Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.
Brand name of Artane is Artane.
Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.
If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.
If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Artane are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.
Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.
Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.
Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.
Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
Avoid driving machine.
It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.
artane generic name
QXT can significantly enhance the behavioral activity of mice,and depress TNF-alpha content in striatum,which suggest QXT can effectively relieve the symptom of PD.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a severe side-effect of neuroleptic treatment. It is usually related to hypodopaminergic activity. A young schizophrenic patient who developed a typical episode of NMS during abrupt withdrawal of long-acting neuroleptic combined with anticholinergic treatment is described. NMS appeared following combined neuroleptic/ anticholinergic withdrawal and responded to procyclidine administration. The appearance of NMS after discontinuation of antidopaminergic treatment seems to be in conflict with the hypodopaminergic theory of this adverse effect. It is suggested that simultaneous withdrawal of both anticholinergic and neuroleptic medications, mainly long-acting neuroleptics, seems to be a risk factor for NMS.
artane and alcohol
Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is a rare, typically idiopathic familial condition, although sporadic and secondary cases have been reported. We present 2 cases where PED was the presenting feature of young-onset idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), preceding the onset of parkinsonian symptoms by 1.5 and 5 years, respectively. Initially, the dystonic symptoms occurred after prolonged exercise and were unilateral, affecting the foot in both patients. Over time, symptoms occurred with minimal exercise. We conclude that PED can rarely be the first and only feature of PD.
artane 4 mg
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was then performed. Meanwhile, the potential transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) of these DEGs were predicted based on their binding sequences. In addition, DEGs were mapped to the cMap database to find the potential small molecule drugs. A total of 4777 genes were identified as DEGs by comparing gene expression profiles between DCM and control samples. DEGs were significantly enriched in 26 pathways, such as lymphocyte TarBase pathway and androgen receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, potential TFs (SP1, LEF1, and NFAT) were identified, as well as potential miRNAs (miR-9, miR-200 family, and miR-30 family). Additionally, small molecules like isoflupredone and trihexyphenidyl were found to be potential therapeutic drugs for DCM. The identified DEGs (PRSS12 and FOXG1), potential TFs, as well as potential miRNAs, might be involved in DCM.
artane windows reviews
The treatment of both generalized and focal dystonia is symptomatic. There is no evidence-based information about the efficacy of the different methods of the pharmacological therapeutic options currently being applied in dystonia. The specific questions addressed by this study were which treatments for dystonia have proven efficacy and which of them have unproven results. Following evidence-based principles, a literature review based on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, augmented by manual search of the most important journals was performed to identify the relevant publications issued between 1973 and 2003. All articles appearing in the professional English literature, including case reports, were considered. In the presence of comparable studies the meta-analysis was performed to obtain pooled information and make a reasonable inference. Based on this review, we conclude: (i) botulinum toxin has obvious benefit (level A, class I-II evidence) for the treatment of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm; (ii) trihexyphenidyl in high dosages is effective for the treatment of segmental and generalized dystonia in young patients (level A, class I-II evidence); (iii) all other methods of pharmacological intervention for generalized or focal dystonia, including botulinum toxin injections, have not been confirmed as being effective according to accepted evidence-based criteria (level U, class IV studies).
artane medication dosage
Dystonia is a chronic disorder characterised by an aberration in the control of movement. Sustained co-contraction of opposing agonist and antagonist muscles can cause repetitive and twisting movements, or abnormal postures. Cervical dystonia (CD), often referred to as spasmodic torticollis, is a type of focal dystonia involving the muscles of the neck and sometimes the shoulders.
artane medication trihexyphenidyl
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for trihexyphenidyl was developed through the use of a bovine thyroglobulin conjugate of trihexyphenidyl hemisuccinate. Immunization of New Zealand white rabbits with this drug-protein conjugate yielded antisera, for which the antibody titer and specificity were evaluated. An antiserum that had the highest titer and minimal cross-reactivities to major metabolites of trihexyphenidyl, such as trihexyphenidyl N-oxide (2%), hydroxytrihexyphenidyl (1%), and the antipsychotic drugs fluphenazine (< 1%), flupenthixol (< 1%), chlorpromazine (< 1%), and haloperidol (< 1%), was selected for development of a RIA. The described RIA enables the quantitation of 7.8 pg of trihexyphenidyl in 200 microL of human plasma with a mean coefficient of variation of < 6% across the range of the standard curve. Assay specificity was further demonstrated by comparison of results obtained directly and after selective extraction of trihexyphenidyl from replicate samples. This RIA procedure was applied to the analysis of steady state plasma samples obtained from patients undergoing treatment with trihexyphenidyl (2-8 mg) and plasma samples obtained from eight healthy male volunteers after administration of a single 4 mg oral dose of the drug. The results of the latter single dose studies demonstrated that the mean +/- SD for the peak concentration (Cmax), the time to Cmax (Tmax), the rate of absorption (Ka), and the area under the curve from 0 to 72 h (AUC0-72) were found to be 7.15 +/- 2.58 ng/mL, 1.32 +/- 0.58 h, 2.07 +/- 0.93 1/h, and 201 +/- 71 ng h/mL, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
artane medication uses
Acetylcholine (ACh) was collected from the alvear surface of the dorsal hippocampus and cerebral cortex in chloralose-urethane anaesthetized or unanaesthetized rabbits. With anaesthesia, the resting release of ACh from the hippocampus was greater than that from the cortex. Wthout anaesthesia, the resting release from both areas was much higher and very similar. The addition of atropine sulphate (1 microgram/ml) to the collecting fluid or the administration of Artane (2 mg/kg i.v.) increased resting ACh release from both the hippocampus and cortex to similar output levels. Atropine also increased ACh release due to stimulation of the medial septum (MS) or mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF). Removal of the septum abolished the effect of atropine on resting ACh release and on release evoked by MRF stimulation from both the hippocampus and cortex. The data indicate that the septum is an essential pathway for cholinergic fibres ascending to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. They also demonstrate that the septal cholinergic fibres must be intact and active for atropine to increase ACh release from their terminals.
artane pediatric dosage
To develop a method to measure trihexyphenidyl, chlorpromazine and clozapine in human blood with GC-MS.
artane max dose
The goal of medical therapy for primary dystonia is conservative. While botulinum toxin (BTX) therapy is a first choice for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia, medical therapy is selected as such for other types of dystonia. As oral medications, trihexyphenidyl and benzodiazepines are most frequently used. Muscle relaxants are also commonly used, but dopamine antagonists are not recommended because of the risk of inducing tardive dyskinesia. For childhood-onset generalized dystonia, levodopa should be considered to rule out levodopa-responsive dystonia. Mexiletine is reported to be effective not only for bleharospasm and cervical dystonia but for focal limb dystonia. To improve the therapeutic performance of BTX therapy for blepharospasm, it is recommended that corrugator supercilii and procerus muscles, as well as orbicularis oculi muscle, be added as target muscles. To improve the therapeutic performance of BTX therapy for cervical dystonia, it is recommended that this therapy be started as early as possible, especially within one year of illness, and that levator scapulae muscle be added as target if necessary. To improve usefulness of medical therapy for dystonia, its strategy must be standardized, and more useful therapies must be positively adopted. Algorithm for treatment of dystonia must also be established and generalized.
artane medication classification
1. Eight patients who failed or ceased to respond to levodopa, or who had developed the "on-off" phenomenon were treated additionally with nomifensine. 2. The dosage of nomifensine started at 50 mg, was increased to 150 mg daily, and other medication was continued unchanged. The duration of treatment was from 2-5 months. Assessments were carried out at 2-week intervals using a validated rating scale. 4. Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurones characterizes Parkinson's disease, and it is probably for this reason that indirect dopamine (DA) agonists, whose actions depend on intact presynaptic mechanisms, are less active. 3. Nomifensine was not shown to be of antiparkinsonian value in these patients but may be of value as an antidepressant in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Twenty-five percent of 80 consecutive patients who met research criteria for persistent tardive dyskinesia (TD) were found to have an energy peak in the parkinsonian tremor band (3-6 Hz) of the frequency spectrum of their machine-measured resting hand movements in addition to the abnormalities consistent with TD (increased energy in the 0.5-3 Hz frequency spectrum). Twelve of these patients were studied again in double-blind fashion 2 hours after receiving a placebo and again 2 hours after a single 4 mg dose of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride (HCl). Compared with the placebo condition, the trihexyphenidyl HCl markedly diminished the measured energy in the 4 Hz band and had no effect or slightly decreased the energy at all other points on the frequency spectrum. Simultaneous Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale ratings revealed no change in the dyskinetic movements between the conditions; there was a significant subjective improvement reported by the patients following the trihexyphenidyl HCl administration. These observations indicate that electromechanical devices identify a subpopulation of TD patients who may acutely benefit from anticholinergic treatment.
Rats were trained to discriminate 1.25 mg/kg CLZ from vehicle in a two-choice drug discrimination task.
artane pill sizes
The acute effects of the organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor soman include hypersecretions, convulsions, and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticholinergic compounds aprophen, atropine sulfate, azaprophen, benactyzine, benztropine, biperiden, scopolamine HBr, and trihexyphenidyl for their efficacy in preventing soman-induced hypersecretions and convulsions. Male rats were injected with the oxime HI-6 (125 mg/kg, i.p.), to increase survival time, along with various intramuscular doses of the anticholinergics 30 min prior to a dose of soman (180 micrograms/kg, s.c.; equivalent to 1.6 x the median lethal dose) that produced 100% convulsions. Signs of intoxication as well as the time-to-onset of convulsions were observed. The calculated anticonvulsant median effective dose values were 0.18, 0.33, 0.36, 0.55, 2.17, 2.30, 2.45, and 31.09 mumol/kg for scopolamine HBr, biperiden, trihexyphenidyl, benactyzine, benztropine, azaprophen, aprophen, and atropine sulfate, respectively. The same rank order of potency for inhibition of hypersecretions among these compounds was observed. Parallel studies with quaternary analogs of atropine sulfate and scopolamine HBr demonstrated, however, that these charged compounds afford no protection against soman-induced hypersecretions and convulsions. The results indicate that tertiary anticholinergic compounds afford protection against soman-induced convulsions and hypersecretions and that the beneficial anticonvulsant effects are mediated through the central cholinergic system. Excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems may be involved in the effectiveness of these compounds.
artane drug information
The influence of antidepressants: nomifensine, imipramine, amitriptyline and trazodone on the effect of antiparkinsonian agents: trihexyphenidil and L-DOPA + carbidopa mixture (sinemet) in the model of haloperidol catalepsy was investigated in rats. In some experiments deprenyl, a selective MAO-B inhibitor, was used. It was found that antidepressant drugs in doses not influencing haloperidol catalepsy enhanced significantly the anticataleptic effect of trihexyphenidil and L-DOPA + carbidopa. The most effective in the interaction with both antiparkinsonian agents was nomifensine. Imipramine and trazodone potentiated anticataleptic effect of L-DOPA + carbidopa more strongly than those of trihexyphenidil. The most potent anticataleptic effect was observed after combined treatment of rats with deprenyl and L-DOPA + carbidopa.
artane drug interactions
Of the 579 patients assessed, 11 (1.9%) (8 women, 3 men) had LLD, either alone (n = 4, 0.7%) or as part of a segmental/multifocal dystonia (n = 7, 1.2%). The age at onset of LLD (47.9 +/- 17 years) was significantly lower than the age at onset of cranial dystonias (57.9 +/- 10.7 years for blepharospasm, and 58.9 +/- 11.8 years for oromandibular dystonia) but similar to that of all the other adult-onset primary dystonias. The lower limb was either the site of dystonia onset (36.4%) or the site of dystonia spread (63.6%). In patients in whom LLD was a site of spread, dystonia seemed to spread following a somatotopic distribution. Only one patient reported a recent trauma involving the lower limb whereas 36.4% of the patients reported pain at the site of LLD. Only 64% of our patients needed treatment for LLD, and similarly to previously reported cases, the most frequently tried treatments was botulinum toxin and trihexyphenidyl.
artane 2 mg
We have been unable to locate any studies addressing the question raised in this review. Accordingly, this empty review points out an important clinical problem that needs to be investigated via well-designed and well-conducted randomised trials. Clinicians and patients are likely to continue with their current dependence on clinical judgement and personal experience. Policy makers have no trial-based evidence upon which to base guidelines for the treatment of hypersalivation induced by neuroleptics other than clozapine. They are likely to continue to rely on opinion and habit when making recommendations. Funders of studies may wish to make this important subgroup of people a priority in future research.
The PD models were established by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP (30 mg/kg). 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group, PD model group, QXT high dosage group, QXT middle dosage group, QXT low dosage group and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride group. After 7 days of treatment, the behavior pattern of mice were observed, and striatum were seperated to detect the content of TNF-alpha by ELISA.
artane medication dystonia
A case of rabbit syndrome, a complication of long-term neuroleptic medication, is reported. It is important to differentiate it from tardive dyskinesia and continuous therapy with an antiparkinsonian agent may be required for control of symptoms of rabbit syndrome.
artane maximum dose
Pretreatment of rats with agents with strong antimuscarinic activity in the CNS (scopolamine, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, amitriptyline, and thioridazine) but not their inactive congeners (desipramine, fluphenazine, or haloperidol) led to significant increases in the maximum apparent density of binding sites for 3H-QNB in cerebral cortical or striatal membranes. The dopamine agonist bromocriptine induced a similar effect that was blocked by haloperidol in striatum. None of these treatments altered the apparent affinity of the test ligand. Tolerance to the behavioral activating action of scopolamine developed over two weeks of daily treatment. This change was paralleled by an increase in 3H-QNB binding in cerebral cortex which was dependent on the dose and duration of treatment with scopolamine and persisted for a week following two weeks of treatment. Scopolamine pretreatment led to a significant increase in basal, spontaneous motor activity in the rat, but also to a marked increase in the motor-inhibitory actions of the centrally active muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. These results add to the impression that decreased availability of ACh agonists can significantly increase the availability and functional activity of central muscarinic ACh receptors to reflect "disuse supersensitivity."
artane 20 mg
Pharmacological pretreatment and antidotal treatment on tabun-induced neurotoxicity were studied in male albino rats that were poisoned with a lethal dose of tabun (280 microg/kg i.m.; 100% of LD50 value) and observed at 24 hours and 7 days following tabun challenge. The neurotoxicity of tabun was evaluated using a Functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. Pharmacological pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment were able to reverse most of tabun-induced neurotoxic signs observed at 24 hours following tabun poisoning. However, there was not significant difference between the efficacy of profylaxis and antidotal treatment to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity. The combination of profylactic pretreatment and antidotal treatment seems to be slightly more effective in the elimination of tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats at 24 hours following tabun challenge in comparison with the administration of profylactic pretreatment or antidotal treatment alone. At 7 days following tabun poisoning, very few neurotoxic signs in tabun-poisoned rats were observed regardless of administration of pharmacological pretreatment or antidotal treatment. Thus, our findings confirm that the combination of pharmacological pretreatment and antidotal treatment is not only able to protect the experimental animals from the lethal effects of tabun but also to eliminate most of tabun-induced signs of neurotoxicity in tabun-poisoned rats.
artane 2mg tablet
Compared with NS controls, the MWM test results showed that THP-treated rats exhibited significantly extended mean latencies during the initial 3 months of testing; however, this behavioral deficit was restored between the fourth and sixth month of MWM testing. The same tendencies were confirmed by MWM probe and open field tests. Gene microarray analysis identified 68 (47 %) upregulated and 176 (53 %) downregulated genes in the "THP-aging" vs. "NS-aging" group. The most significant populations of genes downregulated by THP were the immune response-, antigen processing and presentation-, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related genes, as validated by qRT-PCR. The decreased expression of MHC class I in THP-treated aging brains was confirmed by confocal analysis. Notably, long-term THP treatment primed hippocampal and cortical microglia to undergo an inflammatory phenotypic switch, causing microgliosis and microglia activation, which were positively accompanied by pathological misfolded tau lesions.
|Target Point||Shipping Method||Tracking||Delivery Time||Price|
|Not trackable||14-21 business days||USD 20.00 per order|
|Trackable, where available||5-9 business days||USD 30.00 per order|
Delivery time is:
no signature is required on delivery.
EMS - 5-9 business days, prices - USD 30.00, signature is required on delivery.
Your order will be packed safe and secure and dispatched within 24 hours.
This is exactly how your parcel will look like (pictures of a real shipping item). It has a look of a regular private letter and does not disclose its contents. Size - 9.4x4.3x0.3 inches (24x11x0.7cm).