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Uptake of folic acid (PteGlu) was examined in remnant ileum of rats after resection of 65% of the small intestine with the brush border-membrane vesicle technique. The results were compared to that of sham-operated rats. In both rat groups transport of PteGlu was linear for approximately 40 s of incubation and was similar in the presence of a Na+ and a K+ gradient (out greater than in). In resected rats transport of PteGlu was inhibited by the structural analogues 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3H4PteGlu) and methotrexate (MTX), by sulfasalazine, and by 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and was saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Kt = 18.3 microM). In the ileum of sham-operated rats, on the other hand, transport of PteGlu was not affected by 5-CH3H4PteGlu, MTX, sulfasalazine, or DIDS and was linear with concentration. These results suggest that the PteGlu transport system is induced in remnant ileum of the rat after extensive intestinal resection.
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These findings suggest that the fiber fraction of GBF may effectively enhance luminal butyrate production, and thereby accelerate colonic epithelial repair in colitis.
Salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP), a drug used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, has been reported to depress the fertility in males. Therefore, some authors have proposed SASP as a new lead in the search for a contraceptive for men. Based on a review of the literature, our conclusion is that SASP taken in tolerable doses has not sufficient antifertility effect. Additionally, the drug has too serious and too many side effects to be accepted as a contraceptive. However, the effect on male fertility of other sulfa drugs and related compounds remains to be investigated.
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The faecal flora of 21 patients with proctocolitis and five patients with Crohn's disease of the large bowel was examined both while sulphasalazine was being administered and during control periods. Patients with proctocolitis and Crohn's disease who were not receiving sulphasalazine had a similar flora which did not differ in any way from the normal. The effect of sulphasalazine was to decrease the numbers of opalescent-negative clostridia, enterobacteria, and total non-sporing anaerobes. It is suggested that this antibacterial effect of sulphasalazine, which has not been previously demonstrated, may be related to the beneficial effects of this drug in proctocolitis and should be investigated further.
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To compare the occurrence of drug-free remission, functional ability and radiological damage after 4 years of response-driven treatment according to four different treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
For this study, 230 patients who failed to SSZ monotherapy were followed for up to 52 weeks. A total of 124 underwent a switch to MTX alone, whereas 106 patients received the combination of MTX and SSZ. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in the disease activity score (DAS28) after 24 weeks.
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Among 569 patients with Crohn's disease, 24% had a history of at least one extraintestinal manifestation and 36% had a history of perianal disease before randomization. Multiple extraintestinal manifestations occurred in the same patient more frequently than would be expected by chance. Seventy-six percent of patients with ileocolitis had perianal disease, extraintestinal manifestations, or both. This was significantly greater than the 58% incidence in patients with disease confined to the small bowel. Perianal complications alone were significantly more common in patients with colitis or ileocolitis than in those with disease of only the small bowel. This was true also of internal fistulization. There was a significant positive association between perianal disease and the presence of extraintestinal features. Perianal abscess appeared to respond to sulfasalazine and anal fissure to prednisone or azathioprine. These results require confirmation in larger series of patients.
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Exploration of bone metabolism changes at different levels of disease activity, both with and without oral corticosteroid therapy, and prediction of changes in joint damage and bone density from the observed changes in markers of bone turnover.
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Sulfasalazine (SSZ) has recently been shown to be effective for the management of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This study investigated the efficacy and adverse effects of SSZ therapy in children with JRA.
One hundred RA patients were randomly divided into medication (control) group and bee-venom group, with 50 cases in each. Patients of control group were treated with oral administration of Methotrexate (MTX, 7.5 mg/w), Sulfasalazine (0.5 g,t. i.d.), Meloxicam (Mobic,7. 5 mg, b. i. d.); and those of bee-venom group treated with Bee-sting of Ashi-points and the above-mentioned Western medicines. Ashi-points were selected according to the position of RA and used as the main acupoints, supplemented with other acupoints according to syndrome differentiation. The treatment was given once every other day and all the treatments lasted for 3 months.
Spondylarthropathies (SpA) and connective tissue diseases (CTD) are clinically distinct entities which, at first glance, seem to have little in common. However, a link between SpA and CTD has recently been suggested by a study in which a higher prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sicca symptoms was reported in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated SpA (1). Another link between SpA and CTD is a possible side effect of a DMARD widely used to treat SpA: sulfasalazine (SAS). SAS was reported to induce antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like syndromes such as drug-induced lupus. This report describes a 54-year-old white male, HLA B27-positive AS patient with some syndesmophytes who, after 15 years of disease, developed SS with salivary gland involvement, Raynaud's syndrome and anti-Ro antibodies. Then, 20 years after the onset of AS, he became acutely ill, suffering severe myositis and myocarditis along with swollen hands and highly elevated autoantibody titers recognizing UIRNP; his condition was interpreted as mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). The patient had been treated with SAS and azathioprine (AZA) alone several times during the last years because he had not tolerated other DMARDs. A combination of both drugs had been prescribed 3 weeks before a severe flair because of progredient high disease activity with painful peripheral arthritis of the MCP and PIP joints which, however, had not shown radiographic erosions. We describe the rare development of MCTD in an AS patient and report, for the first time, the onset of MCTD potentially triggered by sulfasalazine.
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Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have been carried out to determine the incidence and clinical significance of eosinophilia in patients taking penicillamine for rheumatoid arthritis. In a cross-sectional study of 204 patients eosinophilia was found with equal frequency during treatment with penicillamine, gold, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A longitudinal study of 89 patients treated with penicillamine showed no consistent relationship between eosinophilia and adverse reactions to the drug. It is concluded that routine monitoring of eosinophil counts is unlikely to be of value in the management of patients taking penicillamine.
Sulphasalazine impairs folic acid absorption and metabolism but rarely leads to folate deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, serum and red cell folate concentrations are often low and sulphasalazine might stress folate metabolism. In a prospective study, 2 g sulphasalazine was compared with 500 mg penicillamine daily in 30 patients over 24 weeks. Pre-treatment serum and red cell folate concentrations were low-normal. Improvements in disease activity and haemoglobin occurred in both treatment groups, but MCV increased only in patients taking sulphasalazine. Serum and red cell folate concentrations did not change in either group. Increased MCV with sulphasalazine might therefore reflect reticulocytosis secondary to drug-induced haemolysis. The mechanisms by which sulphasalazine antagonizes folate metabolism are dose-dependent and, consequently, higher doses might precipitate folate deficiency.
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Recent literature continues to promote the early use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), especially the less toxic agents such as hydroxychloroquine. Reports of combination DMARD treatments have been disappointing, and careful attention must be paid to clinical trial design if the efficacy of combination therapies is to be established. Methotrexate retains its prominent role, and its mechanism of action has been the subject of many reports; its toxicity remains the most common reason for treatment termination. Guidelines for monitoring hepatic toxicity of methotrexate have been published and may help reduce the need for invasive biopsy procedures. Significant risk factors for methotrexate pulmonary toxicity remain difficult to identify. Large placebo-controlled studies of both sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine have been reported and have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents in the treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis. Awareness of drug-toxicity profiles is important for physicians who prescribe these agents.
To better characterize the histopathological features of DRESS syndrome, and define the phenotype of the effector cells in the skin and compare it with maculopapular rash (MPR).
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a newly identified member of the TNF family. Unlike many other members of the TNF family, TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis of tumor cells, but not normal cells. The mechanisms whereby TRAIL-induced apoptosis is regulated in various cell types are not clear. We report here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB play distinct roles in regulating TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Activation of PPAR-gamma by its agonist pioglitazone significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This was associated with inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle progression. On the other hand, inhibition of NF-kappaB by sulfasalazine also significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that while transcription factor PPAR-gamma promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis, NF-kappaB inhibits it. Thus, PPAR-gamma agonists and NF-kappaB inhibitors are potent enhancers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the target organs of adverse drug effects in different phases of drug development. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of population pharmacokinetic modeling to quantify the rate of gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit time (SITT) in response to drugs that affect GI motility in fed and fasted dogs. Paracetamol and sulfapyridine (sulfasalazine metabolite) pharmacokinetics were used as markers for GE and SITT, respectively.
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Thirty-six patients received sulfasalazine. Fourteen of 16 patients discontinued sulfasalazine due to one or more side effects occurring within 3 months of treatment initiation. For the remaining 20 patients, a 50% reduction in actively inflamed joint count was noted in 7/20 patients at 6 months and 11/15 patients at 12 months, compared to 7/19 patients in the control group at 6 months and 10/20 patients at 12 months. The mean change in the radiographic score at 24 months between the 2 groups was not statistically significant.
Based on an intention to treat principle, the outcomes of interest in the treatment of active disease were the failure to induce global/clinical remission, global/clinical improvement, endoscopic remission, or endoscopic improvement.
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collagenous colitis is a clinicopathological entity that causes chronic watery diarrhea. The patients are predominantly women in the sixth or seventh decade of life. Radiological and endoscopic studies are usually normal or nonspecific. It is diagnosed by the presence in colonic biopsies of a thickened subepithelial band of collagen and an inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa.
Sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), has been found to alleviate oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokine production, bile-duct proliferation, neutrophil infiltration, and fibrosis. Therefore, it may have a potential effect in attenuating lipid peroxidation and histologic liver damage in patients with biliary obstruction and biliary obstruction with sepsis.
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Epididymal sperm was examined using the Hamilton-Thorne Sperm analyzer (HTM-IVOS, version 10.6) in male rats treated with known male reproductive toxicants that act by different mechanisms to detect effects on sperm motion. Three agents known to produce changes in sperm motion at high exposure levels were administered at lower levels. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), sulfasalazine (SASP), and 2,5-hexandione (2,5-HD) were administered by oral gavage to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats at 250 or 500 mg/kg/day, at 300 or 600 mg/kg/day, or at 100 or 250 mg/kg/day, respectively. The males were treated with EGEE, SASP, and 2,5-HD for 35, 28, and 28 days, respectively. The males treated with EGEE and SASP were mated with untreated females to assess male fertility. All males were examined for body weight, testicular and epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count, and sperm motion. The sperm motion parameters included percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressively motile sperm (progressive motility), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), straight line velocity (VSL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), beat cross frequency (BCF), linearity (LIN), and straightness (STR). For the male rats treated with SASP, no treatment-related effects on percentages of motile sperm or sperm count were observed despite impaired male fertility. However, abnormal motion of epididymal sperm from the SASP treated males was detected by a significant reduction in mean progressive motility, VAP, and ALH, and an increase in BCF and STR. For the males treated with 2,5-HD for 4 weeks, most parameters generated by the HTM-IVOS indicated decreased sperm motion despite no remarkable changes in testicular weight, epididymal weight, or sperm count. In the EGEE-treated males at 250 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks, abnormal motion of epididymal sperm was detected by decreased progressive motility and increased BCF, although there were no treatment-related effects on testicular weight or male fertility. Progressive motility was decreased in all treated groups and the difference from the control value was of the greatest magnitude among the sperm motion parameters generated by the HTM-IVOS. Velocity parameters (VAP, VSL, VCL) responded sensitively to abnormal sperm motion in the SASP and 2,5-HD studies. In spite of decreased sperm motion, BCF values were significantly increased in all treated groups except the 7-week EGEE high-dose group, where there were no motile sperm to evaluate. ALH was significantly decreased in the treated groups in which remarkable effects on sperm motion were noted. There were no significant changes in ALH at the low-dose of EGEE at which only mild effects on sperm motion were observed. STR was increased for epididymal sperm from the males treated with SASP when compared with the controls. For the males treated with EGEE and 2,5-HD, however, STR was decreased when compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in LIN in any of the groups treated with SASP, in which remarkably reduced sperm motion was detected by the other parameters. In conclusion, among the parameters generated by the HTM-IVOS, progressive motility was significantly decreased in all treated groups and the most valuable for detecting slight changes in sperm motion induced by these three different target toxicants. Further investigation with a larger set of compounds is needed to evaluate which IVOS parameters are the most sensitive in detecting motion changes.
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Sixty two patients completed the study. The 29 withdrawals caused no evident bias, and there was no difference in side effects among the three groups. All variables improved significantly with time. Patients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and sulphasalazine responded better and faster than those treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, but there was no statistically significant difference between the combination treatment and single drug treatment with sulphasalazine or between treatment with hydroxychloroquine and sulphasalazine given alone.
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Hepatic injury from agents in this category is rare. For example, only a handful of cases of H2-receptor antagonist-related liver injury have been reported despite the hundreds of millions of doses prescribed since the introduction of these drugs more than 15 years ago. Hepatotoxicity from sulfasalazine is uncommon but may be fatal. Injury from other agents used to treat inflammatory bowel disease also may be seen, including veno-occlusive disease from azathioprine. Of increasing importance is the toxicity from alternative health supplements, such as herbal remedies, that may cause acute, sometimes fatal, hepatic necrosis.
Sulfasalzine is a widely administered drug against inflammatory-based disorders in human. However several cases of liver injury are associated with its administration. There is no stabilized safe protective agent against sulfasalazine-induced liver injury. Current investigation was designed to evaluate if N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dithioteritol (DTT) as thiol reducing agents and/or vitamins C and E as antioxidants have any protective effects against sulfasalazine-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated rat liver. Rat liver was canulated and perfused via portal vein in a closed recirculating system. Different concentrations of sulfasalazine and/or thiol reductants and antioxidants were administered and markers of organ injury were monitored at different time intervals. It was found that 5 mM of sulfasalazine caused marked liver injury as judged by rise in liver perfusate level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p < 0.05). A significant amount of lipid peroxidation and hepatic glutathione depletion were detected in drug-treated livers, accompanied with significant histopathological changes of the organ. Administration of NAC (500 μM), DTT (400 μM), Vitamin C (200 μM), or vitamin E (200 μM) significantly alleviated sulfasalazine-induced hepatic injury in isolated perfused rat liver. The data obtained from current investigation indicate potential therapeutic properties of thiol reductants and antioxidants against sulfasalazine-induced liver injury.
Sixty-four outpatients with ulcerative colitis receiving maintenance treatment with sulphasalazine were studied to relate disease activity to serum concentrations of sulphapyridine. Of 43 patients in remission, 32 had serum sulphapyridine levels over 20 microgram/ml. Ten of the 21 patients with active disease were for various reasons taking inadequate doses of sulphasalazine, as indicated by low serum sulphapyridine levels, and of the remaining 11 patients, who had serum levels over 20 microgram/ml, nine had faecal stasis proximal to active distal colitis and went into remission when treated with hydrophilic colloid or bran and an unchanged sulphasalazine dosage. This suggests that to be effective the metabolites of sulphasalazine must be delivered in the faeces to the lumen of the diseased distal segment of the colon. High serum concentrations of sulphapyridine produce side effects; therefore slow acetylators of sulphapyridine need lower doses of sulphasalazine. Estimations of serum sulphapyridine concentrations, as well as identifying the patient's acetylation phenotype, can also be useful in assessing his compliance with treatment.