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Azulfidine (Sulfasalazine)

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Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Sulfasalazine.


Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Generic Azulfidine is a sulfonamide that decreases inflammation and help regulate the immune system in various areas of the body.

Azulfidine is also known as Sulfasalazine.

Generic name of Generic Azulfidine is Sulfasalazine.

Brand name of Generic Azulfidine is Azulfidine.


Doses range: from 500 mg to 2000 mg, and dosing intervals range: from every 6 hours to every 12 hours, depending on the clinical condition of the patient.

Generic Azulfidine should be taken with a full glass of water after meals or with food to minimize stomach upset.

Patients with kidney diseases may need to use lower doses of Generic Azulfidine.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Azulfidine suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Azulfidine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Azulfidine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you are allergic to Generic Azulfidine components or to a salicylate (eg, aspirin) or a sulfonamide (eg, sulfisoxazole).

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you have the blood disease porphyria or a blockage of the intestine or urinary tract.

Some medical conditions may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have kidney or liver problems, a blood disorder, a gastrointestinal infection, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, or asthma.

Some medicines may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or methotrexate because the actions and side effects of these medicines may be increased; anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Azulfidine; methenamine because the risk of crystals in the urine is increased.

Do not share this medicine with others for whom it was not prescribed.

Do not use this medicine for other health conditions.

If using this medicine for an extended period of time, obtain refills before your supply runs out.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Azulfidine taking suddenly.

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Uptake of folic acid (PteGlu) was examined in remnant ileum of rats after resection of 65% of the small intestine with the brush border-membrane vesicle technique. The results were compared to that of sham-operated rats. In both rat groups transport of PteGlu was linear for approximately 40 s of incubation and was similar in the presence of a Na+ and a K+ gradient (out greater than in). In resected rats transport of PteGlu was inhibited by the structural analogues 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3H4PteGlu) and methotrexate (MTX), by sulfasalazine, and by 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and was saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Kt = 18.3 microM). In the ileum of sham-operated rats, on the other hand, transport of PteGlu was not affected by 5-CH3H4PteGlu, MTX, sulfasalazine, or DIDS and was linear with concentration. These results suggest that the PteGlu transport system is induced in remnant ileum of the rat after extensive intestinal resection.

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These findings suggest that the fiber fraction of GBF may effectively enhance luminal butyrate production, and thereby accelerate colonic epithelial repair in colitis.

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Salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP), a drug used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, has been reported to depress the fertility in males. Therefore, some authors have proposed SASP as a new lead in the search for a contraceptive for men. Based on a review of the literature, our conclusion is that SASP taken in tolerable doses has not sufficient antifertility effect. Additionally, the drug has too serious and too many side effects to be accepted as a contraceptive. However, the effect on male fertility of other sulfa drugs and related compounds remains to be investigated.

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The faecal flora of 21 patients with proctocolitis and five patients with Crohn's disease of the large bowel was examined both while sulphasalazine was being administered and during control periods. Patients with proctocolitis and Crohn's disease who were not receiving sulphasalazine had a similar flora which did not differ in any way from the normal. The effect of sulphasalazine was to decrease the numbers of opalescent-negative clostridia, enterobacteria, and total non-sporing anaerobes. It is suggested that this antibacterial effect of sulphasalazine, which has not been previously demonstrated, may be related to the beneficial effects of this drug in proctocolitis and should be investigated further.

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To compare the occurrence of drug-free remission, functional ability and radiological damage after 4 years of response-driven treatment according to four different treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

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For this study, 230 patients who failed to SSZ monotherapy were followed for up to 52 weeks. A total of 124 underwent a switch to MTX alone, whereas 106 patients received the combination of MTX and SSZ. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in the disease activity score (DAS28) after 24 weeks.

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Among 569 patients with Crohn's disease, 24% had a history of at least one extraintestinal manifestation and 36% had a history of perianal disease before randomization. Multiple extraintestinal manifestations occurred in the same patient more frequently than would be expected by chance. Seventy-six percent of patients with ileocolitis had perianal disease, extraintestinal manifestations, or both. This was significantly greater than the 58% incidence in patients with disease confined to the small bowel. Perianal complications alone were significantly more common in patients with colitis or ileocolitis than in those with disease of only the small bowel. This was true also of internal fistulization. There was a significant positive association between perianal disease and the presence of extraintestinal features. Perianal abscess appeared to respond to sulfasalazine and anal fissure to prednisone or azathioprine. These results require confirmation in larger series of patients.

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Exploration of bone metabolism changes at different levels of disease activity, both with and without oral corticosteroid therapy, and prediction of changes in joint damage and bone density from the observed changes in markers of bone turnover.

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Sulfasalazine (SSZ) has recently been shown to be effective for the management of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This study investigated the efficacy and adverse effects of SSZ therapy in children with JRA.

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One hundred RA patients were randomly divided into medication (control) group and bee-venom group, with 50 cases in each. Patients of control group were treated with oral administration of Methotrexate (MTX, 7.5 mg/w), Sulfasalazine (0.5 g,t. i.d.), Meloxicam (Mobic,7. 5 mg, b. i. d.); and those of bee-venom group treated with Bee-sting of Ashi-points and the above-mentioned Western medicines. Ashi-points were selected according to the position of RA and used as the main acupoints, supplemented with other acupoints according to syndrome differentiation. The treatment was given once every other day and all the treatments lasted for 3 months.

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Spondylarthropathies (SpA) and connective tissue diseases (CTD) are clinically distinct entities which, at first glance, seem to have little in common. However, a link between SpA and CTD has recently been suggested by a study in which a higher prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sicca symptoms was reported in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated SpA (1). Another link between SpA and CTD is a possible side effect of a DMARD widely used to treat SpA: sulfasalazine (SAS). SAS was reported to induce antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like syndromes such as drug-induced lupus. This report describes a 54-year-old white male, HLA B27-positive AS patient with some syndesmophytes who, after 15 years of disease, developed SS with salivary gland involvement, Raynaud's syndrome and anti-Ro antibodies. Then, 20 years after the onset of AS, he became acutely ill, suffering severe myositis and myocarditis along with swollen hands and highly elevated autoantibody titers recognizing UIRNP; his condition was interpreted as mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). The patient had been treated with SAS and azathioprine (AZA) alone several times during the last years because he had not tolerated other DMARDs. A combination of both drugs had been prescribed 3 weeks before a severe flair because of progredient high disease activity with painful peripheral arthritis of the MCP and PIP joints which, however, had not shown radiographic erosions. We describe the rare development of MCTD in an AS patient and report, for the first time, the onset of MCTD potentially triggered by sulfasalazine.

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Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have been carried out to determine the incidence and clinical significance of eosinophilia in patients taking penicillamine for rheumatoid arthritis. In a cross-sectional study of 204 patients eosinophilia was found with equal frequency during treatment with penicillamine, gold, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A longitudinal study of 89 patients treated with penicillamine showed no consistent relationship between eosinophilia and adverse reactions to the drug. It is concluded that routine monitoring of eosinophil counts is unlikely to be of value in the management of patients taking penicillamine.

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Sulphasalazine impairs folic acid absorption and metabolism but rarely leads to folate deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, serum and red cell folate concentrations are often low and sulphasalazine might stress folate metabolism. In a prospective study, 2 g sulphasalazine was compared with 500 mg penicillamine daily in 30 patients over 24 weeks. Pre-treatment serum and red cell folate concentrations were low-normal. Improvements in disease activity and haemoglobin occurred in both treatment groups, but MCV increased only in patients taking sulphasalazine. Serum and red cell folate concentrations did not change in either group. Increased MCV with sulphasalazine might therefore reflect reticulocytosis secondary to drug-induced haemolysis. The mechanisms by which sulphasalazine antagonizes folate metabolism are dose-dependent and, consequently, higher doses might precipitate folate deficiency.

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Recent literature continues to promote the early use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), especially the less toxic agents such as hydroxychloroquine. Reports of combination DMARD treatments have been disappointing, and careful attention must be paid to clinical trial design if the efficacy of combination therapies is to be established. Methotrexate retains its prominent role, and its mechanism of action has been the subject of many reports; its toxicity remains the most common reason for treatment termination. Guidelines for monitoring hepatic toxicity of methotrexate have been published and may help reduce the need for invasive biopsy procedures. Significant risk factors for methotrexate pulmonary toxicity remain difficult to identify. Large placebo-controlled studies of both sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine have been reported and have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents in the treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis. Awareness of drug-toxicity profiles is important for physicians who prescribe these agents.

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To better characterize the histopathological features of DRESS syndrome, and define the phenotype of the effector cells in the skin and compare it with maculopapular rash (MPR).

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The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a newly identified member of the TNF family. Unlike many other members of the TNF family, TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis of tumor cells, but not normal cells. The mechanisms whereby TRAIL-induced apoptosis is regulated in various cell types are not clear. We report here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB play distinct roles in regulating TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Activation of PPAR-gamma by its agonist pioglitazone significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This was associated with inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle progression. On the other hand, inhibition of NF-kappaB by sulfasalazine also significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that while transcription factor PPAR-gamma promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis, NF-kappaB inhibits it. Thus, PPAR-gamma agonists and NF-kappaB inhibitors are potent enhancers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the target organs of adverse drug effects in different phases of drug development. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of population pharmacokinetic modeling to quantify the rate of gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit time (SITT) in response to drugs that affect GI motility in fed and fasted dogs. Paracetamol and sulfapyridine (sulfasalazine metabolite) pharmacokinetics were used as markers for GE and SITT, respectively.

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Thirty-six patients received sulfasalazine. Fourteen of 16 patients discontinued sulfasalazine due to one or more side effects occurring within 3 months of treatment initiation. For the remaining 20 patients, a 50% reduction in actively inflamed joint count was noted in 7/20 patients at 6 months and 11/15 patients at 12 months, compared to 7/19 patients in the control group at 6 months and 10/20 patients at 12 months. The mean change in the radiographic score at 24 months between the 2 groups was not statistically significant.

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Based on an intention to treat principle, the outcomes of interest in the treatment of active disease were the failure to induce global/clinical remission, global/clinical improvement, endoscopic remission, or endoscopic improvement.

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collagenous colitis is a clinicopathological entity that causes chronic watery diarrhea. The patients are predominantly women in the sixth or seventh decade of life. Radiological and endoscopic studies are usually normal or nonspecific. It is diagnosed by the presence in colonic biopsies of a thickened subepithelial band of collagen and an inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa.

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Sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), has been found to alleviate oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokine production, bile-duct proliferation, neutrophil infiltration, and fibrosis. Therefore, it may have a potential effect in attenuating lipid peroxidation and histologic liver damage in patients with biliary obstruction and biliary obstruction with sepsis.

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Epididymal sperm was examined using the Hamilton-Thorne Sperm analyzer (HTM-IVOS, version 10.6) in male rats treated with known male reproductive toxicants that act by different mechanisms to detect effects on sperm motion. Three agents known to produce changes in sperm motion at high exposure levels were administered at lower levels. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), sulfasalazine (SASP), and 2,5-hexandione (2,5-HD) were administered by oral gavage to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats at 250 or 500 mg/kg/day, at 300 or 600 mg/kg/day, or at 100 or 250 mg/kg/day, respectively. The males were treated with EGEE, SASP, and 2,5-HD for 35, 28, and 28 days, respectively. The males treated with EGEE and SASP were mated with untreated females to assess male fertility. All males were examined for body weight, testicular and epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count, and sperm motion. The sperm motion parameters included percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressively motile sperm (progressive motility), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), straight line velocity (VSL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), beat cross frequency (BCF), linearity (LIN), and straightness (STR). For the male rats treated with SASP, no treatment-related effects on percentages of motile sperm or sperm count were observed despite impaired male fertility. However, abnormal motion of epididymal sperm from the SASP treated males was detected by a significant reduction in mean progressive motility, VAP, and ALH, and an increase in BCF and STR. For the males treated with 2,5-HD for 4 weeks, most parameters generated by the HTM-IVOS indicated decreased sperm motion despite no remarkable changes in testicular weight, epididymal weight, or sperm count. In the EGEE-treated males at 250 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks, abnormal motion of epididymal sperm was detected by decreased progressive motility and increased BCF, although there were no treatment-related effects on testicular weight or male fertility. Progressive motility was decreased in all treated groups and the difference from the control value was of the greatest magnitude among the sperm motion parameters generated by the HTM-IVOS. Velocity parameters (VAP, VSL, VCL) responded sensitively to abnormal sperm motion in the SASP and 2,5-HD studies. In spite of decreased sperm motion, BCF values were significantly increased in all treated groups except the 7-week EGEE high-dose group, where there were no motile sperm to evaluate. ALH was significantly decreased in the treated groups in which remarkable effects on sperm motion were noted. There were no significant changes in ALH at the low-dose of EGEE at which only mild effects on sperm motion were observed. STR was increased for epididymal sperm from the males treated with SASP when compared with the controls. For the males treated with EGEE and 2,5-HD, however, STR was decreased when compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in LIN in any of the groups treated with SASP, in which remarkably reduced sperm motion was detected by the other parameters. In conclusion, among the parameters generated by the HTM-IVOS, progressive motility was significantly decreased in all treated groups and the most valuable for detecting slight changes in sperm motion induced by these three different target toxicants. Further investigation with a larger set of compounds is needed to evaluate which IVOS parameters are the most sensitive in detecting motion changes.

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Sixty two patients completed the study. The 29 withdrawals caused no evident bias, and there was no difference in side effects among the three groups. All variables improved significantly with time. Patients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and sulphasalazine responded better and faster than those treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, but there was no statistically significant difference between the combination treatment and single drug treatment with sulphasalazine or between treatment with hydroxychloroquine and sulphasalazine given alone.

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Hepatic injury from agents in this category is rare. For example, only a handful of cases of H2-receptor antagonist-related liver injury have been reported despite the hundreds of millions of doses prescribed since the introduction of these drugs more than 15 years ago. Hepatotoxicity from sulfasalazine is uncommon but may be fatal. Injury from other agents used to treat inflammatory bowel disease also may be seen, including veno-occlusive disease from azathioprine. Of increasing importance is the toxicity from alternative health supplements, such as herbal remedies, that may cause acute, sometimes fatal, hepatic necrosis.

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Sulfasalzine is a widely administered drug against inflammatory-based disorders in human. However several cases of liver injury are associated with its administration. There is no stabilized safe protective agent against sulfasalazine-induced liver injury. Current investigation was designed to evaluate if N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dithioteritol (DTT) as thiol reducing agents and/or vitamins C and E as antioxidants have any protective effects against sulfasalazine-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated rat liver. Rat liver was canulated and perfused via portal vein in a closed recirculating system. Different concentrations of sulfasalazine and/or thiol reductants and antioxidants were administered and markers of organ injury were monitored at different time intervals. It was found that 5 mM of sulfasalazine caused marked liver injury as judged by rise in liver perfusate level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p < 0.05). A significant amount of lipid peroxidation and hepatic glutathione depletion were detected in drug-treated livers, accompanied with significant histopathological changes of the organ. Administration of NAC (500 μM), DTT (400 μM), Vitamin C (200 μM), or vitamin E (200 μM) significantly alleviated sulfasalazine-induced hepatic injury in isolated perfused rat liver. The data obtained from current investigation indicate potential therapeutic properties of thiol reductants and antioxidants against sulfasalazine-induced liver injury.

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Sixty-four outpatients with ulcerative colitis receiving maintenance treatment with sulphasalazine were studied to relate disease activity to serum concentrations of sulphapyridine. Of 43 patients in remission, 32 had serum sulphapyridine levels over 20 microgram/ml. Ten of the 21 patients with active disease were for various reasons taking inadequate doses of sulphasalazine, as indicated by low serum sulphapyridine levels, and of the remaining 11 patients, who had serum levels over 20 microgram/ml, nine had faecal stasis proximal to active distal colitis and went into remission when treated with hydrophilic colloid or bran and an unchanged sulphasalazine dosage. This suggests that to be effective the metabolites of sulphasalazine must be delivered in the faeces to the lumen of the diseased distal segment of the colon. High serum concentrations of sulphapyridine produce side effects; therefore slow acetylators of sulphapyridine need lower doses of sulphasalazine. Estimations of serum sulphapyridine concentrations, as well as identifying the patient's acetylation phenotype, can also be useful in assessing his compliance with treatment.

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azulfidine brand 2017-06-04

A 50-year-old man with seronegative large-joint arthritis presented emergently with a one-day history of subjective fever and acute-onset abdominal pain in the setting of recently developed sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis. Abdominal examination revealed mild-to-moderate tenderness and rebound tenderness in the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography (CT) of buy azulfidine the abdomen demonstrated findings consistent with acute appendicitis. The patient improved clinically with non-operative management including a broad-spectrum antibiotic, with normalization of the white blood cell count four days after initiation of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapy.

azulfidine dosing 2017-03-30

Seventy percent of patients with ulcerative colitis can expect to experience a relapse over a 12 month period. Sulfasalazine was the first drug demonstrated to reduce this relapse rate to 21 percent. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the main active component, and preparations containing only 5-ASA have similar efficacy to sulfasalazine. 5-ASA is readily absorbed from the small intestine; to achieve high a colonic lumenal concentration therefore requires special release formulation. A variety of 5-ASA preparations is available, differing in their release mechanism, efficacy and side effect profile. Most patients can be maintained in remission using oral 5-ASA medication. For patients with distal or left sided disease the use of rectal 5-ASA is also of proven benefit in maintaining remission. Some patients with frequent or severe relapses require stronger immunosuppression, and in these patients azathioprine or buy azulfidine 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are of proven benefit. Azathioprine is also invaluable for maintaining remission in patients who have been treated with cyclosporin for a fulminant acute episode of colitis. The exciting spectre of natural bacterial therapies (probiotics) deserves further exploration.

azulfidine cost 2015-11-09

Retrospective noncomparative buy azulfidine case series.

azulfidine tab 500mg 2015-10-27

Coumarins comprise a broad class of phenolic compounds that influences the formation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes involving free radical-mediated injury. In light of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties buy azulfidine of esculetin and 4-methylesculetin, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). For this purpose, macroscopic (diarrhoea, extension of lesion, colonic weight/length ratio and damage score) and biochemical parameters (myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase and glutathione) were evaluated. Our results reveal that these compounds, particularly 4-methylesculetin, may be effective for the treatment of intestinal inflammatory bowel disease. In the acute colitis model, esculetin promoted a reduction in the extension of the lesion accompanied by a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea and restoration of the glutathione content. Similar effects were produced by the administration of 4-methylesculetin, which also inhibited the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the acute intestinal inflammatory process and in the model of colitis relapse. The effect of the esculetin and 4-methylesculetin on the inflammatory process may be related to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as observed in this study. The evidence for better effects of 4-methylesculetin in comparison to those demonstrated by esculetin in both experimental settings could be attributed to the presence of the methyl group at C-4 of 4-methylesculetin.

azulfidine generic 2015-05-08

Bone loss is a recognized feature of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The binding of microRNA-21 (miR-21) to programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) could inhibit the expression of PDCD4 and further induce the activation of osteoclasts. In the present study, we compared the difference in miR-21 expression between patients with AS and healthy controls, and evaluated the relationships of miR-21, PDCD4 mRNA, and bone buy azulfidine erosion in patients with AS. The influences of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) on the expressions of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA in patients with AS were also assessed.

azulfidine sulfasalazine dosage 2017-07-20

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract and affects millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical management of Crohn's disease over the past decade, there is no consensus on what constitutes optimal medical treatment. For many years, corticosteroids and sulfasalazine were the mainstay of therapy. More recently, immunomodulators such as azathioprine and methotrexate have been used in both the induction and maintenance of remission. The 1998 introduction of infliximab, a biologic agent active against tumor necrosis factor-alpha, has also led to considerable advances in the management of Crohn's disease. In addition, data from randomized controlled trials involving the immunomodulators azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate have been accumulated, advancing our knowledge on how to best to use these agents for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with Crohn's disease. This advancement of knowledge has allowed clinicians to use a more buy azulfidine rational, evidence-based approach to the management of Crohn's disease.

azulfidine tablets 2017-02-03

New information on the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis emphasizes more aggressive control of arthritis, particularly the use buy azulfidine of methotrexate, both in low- and higher-dose regimens. Information concerning drug toxicity, including that of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, second-line agents, and methotrexate, suggests that these drugs are well tolerated in children. A new corticosteroid, deflazacort, minimizes bone demineralization and growth retardation. Adjunctive measures, including erythropoietin, pain management techniques, conditioning programs, and nutrition, have demonstrated advantages in some children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

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Nine healthy individuals were treated with metronidazole (Flagyl) for 2 weeks and sulfasalazine (Salazopyrin) for 2 further weeks or inversely after randomization. Before, at the day for cross-over, and the end of treatment, quantitative and qualitative studies of the aerobic and anaerobic faecal bacteria and plasma concentration studies of the drugs were performed buy azulfidine . The total counts of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were in close agreement with those reported by others. A comparison between pretreatment samples and those taken at the end of treatment showed a significant or almost significant increase in the count of faecal streptococci (P = 0.03) and of Escherichia coli (P = 0.06) in subjects treated with metronidazole, but not with sulfasalazine. However, the changes in the anaerobic bacterial flora reported during treatment in patients with Crohn's disease with the same drugs were not observed among the healthy individuals.

azulfidine tab 2015-10-07

The effect of salazosulfapyridine (SASP) on the antibody response of murine spleen cells in vitro was studied. SASP inhibited the response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), a T-cell-dependent (TD) antigen, dose-dependently and was most effective at a dose of 2 x 10(-4) M without cell toxicity. No remarkable inhibition was seen with the main metabolites of SASP, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine (SP). SASP failed to inhibit antibody production to T-cell-independent antigens such as dinitrophenyl-Ficoll or trinitrophenyl (TNP)-lipopolysaccharides, although the response to TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, another TD antigen like SRBC, was inhibited. Further, this buy azulfidine drug did not show any depression of the anti-SRBC plaque-forming cell (PFC) response in spleen cells treated with anti-Thy1.2 antibody plus complement. The inhibition of anti-SRBC PFC response by SASP was accompanied by a reduction of interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion. Our results suggest that SASP may act on T cell populations and may inhibit the T-cell-dependent antibody response partly through a depression of IL-2 production. The active compound appears to be SASP itself, rather than its metabolites.

azulfidine reviews 2016-07-21

Azathioprine is well tolerated and has therapeutic benefits lasting as long as 4 years. Adverse effects such as pancreatitis, hepatitis, cytopenias and gastrointestinal symptoms do occur but are controlled by buy azulfidine drug withdrawal only.

cost of azulfidine 2016-06-20

40 patients with moderately active ulcerative colitis (activity index 150-220) were randomized into two groups. Group A (n=21) received methylprednisolone acetate (80 mg intramuscularly once weekly for 6 weeks). Group B (n=19) received oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) in a 'tailing-off' buy azulfidine regimen. In addition, patients in both the groups received sulfasalazine. Patients were followed up at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. The primary measure of therapeutic response was activity index. An index of <150 was considered as clinical remission. Secondary efficacy was assessed by subjective evaluation of acceptability of treatment by the patient.

azulfidine brand name 2015-07-10

Groups did not differ in age, gender, tumor site, or irradiation procedure. During radiotherapy, grade 2 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 20% (3/15) and 63% (10/16) of the sulfasalazine and placebo buy azulfidine groups, respectively. This difference was significant (p = 0.017). No statistically significant differences were found in endoscopic and histopathologic evaluations.

azulfidine buy 2016-12-26

To determine the role of medication toxicity in the buy azulfidine discontinuation of antirheumatic treatment among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to compare the toxicity of different medications.

azulfidine 1000 mg 2017-04-26

The prevalence of Hp infection was 47% in the IBD patients and 61% in the controls (p = 0.089; odds ratio = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.283-1.089) with a statistically significant increase for each year of age ( p= 0.044; odds ratio = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.001-1.052). Among the IBD patients, age and gender, the type, activity, duration, extent of the disease, or the calendar year of diagnosis, Zanaflex Gel Tabs had no influence on Hp infection. was detected in 65% of the patients treated with sulfasalazine and in 34% treated with 5-ASA (p = 0.017).

azulfidine buy online 2015-02-06

To assess the efficacy, dose-responsiveness and safety of the newer release formulations of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compared to placebo or sulfasalazine (SASP) for the induction of remission in active Indocin Medication Generic ulcerative colitis.

azulfidine dose 2016-09-08

Forty-five of 47 patients with distal ulcerative colitis completed a two-week double-blind, randomized, controlled trial to determine if 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) enemas, 1 g bid or 2 g bid, were therapeutically effective compared to placebo. Forty-one patients enrolled because they were refractory to or had side effects during conventional therapy with sulfasalazine or corticosteroids. Proctoscopic examination was done before and after two weeks of treatment. Patients kept daily diaries assessing: blood in stools, mucus in stools, tenesmus, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, and malaise. Severity of each symptom ranged from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). A total severity score was calculated from the above for each patient. At the end of the two-week study, 35 patients elected to take 4-ASA in an open-label trial for one year. 4-ASA enemas in the 1-g bid but not the 2-g bid dosage were significantly more effective in improving symptoms than placebo: P less than or equal to 0.05. Neither dose of 4-ASA enema was better than placebo in improving the sigmoidoscopic appearance at the end of two-weeks. Forty-six percent of patients had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms Medication Zoloft in the open-label trial and 31% were better but still had sigmoidoscopic evidence of disease, a total response rate of 77%. Side effects were similar in the placebo and 4-ASA groups. We conclude that 4-ASA enemas in a dose of 1 g bid are safe and effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis.

azulfidine en generic 2017-06-30

Sulfasalazine (SSZ) can induce serological and clinical autoimmune reactions but the occurrence of Valtrex 1 Mg SSZ-related Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) has not been reported before. We describe two patients with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed biopsy-proven WG with serious organ involvement during SSZ therapy. The pathogenetic mechanism that explains the relationship between SSZ and the occurrence of a de novo anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis or a flare is discussed. We propose that WG can be a rare complication of SSZ therapy and that this, like other autoimmune adverse events of this drug, is mediated by SSZ-induced apoptosis.

azulfidine medication 2017-11-03

Sulfasalazine salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP), consisting of 5-aminosalicylic acid bound to sulfapyridine by a diazo bond, is an effective drug in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, its mechanism of action remains a matter of debate. The objective of our work was to investigate SASP's effect on NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway in transcriptional regulation level. Repeated colitis was induced by administration of 4 cycles of 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS); The severity of colitis was assessed on the basis of clinical signs, colon length, and histology scores. Moreover, sIgA and haptoglobin (HP) were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and ICAM-1 gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using SYBA green I. NF-kappaB signal transduction proteins and transcriptional factor p65 interaction with promoter of ICAM-1 were assessed by western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. SASP administration significantly attenuated the colitis signs and caused substantial reductions of HP expression, and maintained the level of cecum sIgA. SASP inhibited ICAM-1 gene expression and had no effect on MIF gene expression. Also, SASP was able to reduce p-IkBalpha protein expression; however, no change in the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, p65, and IKBalpha was noted. SASP inhibited p65 recruitment to the gene ICAM-1 promoter. In conclusion, inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway signal proteins and blockade of p65 binding to gene ICAM-1 promoter might explain the effect and mechanisms of SASP at Ventolin Max Dose alleviating DSS-induced colitis in mice.

azulfidine sulfasalazine cost 2015-08-10

Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 11 were randomized controlled trials. Most trials had a small sample size. In the rare studies in which variants other than generalized or classic lichen planus were included, they could not be analyzed separately. Body-of-evidence quality ranged from very low to moderate. Acitretin, sulfasalazine, and griseofulvin were associated with increased overall response rates in comparison with placebo. Narrow-band ultraviolet B radiation (NBUVB) was more effective than 6 weeks' low-dose prednisolone in achieving a complete response, and prednisolone was more effective than enoxaparin. Hydroxychloroquine was more effective than griseofulvin in achieving an overall response. Betamethasone valerate 0.1% ointment had comparable efficacy to calcipotriol ointment. Methotrexate was effective, with a nonsignificant difference in the complete response rate in comparison with oral betamethasone. In nonrandomized controlled trials, oral psoralen plus ultraviolet A photochemotherapy (PUVA) had comparable efficacy to a Voltaren 40 Mg PUVA bath and NBUVB. Psoralen plus sunlight exposure (PUVASOL) and betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% cream were effective relative to a short course of oral metronidazole.

azulfidine tabs 2017-01-21

Eosinophilic pneumonia and skin rash developed in a 21-yr-old man while taking sulphasalazine. After discontinuation of the drug and Diovan Hct Tablets treatment with steroids the pulmonary infiltrates and rash resolved completely. A short review of the literature concerning sulphasalazine-induced lung disease is presented.

dosage of azulfidine 2016-02-05

Olsalazine (sodium azodisalicylate; azodisal sodium) is an anti-inflammatory agent designed to deliver its active moiety, mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid; mesalamine), to the colon while avoiding the adverse effects associated with the use of a sulfapyridine carrier. As a prodrug, olsalazine is an effective oral treatment for both active ulcerative colitis and for maintenance of disease remission and may possibly be of benefit in patients with Crohn's colitis. Findings from both short and long term noncomparative and comparative studies demonstrate that olsalazine 1 to 3g daily in divided doses improves clinical signs and symptoms of colitis in Atarax Dosage Pediatrics approximately 60 to 80% of patients with acute ulcerative colitis of mild to moderate severity. This improvement rate was similar to that obtained with sulfasalazine. Lower doses of olsalazine, usually 1g daily in divided doses, also maintained remission in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis. While olsalazine effectively delivers mesalazine to the colon, the prodrug itself increases net luminal water secretion and accelerates gastrointestinal transit of a meal. The resulting diarrhoea (occurring in approximately 17% of patients and resulting in withdrawal from therapy in 6% of patients) is distinguishable from that associated with inflammatory bowel disease by the high water content and the absence of blood. Olsalazine-induced diarrhoea usually occurred soon after initiation of olsalazine therapy or dosage increase, was more frequent with higher doses and was usually transient. Dosage reduction, increases in frequency of dosing and concomitant administration with food reduced the severity in many patients with persistent olsalazine-induced diarrhoea. With the exception of diarrhoea, olsalazine was generally well tolerated. Fewer than 14% of patients allergic to or intolerant of sulfasalazine had similar reactions to olsalazine. Olsalazine appears to be a suitable therapy for the treatment of first attacks as well as acute exacerbation of mild to moderate acute ulcerative colitis, and for the maintenance of remission in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis.

azulfidine generic name 2016-06-19

To investigate the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and its relationship with expression of cytokine mRNA in intestinal Astelin Pediatric Dose mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

azulfidine drug class 2017-02-05

Our data confirm the value of methotrexate and salazopyrine. Methotrexate had the best risk/benefit ratio. Diovan 40mg Tablet Gold was often responsible for side effects. Hydroxychloroquine was inadequately effective and poorly tolerated.

azulfidine suspension 2016-07-12

Current treatments for Japanese patients with active Crohn's disease have not proved optimal, and new treatment options are required. The present study therefore evaluated the efficacy Imodium Small Pills and tolerability of oral budesonide in Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate active Crohn's disease.