Our results do not support a predictive effect of KITL541 on the efficacy of imatinib for patients with AF.
Immunosuppression characterizes many human diseases including leukemia and AIDS. Friend virus (FV)-induced murine leukemia is a useful model for studying both malignancy and immunosuppression. In a previous series of experiments, we have demonstrated that untreated FV-infected mice died within 40 days post-infection, whereas infected mice given 150 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) on days 5 and 12 exhibited long-term survival. In this report, we show that no leukemic cells or type C virus particles are found in the spleens of mice treated with TBI. In addition, both NK activity as well as bone marrow cell's proliferative responses to PHA and Con A were fully restored. This treatment produces long term control of FV-induced murine leukemia, and thus might have relevance for the treatment of a number of immunosuppressive diseases including AIDS.
The analysis and plotting of graphs were carried out using Sigma Plot 12 (Systat Software Inc., USA). Values are expressed as Mean ± SEM (n = 6). One way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keul's multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant.
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Inadequately vaccinated students constitute a vulnerable population and schools are a potential site for measles outbreaks. Inadequate enforcement of school-based immunisation records impact the management and control of school-based measles outbreaks. Implications for Public Health: There is a need to educate clinicians on measles diagnosis and notification, and schools on the requirement to maintain up-to-date vaccination records. School entry is an opportunity to review student vaccination history and offer immunisations.
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The 57 cases included 22 cases of Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), 12 neuroblastomas, 8 Wilms' tumors, 6 rhabdomyosarcomas, 5 lymphomas, 2 retinoblastomas and 1 synovial sarcoma. One case remained unclassified. Electron microscopy was crucial to the diagnosis in 38.4% cases as against 39.2% of cases by ICC. The light microscopic diagnosis was confirmed in 42.3% and 53.5% cases by EM and ICC, respectively. EM and ICC were inconclusive for a specific diagnosis in 19.2% and 7.1% of cases, respectively. Technically unsatisfactory preparations in EM and ICC accounted for 5 and 1 cases, respectively. The overall efficiency in making a diagnosis was 80.7% for EM versus 92.8% for ICC. Aberrant expression of antigens led to difficulties in interpretation of ICC, and EM was particularly helpful. The ultrastructural demonstration of neural differentiation in Ewing's sarcoma/PNET tumors helped place tumors in the PNET category.
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IC and FCI were performed on 24 consecutive cases of SRCT on fine needle aspiration biopsy material using a panel of antibodies--e.g., cytokeratin (CK), leukocyte common antigen (LCA), desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin, retinoblastoma gene product, neuroblastoma clone (NB84a (NB), vimentin and Mic-2 gene product. IC was done by indirect immunoperoxidase and FCI by indirect immunofluorescence onflow cytometry.
Brahmi Ghrita, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation is recommended in the management of various psychological disorders like Unmada, Apasmara and Graharogas. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of ingredients of Brahmi Ghrita and its physico-chemical analysis. Pharmacognostical study containing both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drug revealed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of Brahmi Ghrita. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standards prescribed. Acid value was 0.16075, saponification value 184.17, Refractive Index value 1.467 at room temperature, Iodine value 26.715, Specific gravity at room temperature was 0.9133. HPTLC was carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum 9 spots were distinguished and most of the Rf values were identical in alcoholic extract which shows the presence of certain definite constituents in Brahmi Ghrita.
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Neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma is a rare entity causing both diagnostic and therapeutic issues. There are basically four histological forms (adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, carcinoid tumors, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas), which can be pure or mixed associated with prostatic carcinoma. There is no consensus on the management or the prognosis of these various tumor subtypes. We conducted a literature review aiming to determine the potential therapeutic implications.
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Radioimmunoassays for IgM and IgG histoplasmal antibodies were developed and proved to be specific for their respective immunoglobulin classes, sensitive, and reproducible. Elevated IgM antibodies were detected in 59.8% of patients with histoplasmosis and 7.9% of control subjects. Elevated IgG antibodies occurred in 80.4% of patients with histoplasmosis but in only 12.9% of control subjects. Radioimmunoassay was nearly twice as sensitive as complement fixation for identifying patients with mild, presumably asymptomatic, infection. Of 13 patients with serologic follow-up at least 1 yr later, elevated IgM antibodies cleared, whereas IgG antibodies persisted in 7. In an epidemiologic investigation of a recurrent histoplasmosis outbreak, only the radioimmunoassay was able to prove the hypothesis that construction for a swimming complex was the source of exposure. These assays promise to be useful for clinical and epidemiologic investigations.
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While the details of the curricula vary, residents in programs with required abortion training generally felt positively about their experiences and felt that abortion was an appropriate procedure for family physicians to provide. Residents emphasized the importance of both non-procedural and technical aspects of training.
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The pathological examination of our patient documented a complete pathological response after imatinib therapy. Recently, it has been confirmed that the kinase genotype of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α can accurately predict a good response to imatinib mesylate therapy. We propose that this patient had a mutation conferring high sensitivity to imatinib mesylate.
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is now widely accepted as a source of stem cells in patients with malignant hematologic and genetic disorders. We have recently reported that in a series of 30 pediatric UCB transplant recipients comparable outcome to that anticipated with other unrelated stem cell sources. In our series, however, the probability of GVHD for grade III-IV was 9% and no UCB recipient developed chronic GVHD. The reason for the low incidence of GVHD after UCB transplantation is not fully understood. Because functional NK cells are among the first population of lymphocytes to be detected in UCB transplant recipients, 2 months post-transplant on average, we wanted to establish whether NK cells could be implicated in reducing the risk of GVHD. Here, we confirm that early NK cells detected in UCB transplant recipients activate the granzyme/perforin lytic pathway and, in addition, they can mediate Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) activity, a finding not previously reported. Both pathways develop simultaneously and are detectable months before the other lymphocytes, notably CD8 are fully functional. Our contention, therefore, is that the low GVHD observed in UCB recipients may be partially due to early NK cells.
To study effects of Brahmi on attenuation at cognitive deficit and cerebral VGLUT1 density in sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia.
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Effect of packing material on the stability of four Ayurvedic drugs viz., Hingvatsaka Curna, Brahmi ghrta, Dasamula Kvatha Curna and Ajamodarka have been studied by distributing the drugs in different containers by observing the physical and biological changes. The study revealed that Hingvatsaka Curna keeps well for at least 6 month, Ajamodarka is stable for minimum period of six months when stored in glass bottle exposed to light. Dasamula K vatha Curna showed the presence of insects at the completion of three months. In the second month itself Brahmi ghrta becomes rancid on storing in glass and amber colored bottles.
We concluded that CCE might have a hepatoprotective effect against aflatoxicosis in mice, probably acting by promoting the antioxidant defence systems.
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Unlike primary pancreatic carcinoma, metastatic lesions of the pancreas are uncommon and account for approximately 2% of pancreatic malignancies. Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) represents a group of highly malignant tumors giving rise to early and widespread metastasis at the time of diagnosis. However, the pancreas is a relatively infrequent site of metastasis by this neoplasm, and reports on metastatic small-cell carcinoma (SCC) in the pancreas, either of pulmonary or extrapulmonary origin, to be diagnosed by CT-scan-guided trucut biopsy (CT-TCB) are very rare. A 56-year-old man presented with a laterocervical lymphadenopathy associated to a mixed-density lung mass and a mass in the pancreatic body. CT-TCB slides from the pancreatic mass contained small, round tumor cells with extensive nuclear molding. The cytomorphological and histological diagnosis was metastatic SCC. Immunocytochemical staining showed that a variable number of neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, TTF1, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin but negative for leukocyte common antigen and cytokeratin 20 with a very high expression of KI67. The transbronchial needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of an SCC. This case represents a rare metastatic lesion in the pancreas from SCLC, diagnosed by CT-TCB histological and immunohistochemical studies.
BG and piracetam treated rats demonstrated a significant decrease in transfer latency in modified elevated plus maze test and increase in step through latency in passive avoidance test compared with control rats in a dose dependent manner. It may be due to increase in learning and memory. It was also reported that prolonged use of Bacopa monneri (L.) Pennell causes elevation of cerebral glutamic acid and transient increase in gamma aminobutaric acid, which may be helpful in the process of learning.
Patients from all the groups showed significant reduction in clinical parameters evaluated. However, improvement in ESS was observed only in Group II. The treatment outcome was comparable between the three groups.
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Herbal remedies based on Echinacea, Brahmi, or Ashwagandha can enhance immune function by increasing immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, these herbal medicines might regulate antibody production by augmenting both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production.
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Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six months following the intoxication, serum creatinine of the patient was 240 μmol/L. In cases of unexplained ARF, a toxic mechanism should always be considered and acute renal failure caused by Euphorbia paralias should be included as a cause if renal toxicity is suspected in those places where it is being used as a native medicine.
B. monniera significantly improved speed of visual information processing measured by the IT task, learning rate and memory consolidation measured by the AVLT (P<0.05), and state anxiety (P<0.001) compared to placebo, with maximal effects evident after 12 weeks.
A 49-year-old man with a history of alcoholism and smoking addiction reported haemoptysis and thoracic pains present for one year. The physical examination showed left lung condensation. The skin examination revealed a thickened yellowish keratoderma with exaggerated skin ridges and digital clubbing. A diagnosis of paraneoplastic tripe palms was made, prompting repetition of the biopsy which ultimately revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma. Skeletal scintigraphy showed periosteal proliferation with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.
We investigated hydroxyl radical (OH) production by human natural killer (NK) cells, using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and 5.5 dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), a spin trap specific for OH. production. We confirmed that hydroxyl radical scavengers, n-propyl gallate and catechin, inhibited NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NK-CMC) in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated that DMPO also inhibited NK-CMC. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) activated by opsonized zymosan (2.4 mg/ml) and mixed with DMPO (0.14 M) showed an early increase in hydroxyl radical production, leading to a net production of free radical of almost 400 pMol/10(6) cells. We then mixed NK cells with K562, an NK-sensitive tumor cell, at a 1:1 ratio and added DMPO (0.14 M). We pelleted the cells to increase EC to TC binding before taking the sample readings. Activated NK cells showed no increase in OH. production, leading to a net production of free radicals less than 1% that of activated PMNL. These data strongly suggest that hydroxyl radical production does not play a role in the early events of NK cell activation; they indicate a need to reevaluate the mechanism of inhibition of NK-CMC by OH. scavengers.
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Cognitive impairment is a common characteristic in schizophrenia that cannot be attenuated by antipsychotics. Brahmi, popularly known as a cognitive enhancer might be a new frontier of cognitive deficit treatment in schizophrenia.
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Rats were administered PCP or vehicle. Half of the PCP-group was treated with Brahmi. Discrimination ratio (DR) representing cognitive ability was obtained from novel object recognition test. VGLUT1 density was measured in prefrontal cortex, striatum, cornu ammonis fields 1 (CA1) and 2/3 (CA2/3) of hippocampus and dentate gyrus (DG) using western blot and immunohistochemistry.
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Botanicals (herbal materials and extracts) are widely used in traditional medicines throughout the world. Many have an extensive history of safe use over several hundreds of years. There is now a growing consumer interest in food and cosmetic products, which contain botanicals. There are many publications describing the safety assessment approaches for botanicals, based on the history of safe use. However, they do not define what constitutes a history of safe use, a decision that is ultimately a subjective one. The multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), is a model that has been developed, which assesses the safety of botanical ingredients using a history of use approach. The model evaluates the similarity of the botanical ingredient of interest to its historic counterpart - the comparator, the evidence supporting the history of use, and any evidence of concern. The assessment made is whether a botanical ingredient is as safe as its comparator botanical, which has a history of use. In order to establish compositional similarity between the botanical ingredient and its comparator, an analytical 'similarity scoring' approach has been developed. Applicability of the model is discussed with an example, Brahmi ( Bacopa monnieri).This evolution of the risk assessment of botanicals gives an objective, transparent, and transferable safety assessment approach.
Acute carbamazepine intoxication is seen with increasing frequency. Severity is related to the degree and duration of the coma, respiratory depression, seizures, cardiovascular disorders, and metabolic abnormalities. Symptomatic and specific treatment with activated carbon are required.