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There is a high incidence of opportunistic infection among HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis in Africa and, consequently, high mortality. We assessed the safety and efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole 800 mg/160 mg (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis in prevention of such infections and in decrease of morbidity and mortality.
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Thirty-one questionnaires (79.5%) were returned and analysed. A written protocol was available in 60% of the units. Outpatient management was performed in 24/31 centres. Young age, poor clinical tolerance, urological abnormalities and social difficulties were the major contra-indications for such management. Ultrasonic echography at diagnosis (within 24 h) was performed in 50% of the units. Antibiotics were started using IV route in 18/24 units (75%) and ceftriaxone and aminoside were respectively prescribed in 100% and 29.4% of the units for a duration of 1 to 5 days before switching to the oral route. Antibiotherapy was started orally in 6 units and cefixime was chosen by 5 of them. Follow-up consultations were scheduled in 100% of the units but with various delay after initiation of the treatment. The total duration of treatment was mostly 10 days and oral prophylactic antibiotherapy was prescribed by 10/24 centres after completion of the treatment. Cystoureterography was systematically realized by 83.3% of the units.
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Nasopharyngeal decolonization of MRSA can reduce peristomal infection shortly after the pull-through PEG insertion. MRSA appears to be a major pathogen in PEG peristomal infection while prophylactic and concomitant antibiotics are being used.
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Genotyping showed 16 distinct S. marcescens strains. Twenty-one cases and 39 controls were enrolled in the case-control study. Significant differences found by univariate analysis included the duration of surgery, APACHE-II-score on ICU admission, length of ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, tube feeding and the sum of the number of days per invasive device. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the length of ICU stay and tube feeding were independent risk factors. Outbreak strains were not more frequently resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as compared to a reference group. Hygiene protocols, including hand washing, were insufficiently practiced by the ICU's medical staff.
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The optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculous meningitis is unknown.
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Fifty-nine human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected patients with a microscopically proven first episode of moderate to severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) were enrolled into a randomized European multicenter study. The effect of adjunctive corticosteroid (CS) therapy was assessed on (a) survival to discharge, (b) need for mechanical ventilation, and (c) survival at day 90. CS was given within 24 h of standard therapy as intravenous methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. All patients received cotrimoxazole as standard treatment. Inclusion criteria were a PaO2 less than 9.0 kPa (67.5 mm Hg) and/or a PaCO2 less than 4.0 kPa (30.0 mm Hg) while breathing room air. During the acute episode of PCP, 9 (31%) of the 29 control patients died versus 3 (10%) of the 30 CS patients; p = 0.01. Mechanical ventilation was necessary in 15 patients; 12 (41%) in the control group and 3 (10%) in the CS group; p = 0.01. The 90-day survival was 69% in controls versus 87% in CS patients; p = 0.07. Based on these data we conclude that adjunctive CS therapy for moderate to severe PCP in AIDS patients reduces the acute mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation.
All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotics for treatment of, and contact prophylaxis against, whooping cough.
Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The provision of effective prophylaxis for pneumonia has become a major goal for both public health officials and individual physicians. Prophylaxis for community-acquired pneumonia is pathogen-specific and is directed toward the most common microorganisms that cause it. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; the trivalent influenza vaccine; the Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine; and either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, dapsone, or aerosolized pentamidine are recommended to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza viruses, H. influenzae type b, and Pneumocystis carinii respectively. Except for the microorganisms listed above, the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia is not pathogen-specific. Rather, prevention of nosocomial pneumonia requires the use of infection control procedures, including patient and staff education; isolation of patients with highly contagious respiratory pathogens; vigorous hand washing; cleaning and sterilizaton of respiratory equipment; and use of sterile water in nebulizers and humidifiers. It also requires procedures to limit pooling and aspiration of secretions, such as positioning and rotation of the bed-bound patient; frequent suctioning of respiratory secretions using gloves and sterile suction catheters; and limiting enteral alimentation. Finally, selective decontamination of the digestive tract may be considered for intubated patients.
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Systematic PubMed literature review identified relevant bilateral 2° ACG case reports. We evaluated these reports with both the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale to assess the causality of reported drug reactions and a 2° ACG scale scoring system we developed to determine the likelihood that the event represented bilateral 2° ACG. Two independent graders performed these analyses and their scores were averaged for interpretation. The Naranjo scale ranges from -4 to +13 and the drug reaction was considered definite if the score was ≥ 9, probable if 5 to 8, possible if 1 to 4, and doubtful if ≤ 0. The 2° ACG score ranges from 0 to 7. We considered a 2° ACG score of ≥ 4 as evidence of significant likelihood that the drug reaction represented bilateral 2° ACG.
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Short treatment by pefloxacin may be an alternative choice for treating severe Salmonella infections in children.
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Over 7 million cases of traveler's diarrhea, defined as the passage of > or = 3 unformed stools in a 24-h period, occur each year among visitors to developing countries. Bacterial enteric pathogens are the most common etiologic agents isolated. Preliminary clinical results for patients with diarrhea predominantly caused by Campylobacter species have shown that azithromycin may be an effective alternative to fluoroquinolones for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea.
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In order to evaluate the incidence rate and possible risk factors associated with AIDS-related malignancies and infections (ARMI) we performed data analysis of clinical charts of HIV patients in two hospital cohorts, that started high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between July 2003 and October 2007. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and Azithromycin prophylaxis was provided according to current guidelines. We evaluated development of ARMI six months after-starting HAART and its association with clinical and epidemiological variables. Of 235 patients analyzed -118 women (50.2%) and 117 men (49.8%)- 11 presented ARMI: 3 pulmonary TB and 3 lymph nodes TB cases, 3 cases with meningeal Cryptococcus, one Chagas's disease presenting brain mass and one with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ARMI incidence: 4.7%. A CD4 cell count < 100/150 was associated with risk of developing ARMI. The mean CD4 cell count was 73 in patients who developed ARMI and 143 in those who did not. No association was found with the other analyzed variables. In the CD4 cell count < 150 group one out of 4 patients with reactive serology presented Chagas's disease causing brain mass; none of the 46 patients with reactive serology presented toxoplasmosis encephalitis. The incidence rate of ARMI was 4.7%. TB in first place and cryptococcosis in second were the AIDS events more frequently observed. A low CD4 cell count was the only observed risk factor statistically associated with development of ARMI. The role of prophylaxis in this population should be re-evaluated.
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Incremental cost-effectiveness in terms of costs per number needed to treat (NNT) to cure 1 patient (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER]). Curation was defined as no otomicroscopic signs of otorrhea in either ear.
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Since ITC induced earlier clinical cure and was better tolerated than CMX, such triazole should be considered the first-choice for PCM treatment.
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We report a retrospective assessment of 9 cases of nocardial infection diagnosed between January 1991 and February 1994.
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When all defaults (patients lost to follow-up for >90 days) were excluded from the analysis, the 6-month mortality rate was 10.7% in patients receiving ART at CTX clinics compared with 18.0% in those not at CTX clinics (6-month mortality risk reduction = 40.7%; P = 0.0013). Kaplan-Meier survival curves for patients receiving CTX and patients not receiving CTX were significantly different; survival differences were apparent as early as 40 to 45 days after initiation of ART.
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During the OGTT without co-trimoxazole (control) vs. the OGTT with co-trimoxazole (test), the glycaemia varied from 4.83 (SD 0.39) mmol/l vs. 4.72 (SD 0.28) mmol/l at T0 (P = 0.667), to 8.00 (SD 1.11) mmol/l vs. 7.44 (SD 0.78) mmol/l at T30 (P = 0.048), 8.00 (SD 1.17) mmol/l vs. 7.67 (SD 1.00) mmol/l at T60 (P = 0.121), 7.33 (SD 0.94) mmol/l vs. 7.11 (SD 0.83) mmol/l at T90 (P = 0.205), 6.78 (SD 1.00) mmol/l vs. 6.67 (SD 1.00) mmol/l at T120 (P = 0.351) and 4.72 (SD 1.39) mmol/l vs. 4.72 (SD 1.56) mmol/l at T180 (P = 0.747). The ratio of area under the glycaemia curve during the control and test investigation was 96.7 %, thus a 3.3 decreased glycaemic response (p = 0.062). A decrease of glycaemia by more than 10 % occurred in 6/20 participants at T30, 7/20 participants at T60 and 1/20 participant at T30 and T60. None of the volunteers experienced co-trimoxazole-induced hypoglycaemia. At the same time, the C-peptide response during the control vs. the test investigation varied from 278.1 (SD 57.5) pmol/l vs. 242.8 (SD 42.5) pmol/l at T0 (P = 0.138), to 1845.6 (SD 423.6) pmol/l vs. 2340.6 (SD 701.3) pmol/l at T60 (P = 0.345) and 1049.8 (SD 503.1) pmol/l vs. 1041.63 (SD 824.21) pmol/l at T180 (P = 0.893).
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Routine surveillance of pneumococcal isolates for resistance to antibiotics has revealed the emergence of an unusual pattern of multiple antimicrobial resistance in South Africa. Thirty-nine pneumococcal isolates, including 21 from clinical specimens, showed resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim, and a combination product of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole sodium (co-trimoxazole), yet susceptibility to penicillin G. Multiple resistance has to date been almost invariably associated with resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. A survey of nasopharyngeal carriage revealed carriage of an additional 21 isolates of multiply resistant pneumococci, representing 7.9% of children investigated in Johannesburg, but these organisms were not found in children in Soweto or four rural villages. We present the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15 antimicrobial agents against 15 of these 21 strains. These findings are discussed in relation to exposure of these populations to antibiotics and to the treatment of local and systemic pneumococcal disease. Of all 60 isolates of multiply resistant pneumococci isolated to date, those fully characterized serologically belong to serotypes 6B, 14, or 19F.
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The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) lung clearance test in the diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-positive paediatric patients. Twenty HIV-negative patients with no chest symptoms constituted Group A, 25 HIV antibody positive asymptomatic children formed Group B, while 45 HIV antibody positive children with respiratory infections comprised Group C. Group C was subdivided into C(1) (n = 20, documented PCP on microbiology), C(2) (n = 10, tuberculosis) and C(3) (n = 15, bacterial pneumonias). The mean age group of patients in Group A, Group B and Group C was 4.7 +/- 1.9, 4.2 +/- 1.5 and 4.8 +/- 1.7 years, respectively. All patients were subjected to complete blood count, blood culture, chest radiographs, microscopic staining of sputum (PCP stains, Ziehl-Nielsen staining, Gram staining), ABG and Mantoux test. All these patients underwent dynamic lung scans using (99m)Tc-DTPA aerosols and lung clearance was calculated in terms of half-time transfer value (T(1/2)) value. T(1/2) was compared between different groups and lung scan findings were correlated with radiological and microbiological results. Patients with PCP had T(1/2) in the range of 9.02 +/- 1.35, TB 28.2 +/- 3.03 min and other bacterial pneumonias in the range of 20.5 +/- 3.1 min (range for normal individuals was 49.8 +/- 6.13 min). T(1/2) in patients with PCP was found to be significantly lower when compared with T(1/2) in other groups. Patients with PCP had characteristic biphasic curves while the rest had monophasic curves. Some patients with PCP had low T(1/2) values even when chest radiographs and arterial blood gases were normal. (99m)Tc-DTPA lung clearance test is a sensitive, safe and non-invasive diagnostic tool for the early detection of PCP in HIV-positive paediatric patients.
This report describes the presence of Isospora belli unizoic cysts in mesenteric lymph nodes and of gametocytes in the gallbladder epitelium of a 26 year-old Brazilian male patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. This patient had received treatment for several times with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. It is discussed the significance of I. belli tissue cysts as possible foci of resistance of the parasite and their association with the infection relapse even post-treatment with anticoccidian medication.
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Dose regimen is not a predictor of the development of new allergic reactions amongst patients challenged with sulfonamides after an initial allergic reaction.
Tetrazole derivatives such as 1-substituted dinitrobenzyl tetrazoles and their oxa and selanyl analogs have previously been studied against drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant mycobacteria. In addition, other tetrazole derivatives have been shown to inhibit CTX-M class A b-lactamases.
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The 16S ribosomal DNA analysis showed a 99 % homology to Nocardia cyriacigeorgici. This is the first report of this species as an invasive human pathogen. N. cyriacigeorgici was found susceptible for meropenem, amikacin, ceftriaxon and cotrimoxazole. The combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment for 13 months was curative.
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A 15-year-old boy with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (FAB L1), diagnosed in 1995, received combination chemotherapy consisting of 6 weeks of induction (vincristine, epirubicin, L-asparaginase, prednisolone) and 2 weeks of consolidation (cytosine arabinosides, etoposide). After achieving remission, for further maintenance of remission, he was treated with 14 cycles of intensive chemotherapy consisting of 6-MP, 10 mg/kg orally on the first 4 days, and cyclophosphamide, 1200 mg/m2, vincristine, 1.5 mg/m2, epirubicin, 15 mg/m2, and cytosine arabinoside, 40 mg/m2, intravenously on days 4, 11, 39, and 40, respectively. On day 18 of each cycle, he received intravenous methotrexate (MTX) infusion in a total dose of 150 mg/m2 plus oral leucovorin (30 mg/m2 ) rescue 36 h after starting MTX therapy. In addition, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was given regularly to prevent Pneumocystis carinii infection. The patient achieved remission during the first course of treatment, but 8 months later the disease relapsed. He then received four doses of MTX (800 mg intravenously) plus leucovorin rescue in the following 4 months. During the last MTX therapy, small hemorrhagic bullae were found on the lateral side of the right ankle, but subsided after a few days. Due to partial remission of the disease, he was admitted again in January 1999 for high-dose MTX therapy. An initial hemogram on admission revealed hemoglobin 7.2 g/dL, white cell count 15,200/mm3, platelet count 153/mm3, blood creatinine 0.5 mg/dL, and alanine leucine aminotransferase (ALT) 20 U/L. He received 8500 mg of MTX (5000 mg/m2 ) as a continuous intravenous infusion for 24 h. Thirty-six hours after the start of MTX infusion, leucovorin (30 mg, intravenous) rescue was initiated every 6 h for 3 days. Another preventive measure to cover MTX toxicity included aggressive intravenous fluid replacement (4 L/m2 /day) and the addition of 25 meq/L sodium bicarbonate to the intravenous fluid to alkalinize the urine. Concurrent medication included 6-MP (50 mg) once daily and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (120 mg, 600 mg) twice daily every other day. Plasma MTX levels were 52.36 micromol/L 24 h after MTX infusion, 1.87 micromol/L after 48 h, 0.57 micromol/L after 72 h, and 0.41 micromol/L after 96 h. These indicated delayed MTX plasma clearance. The blood creatinine level was mildly elevated from 0.5 mg/dL to 0.7 mg/dL. Thirty-six hours after the administration of MTX, the patient developed an erythematous painful swelling on the right middle finger. The erythema, with subsequent large bulla formation, progressed to all the fingers, toes, palms, and the soles of the feet. Some erythematous to hemorrhagic papules also appeared on the bilateral elbows. Subsequently, diffuse tender erythema with extensive erosions and focal tiny pustules developed on the back, abdomen, proximal extremities, and face (Fig. 1a,b). A positive Nikolsky's sign was also present. A biopsy specimen of the right dorsal hand lesion revealed parakeratosis, detached acanthotic epidermis with scattered necrotic keratinocytes, dyskeratotic cells and nuclear atypia, neutrophilic exocytosis, and many neutrophils in the papillary dermis (Fig. 2). The skin condition deteriorated rapidly. Toxic epidermal necrolysis-like lesions involved 90% of the total body surface on the fifth day after MTX infusion. Mucositis, diarrhea, involuntary tremor, fever, and chills were noted. The patient was then sent to the burn unit for intensive skin care. Ten days after MTX therapy, profound agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia (white cell count 100/mm3, platelets 14,000/mm3, and hemoglobin 5.6 g/dL) were found. The patient was then started on granulocyte colony stimulation factor (G-CSF, 5 microg/kg/day), but his general condition deteriorated rapidly and he died 6 days later due to septic shock and multiple organ failure.
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First dose oral co-trimoxazole and referral are recommended for WHO-defined severe pneumonia. Difficulties with referral compliance are reported in many low-resource settings, resulting in low access to appropriate treatment. The objective in this study was to assess whether community case management by lady health workers (LHWs) with oral amoxicillin in children with severe pneumonia was equivalent to current standard of care.
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Several new features have been added to Spectrum in the past two years. New patterns of the age distribution of prevalence over time are based on the latest survey data. A more detailed treatment of mother to child transmission of HIV is now based on information about current breastfeeding practices, treatment options offered to prevent mother to child transmission (PMTCT), infant feeding options, and the percentage or number of pregnant women accessing PMTCT services. A new section on child survival includes the effects of cotrimoxazole and ART on child survival. Projections can now be calibrated with national survey data. A new set of outputs is provided for all adults over the age of 15 in addition to the traditional 15-49 age group. New outputs are now available to show plausibility bounds and regional estimates for key indicators.
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There has been a growing rate of resistance among common urinary tract pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, to traditional antimicrobial therapies including the "gold standard" trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Consequently, fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents have taken on an expanding management role for UTIs. In fact, the recent Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical management guidelines for UTI recommend fluoroquinolones as first-line therapy for uncomplicated UTI in areas where resistance is likely to be of concern. Fluoroquinolones have demonstrated high bacteriologic and clinical cure rates, as well as low rates of resistance, among most common uropathogens. There are currently 7 fluoroquinolones with indications for UTI in the United States. However, only 3 are commonly used: levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and, to a lesser extent, gatifloxacin. Many of the fluoroquinolone agents have once-daily dosing regimens, enhancing patient adherence. In addition, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin have same-dose bioequivalency between their intravenous and oral formulations, allowing for "switch" or step-down therapy from parenteral to oral formulations of the same agent at the same dose. Fluoroquinolones are indicated for the management of acute uncomplicated UTIs, as well as complicated and severe UTI and pyelonephritis, in adults. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance >10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance. Fluoroquinolone properties include a broad spectrum of coverage, low rates of resistance, and good safety profiles.
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Antibiotic-resistant commensal strains of Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis were isolated from throat cultures, on the basis of their capacity to grow in the presence of penicillin, streptomycin, or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Several strains, which belonged to different species of Neisseria, were resistant to beta-lactams, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, harbored a 6.0-megadalton plasmid with identical HinfI restriction patterns, and produced beta-lactamase and streptomycin phosphotransferase. The resistance determinants for beta-lactams, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole, but not for trimethoprim, were transferred from all these strains to Escherichia coli by conjugation or transformation. The resulting transconjugants or transformants acquired the plasmid and the capacity to produce beta-lactamase and streptomycin phosphotransferase. The 6.0-megadalton plasmid complemented a mutation which determines production of thermosensitive dihydropteroate synthetase in E. coli. We conclude that an R plasmid coding for beta-lactamase, streptomycin phosphotransferase, and a sulfonamide-resistant dihydropteroate synthetase is common to these strains.
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We conducted 202 trials in 161 male hospital patients to determine if prophylactic administration of ascorbic acid or antibacterials (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, methenamine hippurate or nitrofurantoin macrocrystals) would prevent bacteriuria infections in spinal cord injury patients who had had at least 1 bout of bacteriuria. None of the drugs tested appeared to be statistically effective in the doses used in preventing bacteriuria in these patients. Moreover, sensitivities were lost to several drugs other than those used prophylactically. We conclude that use of prophylactic doses of ascorbic acid or antibacterials has not proved to be beneficial in spinal cord injury patients free of indwelling catheters.