.7 macrophages (+ LPS 1μg/ml) produced > 10-fold rise in sTNFR2, MCP-1, IL-6, GCSF, RANTES and NO2-. Data validation studies establish hydrocortisone and dexamethasone as suppressing multiple pro-inflammatory processes, where L-NIL suppressed NO2-, but had no effect on iNOS expression or IL-6. The screening results demonstrate relative few valid hits with anti-inflammatory effects at < 250μg/ml for the following: Bay Leaf (Laurus nobilis), Elecampagne Root (Inula helenium), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare),Yerba (Eriodictyon californicum) and Centipeda (Centipeda minima), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Turmeric Root (Curcuma Longa), Osha Root (Ligusticum porteri), Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) and constituents: cardamonin, apigenin, quercetin, biochanin A, eupatorin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and butein. Natural products lethal against [E. coli 0157:H7] where the LC50 < 100 μg/ml included bioactive silver hydrosol-Argentyn 23, green tea (its constituents EGCG > Polyphenon 60 > (-)-Gallocatechin > Epicatechin > (+)-Catechin), Grapeseed Extract (Vitis vinifera), Chinese Gallnut (its constituents gallic acid > caffeic acid) and gallic acid containing plants such as Babul Chall Bark (Acacia Arabica), Arjun (Terminalia Arjuna) and Bayberry Root Bark (Morella Cerifera).
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The chemopreventive potential of TaBet is probably due to its antilipidperoxidative effect or the presence of some potent bioactive chemopreventive principles in the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The results of the present study indicate that T. arjuna may emerge as a putative chemopreventive agent against oral carcinogenesis.
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This study was aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of combination of T. arjuna and α-tocopherol in isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.
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Terminalia arjuna (TA) is a medicinal plant used as a cardiotonic in ayurveda. Besides others, scientific evidence dictates its strong hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. However, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet aggregatory properties of TA are not known. The present study demonstrates in vitro effects of its ethanolic bark extract (TAE) on platelet function indices. Twenty patients of angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in Group I and 20 age and sex-matched controls were included in Group II. Platelet activation was monitored by determining P-selectin (CD62P) expression, intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)) release and platelet aggregation. In vitro effect of TA on platelets function indices was determined by incubating the platelets with TAE in a time and dose-dependent manner in presence/absence of ADP. TAE was able to significantly inhibit platelet aggregation both in patient and control groups. Significant attenuation in Ca(2+) release and expression of CD62P was also observed with TAE. Our data clearly demonstrates that the bark extract of TA decreases platelet activation and may possess antithrombotic properties. The possible mechanism of action could be by desensitizing platelets to the agonist by competing with platelet receptor or by interfering with signal transduction. Thus, TA can be exploited for its therapeutic potential in CAD and related cardiovascular disorders.
Withania somnifera may therefore be useful for generalized weakness and to improve speed and lower limb muscular strength and neuro-muscular co-ordination. Terminalia arjuna may prove useful to improve cardio-vascular endurance and lowering systolic blood pressure. Both drugs appear to be safe for young adults when given for mentioned dosage and duration.
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The leaves, twigs, stem and bark of T. arjuna were analysed for their protein, phenol, tannin, nitrate, oxalate in addition to vitamin C, anthocyanin and chlorophyll in the leaves. The variation of some of these parameters in the leaves with season and leaf position was also studied. The time course changes in amino acids and protein during seed germination in T. arjuna, showed initial decrease in protein followed by increase at subsequent stages. The seeds contain high level of serine (21.7%) and glutamic acid (22.6%) the later decreased as the germination progressed. After 30 days seeds showed higher amounts of serine (26.0%), valine (2.8%), proline (10.6%), methionine (3.4%), histidine (5.6%) and lysine (7.4%) while threonine, glutamic acid, tyrosine and arginine were in lower amounts than that of initial stage at 0 day.
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Twelve patients with refractory chronic congestive heart failure (Class IV NYHA), related to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (10 patients); previous myocardial infarction (one patient) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (one patient), received Terminalia Arjuna, an Indian medicinal plant, as bark extract (500 mg 8-hourly) or matching placebo for 2 weeks each, separated by 2 weeks washout period, in a double blind cross over design as an adjuvent to maximally tolerable conventional therapy (Phase I). The clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic evaluation was carried out at baseline and at the end of Terminalia Arjuna and placebo therapy and results were compared. Terminalia Arjuna, compared to placebo, was associated with improvement in symptoms and signs of heart failure, improvement in NYHA Class (Class III vs. Class IV), decrease in echo-left ventricular enddiastolic (125.28 +/- 27.91 vs. 134.56 +/- 29.71 ml/m2; P < 0.005) and endsystolic volume (81.06 +/- 24.60 vs. 94.10 +/- 26.42 ml/m2; P < 0.005) indices, increase in left ventricular stroke volume index (44.21 +/- 11.92 vs. 40.45 +/- 11.56 ml/m2; P < 0.05) and increase in left ventricular ejection fractions (35.33 +/- 7.85 vs. 30.24 +/- 7.13%; P < 0.005). On long term evaluation in an open design (Phase II), wherein Phase I participants continued Terminalia Arjuna in fixed dosage (500 mg 8-hourly) in addition to flexible diuretic, vasodilator and digitalis dosage for 20-28 months (mean 24 months) on outpatient basis, patients showed continued improvement in symptoms, signs, effort tolerance and NYHA Class, with improvement in quality of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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RCTs generally received high quality scores and improved by decade of publication. More than 50% of garlic, more than 80% of guggul, and 100% of Arjuna RCTs reported product effectiveness. Safety scores did not improve by decade. The QEDs received medium and high quality scores, and 93% of them reported effectiveness. The QEDs had a higher mean score for safety reporting than the RCTs.
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Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method.
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Five novel 18,19-secooleanane-type triterpene glycosyl esters, namely arjunasides A-E, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna along with nine known oleanane triterpenoids. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and CD spectra.
The present study infers that T. arjuna leaf demonstrated remarkable antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The potential antihyperglycemic action is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role.
The present study was designed to develop safer, effective, and viable cardioprotective herbal combination to control oxidative stress related cardiac ailments as new alternatives to synthetic drugs. The synergetic cardioprotective potential of herbal combination of four plants T. arjuna (T.A.), P. nigrum (P.N), C. grandiflorus (C), and C. oxyacantha (Cr) was assessed through curative and preventive mode of treatment. In preventive mode of treatment, the cardiac injury was induced with synthetic catecholamine (salbutamol) to pretreated rabbits with the proposed herbal combination for three weeks. In curative mode of treatment, cardiotoxicity/oxidative stress was induced in rabbits with salbutamol prior to treating them with plant mixture. Cardiac marker enzymes, lipids profile, and antioxidant enzymes as biomarker of cardiotoxicity were determined in experimental animals. Rabbits administrated with mere salbutamol showed a significant increase in cardiac marker enzymes and lipid profile and decrease in antioxidant enzymes as compared to normal control indicating cardiotoxicity and myocardial cell necrosis. However, pre- and postadministration of plant mixture appreciably restored the levels of all biomarkers. Histopathological examination confirmed that the said combination was safer cardioprotective product.
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Retrospective analysis of patients with idiopathic TIACs that were surgically managed at Royal North Shore Hospital and North Shore Private Hospital between November 2000 and November 2015.