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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)
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Calan

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL

 

Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.

Description

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.

Dosage

Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

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The use of field effect transistors (FETs) in biomedical research has been in rapid progression in recent years. The present study aims to demonstrate a quantitative use of these devices in pharmacological bioassays. FETs were made as a 4 x 4 matrix of gates with a width of 200 microm separating each gate. The surface of the FETs (silicon oxide), covered with a layer of laminin, fibronectin, or nitro cellulose was suitable for cell adhesion. The cultured dissociated cardiac myocytes were spontaneously active within 24 to 48 h after initial plating. Simultaneous intracellular patch clamp recordings were used to verify the electrophysiological signals of cells that were coupled to the gates. All positive chronotropes (isoproterenol, norepinephrine) and negative chronotropes (verapamil, carbamylcholine, SDZ PCO400) showed their characteristic effects on heart cells in terms of changes of beat frequency. As the myocytes were in a complete syncitium on each FET, the cells need not be directly coupled to the gate in order to detect any ionic changes. This enables global cellular responses to be analyzed. The system also offers an opportunity to study the interconnections and communications between different cells. Furthermore, the changes of signal shapes in the presence of different agents could also be detected. The present study demonstrates how versatile and sensitive this recording system is in distinguishing different ionic signal shapes. The authors believe that this system has the potential to replace some currently employed in vitro methods, offering an alternative, which can substantially reduce animal use in pharmacological experiments.

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We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant P388 leukemia cell line, P388/ADR. The time course of accumulation of these drugs, and the effect of energy starvation and the presence of chloroquine on the level of their steady-state accumulation were quite disparate. Vinblastine inhibited the accumulation of verapamil whereas it enhanced the accumulation of daunomycin, another classic substrate of P-glycoprotein. Verapamil did not compete with the intracellular binding sites of vinblastine. In all these aspects, vinblastine behaved as a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein but verapamil did not. Our data suggest that verapamil is a reverser of P-glycoprotein but that its intracellular accumulation is not affected by this membrane-bound transporter.

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Recent data suggest that endothelin (ET) production is enhanced in coronary atherosclerotic lesions. In several studies, an anti-atherosclerotic effect has been attributed to calcium-channel antagonists. This study aimed to investigate whether ET release from cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle and endothelial cells is influenced by the calcium-channel antagonists diltiazem and verapamil. Coronary plaque smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) were isolated from primary stenosis plaque material. Normal coronary smooth muscle and endothelial cells were obtained from organ donors. Addition of diltiazem (5, 15, 25, 50, or 100 micrograms/ml) and verapamil (0.25, 2.5, 25, 50, or 75 micrograms/ml) to the culture medium induced in all three cell types a dose-dependent reduction in ET secretion (coronary plaque SMCs: diltiazem 98.1 +/- 1.5, 94.9 +/- 5.0, 82.0 +/- 6.4**, 63.3 +/- 3.7***, 38.9 +/- 2.4***; control 108.4 +/- 2.8; verapamil 97.0 +/- 7.7, 91.9 +/- 5.5, 67.3 +/- 4.5**, 30.6 +/- 3.0***, 27.6 +/- 2.2***; control 103.4 +/- 6.1 pg/10(4) cells, n = 6; normal coronary SMCs: diltiazem 9.6 +/- 0.7, 8.7 +/- 0.6, 5.4 +/- 0.5***; 3.7 +/- 0.5***, 3.2 +/- 0.4***; control 10.7 +/- 0.5; verapamil 10.3 +/- 0.9, 10.0 +/- 0.7, 6.6 +/- 0.5***, 4.0 +/- 0.3***, 3.0 +/- 0.3***; control 11.1 +/- 0.6 pg/10(4) cells, n = 6; means +/- SEM, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. control). These data suggest that ET release from cultured coronary smooth muscle and endothelial cells is decreased by diltiazem and verapamil. In further studies, it remains to be elucidated whether the local application of diltiazem or verapamil might have a beneficial effect on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.

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Hypotensive drugs can normalize blood pressure and control it for a long time but their effect has some specific features. In hypertension of the 2-3 degree, beta-blockers are more effective than blockers of Ca channels, ACE, diuretics and nitroglycerin. Hypertensive patients on beta-adrenergic drugs maintenance have sometimes hypertensive crises which should be managed with nitroglycerin, ACE drugs (enap, as a rule) and diuretics (less frequently).

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Effects of beta-blockers (propranolol, penbutolol) and calcium antagonists (nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem) were studied in 73 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Clinical data, ECG and echo-CG findings were assessed. It was found that beta-adrenoblockers and calcium antagonists improve quality of life in one-third of the patients. Penbutolol and nifedipine did so in half of the patients. Neither beta-adrenoblockers nor calcium antagonists decrease myocardial hypertrophy. Calcium antagonists may result in lowering of myocardial contractility while beta-adrenoblockers may increase the ejection fraction. Diltiazem produced a positive effect on diastolic function but had many side effects. Nifedipine increased lethality compared with verapamil and propranolol.

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The aim of the study was to investigate comparative contractility of isolated radial artery segments (n = 50). Phosphodiesterase inhibitor (papaverine) was used in 15 segments; dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist (adalat) was used in 12 segments; calmodulin inhibitor (aminazine) was used in 13 segments; and "nitromixture" (5 mg verapamil hydrochloride, 2.5 mg nitroglycerine, 500-UN heparin, and 300 mL isosmotic Krebs solution) was used in 10 segments. Effect of hyposmotic solution for the morphometric properties of radial artery was analyzed in 22 arterial segments. The data didn't show statistical differences between drugs: "nitromixture" decreased tone by 100 ± 2% (n = 10), papaverine by 100 ± 11% (n = 15), adalat by 95 ± 6.1% (n = 12) and aminazine by 92 ± 11.3% (n = 13) (p > 0.05). The most effective drug in duration was adalat (n = 12, 90 ± 6.5 minutes) versus "nitromixture" (n = 10, 60 ± 9.3 minutes), papaverine (n = 15, 60 ± 4.3 minutes) and aminazine (n = 13, 50 ± 3.2 minutes) (p < 0.05).

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The purpose of this study was to characterize blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of oxycodone, a cationic opioid agonist, via the pyrilamine transporter, a putative organic cation transporter, using conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (TR-BBB13). Oxycodone and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into TR-BBB13 cells in a temperature- and concentration-dependent manner with Km values of 89 and 28 microM, respectively. The initial uptake of oxycodone was significantly enhanced by preloading with pyrilamine and vice versa. Furthermore, mutual uptake inhibition by oxycodone and pyrilamine suggests that a common mechanism is involved in their transport. Transport of both substrates was inhibited by type II cations (quinidine, verapamil, and amantadine), but not by classic organic cation transporter (OCT) substrates and/or inhibitors (tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and corticosterone), substrates of OCTN1 (ergothioneine) and OCTN2 (L-carnitine), or organic anions. The transport was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (rotenone and sodium azide) but was insensitive to extracellular sodium and membrane potential for both substrates. Furthermore, the transport of both substrates was increased at alkaline extracellular pH and decreased in the presence of a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone). Intracellular acidification induced with ammonium chloride enhanced the uptakes, suggesting that the transport is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. The brain uptake of oxycodone measured by in situ rat brain perfusion was increased in alkaline perfusate and was significantly inhibited by pyrilamine. These results suggest that blood-brain barrier transport of oxycodone is at least partly mediated by a common transporter with pyrilamine, and this transporter is an energy-dependent, proton-coupled antiporter.

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Myocardial ischemia (MI) is a worldwide epidemic. Compound Danshen Tablets (CDTs), an herbal compound preparation, are widely used to treat MI in China. In this study, we aimed to explore novel biomarkers to increase the understanding of MI and investigate therapeutic mechanisms of CDT by using a metabolomic approach. Plasma extracts from sham, MI model, CDT- and western medicines (isosorbide dinitrate, verapamil, propranolol, captopril, and trimethazine)-treated rats were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model was built to find metabolites expressed in significantly different amounts between MI and sham rats. Meanwhile, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to investigate CDT's protective effects. The results showed that CDT presented protective effects on MI by reversing potential biomarkers to sham levels, especially for the four metabolites in the pathway of purine metabolism (hypoxanthine, xanthine, inosine and allantoin).

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Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is a risk factor for PAD. Treatment for hypertension must be compatible with the symptoms of PAD. Controversy regarding the effects of beta-blockade for hypertension in patients with PAD has led many physicians to stop prescribing beta-blockers. Little is known about the effects of other classes of anti-hypertensive drugs in the presence of PAD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003.

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The importance of cytosolic free calcium level intracellular Ca(2+), [Ca(2+)]i, in neutrophil activation prompted us to investigate changes in [Ca(2+)]i of neutrophils caused by methylmercury (MeHg), which has been shown to have immunomodulatory properties. We have shown in this paper that MeHg increased [Ca(2+)]i in the mouse peritoneal neutrophil. The L-type calcium channel blocker verapamil can decrease the elevated [Ca(2+)]i caused by 10 microM MeHg, suggesting that Ca(2+)-influx through L-type Ca(2+) channel mediates the effect of MeHg. Moreover, MeHg potently decreased nitric oxide (NO) production but also the protein and mRNA level of NO synthase induced by lipopolysaccharide. Both verapamil (1 microM) and H-89 (10 microM) can antagonize the inhibitory effect of MeHg (10 microM) on NO production. These findings lead us to conclude that MeHg inhibits NO production mediated at least in part by Ca(2+)-activated adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway.

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P-glycoprotein functions as an ATP-driven efflux pump for antitumor agents. C219 is a monoclonal antibody which recognizes regions near both ATP binding domains in each half of P-glycoprotein. In this study, we have demonstrated that C219 inhibits the ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein based on the following findings: 1) the inhibition of total ATPase activity by C219 was selective to P-glycoprotein-positive membranes; 2) the C219-sensitive fraction of ATPase correlated the expression of P-glycoprotein; and 3) modulators of P-glycoprotein ATPase, verapamil and cyclosporin A, affected the C219-sensitive fraction of ATPase. The photolabeling of P-glycoprotein with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP was inhibited by C219, suggesting that the inhibition of ATP binding by C219 reduced the activity. Since C219 interacts with P-glycoprotein ATPase, C219 might become a useful tool for studying the role of P-glycoprotein ATPase.

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Arterial tone in muscular conduit arteries may influence pressure wave reflection through changes in diameter and pulse wave velocity. We examined the relative specificity of vasodilator drugs for radial artery and forearm resistance vessels during intrabrachial arterial infusion. The nitric oxide (NO) donors, nitroglycerine and nitroprusside, and brain natriuretic peptide were compared with the α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine, calcium-channel antagonist verapamil, and hydralazine. Radial artery diameter was measured by high resolution ultrasound, forearm blood flow by strain gauge plethysmography, and pulse wave velocity by pressure recording cuffs placed over the distal brachial and radial arteries. Norepinephrine was used to constrict the radial artery to generate a greater range of vasodilator tone when examining pulse wave velocity. Despite dilating resistance vasculature, phentolamine and verapamil had little effect on radial artery diameter (mean dilation <9%). By contrast, for comparable actions on resistance vessels, nitroglycerine and nitroprusside but not brain natriuretic peptide had powerful actions to dilate the radial artery (dilations of 31.3 ± 3.6%, 23.6 ± 3.1%, and 9.8 ± 2.0% for nitroglycerine, nitroprusside, and brain natriuretic peptide, respectively). Changes in pulse wave velocity followed those in arterial diameter irrespective of the signaling pathway used to modulate arterial tone (R=-0.89, P<0.05). Basal tone in human muscular arteries is relatively unaffected by α-adrenergic or calcium-channel blockade, but is functionally or directly antagonized by NO donors. The differential response to NO donors suggests that there is potential to manipulate the downstream pathway to confer greater specificity for large arteries with a resultant decrease in pressure wave reflection and systolic blood pressure.

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Rottlerin has been widely accepted as a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C delta (PKC delta); however, recent data suggest that the specificity of this compound become a question. Herein, we address this issue using a lens organ culture system, as PKC delta might regulate the gap junction permeability in lens. Interestingly, we found that rottlerin induced the degradation of connexin50 more rapidly than that of PKC delta. Furthermore, comparison of rottlerin with a protonophore, carbonylcyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) that shares many characteristics with rottlerin, showed that both rottlerin and FCCP dramatically increased lens weight over time. This increase in lens weight was partially reversed by depletion of extracellular calcium with ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid (EGTA) or by blocking L-type calcium channels with verapamil, suggesting rottlerin may induce calcium influx. Indeed, the rapid degradation of connexin50 (but not PKC delta) induced by rottlerin and FCCP was blocked by EGTA. In addition, rottlerin and FCCP also induced degradation of connexin46, filensin, vimentin and CP49. In order to determine whether this protein degradation is associated with the decrease of ATP due to uncoupling mitochondria by rottlerin, ATP content in lenses with different treatments were examined. The result indicated that EGTA had no effect on lens ATP content. Taken together, these data suggest that rottlerin, like FCCP, induces calcium influx, leading to protein degradation and cleavage in the lens, and that this effect is unrelated to the inhibition of PKC delta. Thus, extreme caution must be taken when considering use of rottlerin as a PKC delta inhibitor.

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The obstruction was at first treated with verapamil, later with sotalol. The pericardial effusion was interpreted as part of a postcardiotomy syndrome. The effusion regressed under steroid administration, and the LVOT and mitral regurgitation also decreased. A provocation test five months postoperatively no longer brought about an outflow gradient. The good results were still present 12 months postoperatively.

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We investigated anaerobic threshold (< theta(L)) gas exchange kinetics and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max) among older men with reduced left ventricular end-diastolic filling (LVDF). Ten men (mean age, 73 years) with LVDF impairment and low fitness, but without other cardiovascular dysfunction were studied. Treatments compared to control included: 5 days, high intensity exercise training protocol; 5 days, calcium channel blockade (240 mg verapamil); 21 days, detraining/washout; and 5 days, combined treatments. Results indicated no changes in resting left ventricular systolic function with any treatment. Significant resting diastolic function changes included increased early:late flow velocity (control, 0.87; training, 1.28; verapamil, 1.32), and a decreased isovolumic relaxation time (control, 0.10 s; training, 0.08 s; verapamil, 0.08 s). The combined treatments were not additive. Sub-threshold oxygen uptake kinetics (tauVO2, s) were significantly faster following either training or verapamil (tauVO2,control, 62+/-12; tauVO2,training, 44+/-9; tauVO2,verapamil, 48+/-10) and combined treatments (tauVO2, 41+/- 8). V O2,max (ml kg(-1) min(-1)) was significantly increased (control, 21.8+/-2.2; training, 27.3+/-2.2; verapamil, 25.2+/-3.4; combined treatments, 26.9+/-2.3). Increasing ventricular preload with either exercise training or calcium channel blockade was coincident with faster tauVO2 and increased VO2,max.

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Male out-patients excluding those taking other drugs known to raise PRL, renal failure and known primary hypothyroidism (1265 eligible subjects). Control subjects were drawn from eligible out-patients not taking verapamil.

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Many patients with potentially life-threatening cardiac conditions presenting with transient loss of consciousness are referred first to neurology clinics. Therefore, neurologists must remain competent to interpret electrocardiograms (ECGs) and in particular be able to identify those rare conditions that predict sudden cardiac death. A 12-lead ECG is cheap and readily available, and can give essential diagnostic information. Here the authors review abnormalities in, and indications for, the ECG in neurological practice.

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Peyronie's disease (PD) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by a fibrous plaque involving the tunica albuginea of the penis. The inelastic fibrous plaque leads to a penile curvature. Several Authors have suggested an immunological genesis of this disease, others have linked PD with Dupuytren's contracture. Signs of this disease are curvature, penile pain, penile deformity, difficulty with coitus, shortening, hinging, narrowing and erectile dysfunction. The natural history of PD and the clinical course can develop from spontaneous resolution of symptoms to progressive penile deformity and impotence. Surgical treatment is indicated when patients fail the conservative medical treatment and however, only in case of disease stabilization with a condition of impossibility of penetration. The medical treatment is indicated in the development stage of PD for at least one year after diagnosis and whenever in case of penile pain. Current non-surgical therapy includes vitamin-E, verapamil, para-aminobenzoate, propoleum, colchicine, carnitine, tamoxifen, interferons, collagenase, hyaluronidase, cortisone, pentoxifylline, superoxide dismutase, iontophoresis, radiation, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and the penile extender. The etiology of this fibrotic disease is not widely known, although in recent years pathophysiological knowledge has evolved and new studies propose the penile trauma as cause of the disease. The penile trauma results in a delamination of the tunica albuginea with a consequent small hematoma, then the process evolves as an inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the course of the inflammation, Peyronie's disease occurs due to the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B, that induces the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), with an increase of nitric oxide, leading to increased production of peroxynitrite anion. All these processes result in the proliferation of fibroblasts and myo-fibroblasts and excessive production of collagen between the layers of the tunica albuginea (penile plaque). Referring to the current knowledge of inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms of PD, a possible therapeutic strategy is then analyzed.

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Action potential and bipolar electrograms were recorded at epicardial and endocardial sites of coronary-perfused canine RV wedge preparations, together with a pseudo-ECG. The transient outward potassium current agonist NS5806 (5 μM) and the Ca(2+)-channel blocker verapamil (2 μM) were used to pharmacologically mimic the BrS genetic defect.

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This study was to investigate the effect of lovastatin on the bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its major metabolite, norverapamil, in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil and norverapamil in rats were measured after the oral administration of verapamil (9 mg/kg) in the presence or absence of lovastatin (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil were significantly altered by the presence of lovastatin compared to the control group (given verapamil alone). The presence of lovastatin significantly (p < 0.05, 0.3 mg/kg; p < 0.01, 1.0 mg/kg) increased the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of verapamil by 26.5-64.8%, and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of verapamil by 34.1-65.9%. Consequently, the relative bioavailability (R.B.) of verapamil was increased by 1.27- to 1.65-fold than that of the control group. However, there was not significant change in the time to reach the peak plasma concentration (T(max)) and the terminal half-life (t(1/2)) of verapamil in the presence of lovastatin. The AUC and C(max) of norverapamil were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of presence of 1.0 mg/kg of lovastatin compared with the control group. However, there was no significant change in the metabolite-parent ratio (M.R.) of norverapamil in the presence of lovastatin. The presence of lovastatin significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of verapamil. The enhanced oral bioavailability of verapamil may be due to inhibition both of the CYP3A-mediated metabolism and the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the intestine and/or in liver by the presence of lovastatin.

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Calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) may either be divided into the dihydropyridines (e.g. amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, lacidipine, nilvadipine, nifedipine, nicardipine etc.), the phenylalkylamines (e.g. verapamil) and the benzothiazepines (e.g. diltiazem) according to their chemical structure, or into first generation agents (nifedipine, verapamil and diltiazem) and second generation agents (subsequently developed dihydropyridine-derivatives). Second generation CCAs are characterized by greater selectivity for calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells than the myocardium, a longer duration of action and a small trough-to-peak variation in plasma concentrations. Heart failure is characterized by decreased cardiac output resulting in inadequate oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Although the accompanying neurohormonal activation, leading to vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure, is initially beneficial in increasing tissue perfusion, prolonged activation is detrimental because it increases afterload and further reduces cardiac output. At the level of the myocyte, heart failure is associated with increased intracellular calcium levels which are thought to impair diastolic function. These changes indicate that the CCAs would be beneficial in patients with heart failure. There has been a strong interest and increasing experience in the use of CCAs in patients with heart failure. Despite potential beneficial effects in initial small trials, findings from larger trials suggest that CCA may have detrimental effects upon survival and cardiovascular events. However, this may not necessarily be a 'class b' effect of the CCAs as there is considerable heterogeneity in the chemical structure of individual agents. Clinical experience with different CCAs in patients with heart failure includes trials that evaluated their effects on hemodynamic parameters, exercise tolerance and on symptomatology. However, the most relevant results are those from randomized clinical trials that assessed mortality as the primary endpoint. First generation CCAs have direct negative inotropic effects and even sustained release formulations have not proved any beneficial effect upon survival. With second generation CCAs, some benefit on hemodynamic parameters has been observed but none on survival, alone or in combination with ACE inhibitors. It is noteworthy that although amlodipine had a neutral effect on morbidity and mortality in large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with heart failure, the drug was well tolerated. There is no specific indication for CCAs (first or second generation) in patients with systolic heart failure, alone or in combination with ACE inhibitors, but amlodipine may be a considered in the management of hypertension or coronary artery disease in patients with heart failure.

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We report on a 6-month-old patient with a right bundle, superior axis tachycardia at 197 beats per minute. The tachycardia was unresponsive to adenosine, propranolol, flecainide, or amiodarone, or synchronized cardioversion. Overdrive atrial pacing terminated the tachycardia and since initiating verapamil, no recurrences of his tachycardia have occurred.

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1) Ca2+ influx through the L-type channels may be the primary source of Ca2+ to stimulate in vivo phasic contractions. 2) Phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis enhances the stimulation of in vivo phasic contractions in the normal ileum. In the inflamed ileum, phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis may be essential to stimulate phasic contractions. 3) Inflammation may downregulate the protein kinase C pathway. 4) Ryanodine stimulates phasic contractions by the release of ACh.

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Taken together, these data suggest these cells will be useful for evaluation of rat Abcb1a-mediated transport and for evaluation of species-specific P-glycoprotein-mediated transport.

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Verapamil effectively decreased the lens calcium concentration, which is accepted as the key element in radiation cataractogenesis. It is therefore concluded that verapamil may reduce the risk of radiation-induced cataract formation.

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Data were extracted by one author (DAL) and checked by the other (GYHL). Potentially eligible studies were excluded when the results presentation prevented adequate extraction of data and enquiries to authors did not yield raw data.

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Our observations are consistent with the Hoechst 33342 dye efflux assay isolating a stem cell enriched population which can be further sub-fractionated by CD133 selection. Moreover, the loss of the CDK inhibitor in malignancy is consistent with the hypothesis that neoplastic change originates in the stem cell compartment.

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In the present study we assess that the etiology of digitalis intoxication. We try to identify factors and intensity of each association. One thousand fifty patients form Havana City, Cuba were selected, under digitalis therapy. Two groups were made Cases and Controls. Each patient was evaluated by direct interview. There was a significative association (P < 0.01) among digitalis intoxication and; older persons who use high doses of digoxin, other risk factors were underweight, lack of potassium supplement, some associated diseases, combination therapy between digoxin, and furosemide, thyazides, dipyridamole, amiodarone, quinidine, nifedipine or verapamil, cigar smoking, alcohol intake and prior history of digitalis intoxication. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated for each association. We conclude: some factors are responsible for digitalis intoxication, each one contribute partially.

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The uptake of Tc-TF was examined in the MCF7/WT cell line, a wild-type breast cancer cell line that does not exhibit MDR, and its subclonal etoposide resistant cell line MCF7/VP, which expresses high levels of MRP1, one of the multi-drug resistance associated proteins (MRPs), in the presence of increasing concentrations of verapamil, a classical MDR modulator. In the absence of verapamil, MCF7/VP cells showed significantly lower Tc-TF uptake than did MCF7/WT cells, indicating that Tc-TF is a substrate for MRP1. The presence of verapamil enhanced the uptake of Tc-TF in MCF7/VP cells. On the other hand, verapamil also increased tracer uptake in MCF7/WT cells, which was readily appreciated when the uptake values were corrected by viable cell numbers: an approximately 100% increase of Tc-TF uptake was observed in comparison with that in the absence of verapamil in viable MCF7/WT cells whereas a 100-200% increase occurred in viable MCF7/VP cells. In addition, verapamil prolonged the retention of radioactivity in both MCF7/WT cells and MCF7/VP cells.

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Ec.Cr caused atropine-sensitive stimulatory effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum at 3-10mg/ml. In rabbit jejunum preparations, Ec.Cr relaxed spontaneous and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions as well as shifted Ca++ curves to right, like verapamil. Ec.Cr (3-100mg/kg) induced fall in the arterial blood pressure (BP) of anaesthetized rats, partially blocked in atropinized animals. In endothelium-intact rat aorta, Ec.Cr relaxed phenylephrine (1 microM)-induced contractions, partially antagonized by atropine and also inhibited K+ (80 mM) contractions. In guinea-pig atria, Ec.Cr exhibited a cardio-depressant effect. Ec.Cr (1-10mg/kg) produced diuresis in rats, accompanied by a saluretic effect. It enhanced pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. Bio-assay directed fractionation revealed the separation of spasmogenic and spasmolytic components in the aqueous and organic fractions respectively.

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calan eeze review 2016-08-23

An abnormal HLA expression has been detected in some tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Classical cytotoxic treatment of these tumors, the most common childhood soft tissue malignancy, may induce multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with the expression of a 170-kDa membrane-associated glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein). In order to analyse the connection between modulation of HLA expression and the development of the MDR phenotype mediated by P-glycoprotein in RMS, we used three resistant RMS cell lines; two of these resistant cell lines (TE.32.7.DAC and RD-DAC) were established by in vitro exposure to actinomycin D, a drug of choice in the treatment of RMS; the resistant RMS- GR cell line was established from an embryonal RMS tumor after polychemotherapy. Our results showed that all the resistant cell lines showed a significant increase in the expression of HLA class I surface antigens in comparison to drug-sensitive cells. Blockade of P-glycoprotein with verapamil led to a decrease in HLA class I expression in RMS resistant cell lines. However, no modulation of HLA class II expression was observed in any of the three analyzed cell lines. These findings support the hypothesis buy calan that the development of resistance mediated by mdr 1/P-glycoprotein, directly influences the expression of HLA class I in RMS cells, inducing to upregulation. This effect may be relevant to the application in RMS of immunotherapy against tumor-associated antigens presented by HLA class I molecules.

calan dosage forms 2017-09-06

Add-on treatment with verapamil seems to have some effect in controlling seizures in patients with genetically determined DS. Our observations justify further research on the relationship between calcium channels, calcium channel buy calan blockers, and channelopathies.

calan tab 2016-05-29

Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining were used to follow proliferation activity of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, whereas 2-NBD-glucose was employed buy calan to analyze the cells' substrate affinity. Propidium iodide was used to determine the proportion of dead cells. Calibration and verification experiments were performed with cells grown batch-wise as well as in transient state regimes.

calan tablets 2015-05-20

Thirty minutes after stimulation of RAW264.7 cells by LPS, the activity of PKC in cytomembrane increased and the activity of PKC in cytoplasm decreased significantly in comparison with the baseline levels (P < 0.01). The NO concentration was 30.1 micro mol/L +/- 5.4 micro mol/L 12 hours after the stimulation of LPS on RAW264.7 cells, and was much more higher 24 and 48 hours after, all significantly higher than before (all P < 0.01). The NO concentration in the supernatant with H-7 at any time point was significantly lower than those in corresponding samples without H-7 (all P < 0.01). After stimulation of LPS and PMA, the relative luciferase activity was 25.3 +/- 4.6, significantly higher than the baseline level (P < 0.01). H-7 and verapamil significantly inhibited the LPS-induced iNOS transactivity (both P < 0.01). iNOS mRNA expression was increased greatly, and H-7 significantly inhibited this expression buy calan 12, 24, and 48 hours after LPS stimulation.

calan 240 mg 2017-03-28

We used the myeloid-lymphoid initiating cell (ML-IC) assay as functional measure of primitive progenitors. buy calan Umbilical cord blood CD34(+)CD33(-)CD38(-), CD34(+)CD33(-)CD38(-)Rho(-), and CD34(+)CD33(-)CD38(-)Rho(-)c-kit(+) cells were sorted singly onto AFT024 feeders to assess their capacity to become ML-IC.

calan 180 mg 2015-03-27

Calcium channel blockers, verapamil and diltiazem, reduce calcium overloading of cardiomyocytes and limit activation of myocardial lysosomal enzymes under conditions of acute hypoxia, acute total ischemia of myocardium and experimental buy calan hyperlipidemia.

calan drug classification 2015-08-12

To investigate the effect of buy calan simultaneous and delayed administration of activated charcoal on the absorption of two verapamil formulations.

calan sr medication 2015-07-06

Data were evaluated from 5468 patients, 72% known to have hypertension and 26% newly diagnosed [2% not available (n.a.)]. At baseline only 2.9% of treated patients had their hypertension well controlled (< 140/90 mmHg), but during the programme this increased to 40.9% (P < 0.001). The absolute reduction in office blood pressure was also significant (from 168 +/- 19/97 +/- 11 mmHg to 139 +/- 13/83 +/- 7 mmHg; P < 0.001). No differences in blood pressure control were found between trandolapril and verapamil SR regimens. Office blood pressure was greater than home blood pressure at baseline (168 +/- 19/97 +/- 11 mmHg compared with 151 +/- 17/89 +/- 10 mmHg; P < 0.001), but this difference disappeared at 6 months (139 +/- 13/83 +/- 7 mmHg compared with 140 +/- 13 buy calan /84 +/- 7 mmHg, respectively).

calan 120 mg 2015-08-30

Our data indicate that increasing the buy calan PC content of HIV particles reduces infectivity.

calan overdose 2016-05-15

The furanocoumarin imperatorin has been reported to have hypotensive effect, and we have investigated its activity on myocardial hypertrophy. Imperatorin displayed similar chromatographic retention peak to verapamil in the model of cardiac muscle/cell membrane chromatography, and could reduce in a concentration buy calan -dependent way protein content and cell size of myocytes prestimulated with angiotensin II. The ratio of heart weight to body weight (mg/g) (4.13 ± 0.06 in SHRs, 3.77 ± 0.02 with imperatorin 25 mg kg(-1)d(-1) 16 17 ig, P<0.01) was significantly lower in the imperatorin-treated SHRs. Taken together, our observations show that imperatorin exerts anti-hypertrophic effect both in vitro and in vivo.

calan pill 2017-12-09

Elk-1, a member of the ternary complex factor family of Ets domain proteins that bind serum response elements, is activated by phosphorylation in a cell-specific manner in response to growth factors and other agents. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether Elk-1 activation contributes to glucose-/depolarization-induced Ca(2+)-dependent induction of immediate early response genes in pancreatic islet beta-cells. The results of experiments in insulinoma (MIN6) cells demonstrated that Elk-1-binding sites (Ets elements) in the Egr-1 gene promoter contribute to transcriptional activation of the gene. Treatment with either epidermal growth factor (EGF), a known inducer of beta-cell hyperplasia, glucose, or KCl-induced depolarization resulted in Ser(383) phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of Elk-1 (4 +/- 0.3-, P = 0.003, 2.3 +/- 0.19-, P = 0.002, and 2.2 +/- 0.1- fold, P = 0.001 respectively). The depolarization response was inhibited by the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil and by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 (53 +/- 6 and 55 +/- 0.5%, respectively). EGF-induced activation of Elk-1 was also inhibited by PD98059 (60 +/- 5%). A dominant negative Ras produced partial inhibition (42%) of the depolarization-induced Elk-1 transcriptional activation. Transfection with a constitutively active Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase IV plasmid also resulted in Elk-1 transcriptional activation. Experiments with p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase A inhibitors indicated that these pathways are not involved. We conclude that Elk-1 activation contributes to glucose-/depolarization-induced Ca(2+)-dependent induction of immediate early growth response genes in pancreatic islet beta-cells. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a convergence of nutrient- and growth factor-mediated signaling pathways on Elk-1 activation through induction of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK-1 and -2. The role of these pathways in the glucose-induced proliferation of islet beta-cells can now be assessed. buy calan

calan 5 mg 2016-11-19

The ability of main reproductive hormones such as chorionic gonadotropin (CG), estradiol, and progesterone to regulate apoptosis of human neutrophils was studied. The hormones were studied separately and in physiological combinations specific for different trimesters of pregnancy. A low dose of CG (10 IU/ml) increased the spontaneous apoptosis of neutrophils, whereas its combination with estradiol and progesterone corresponding to that of trimester III of pregnancy significantly decreased this parameter buy calan . The stimulating effect of CG was prevented by an inhibitor of protein kinase A, whereas the hormone-induced suppression of apoptosis depended on the activity of Ca2+-channels. The antiapoptotic effect of the hormonal combination corresponding to that of trimester III was also manifested in the presence of autologous T-lymphocytes and on stimulation of neutrophils by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The apoptosis induced with monoclonal antibodies to CD95 was significantly suppressed by the hormones studied and their combinations. Thus, apoptosis of neutrophils is effectively regulated by reproductive hormones; this seems to be an important control mechanism of activation of these cells in pregnancy.

calan 40 mg 2016-04-11

Our results demonstrate an association between CA use and an increasing severity of LUTS. They also demonstrate that CA-users are more likely to have medical or surgical buy calan treatment for LUTS. However, these CA's effects on LUTS vary, and the use of highly vascular selective agents does not appear to pose significant risk.

calan 80 mg 2017-06-08

Seven male and 2 female patients, seen between July 2004 and February 2005, and between the ages of 32 and 56, are reported with histories of treatment resistant cluster headaches accompanied by borderline low or low serum testosterone levels. The patients failed to respond to individually tailored medical regimens, including melatonin doses of 12 mg a day or higher, high flow oxygen, maximally tolerated verapamil, antiepileptic agents, and parenteral serotonin agonists. Seven of the 9 patients met 2004 International Classification for the Diagnosis of Headache criteria for chronic cluster headaches; the other 2 patients had episodic cluster headaches of several months duration. After neurological and physical examination all patients had laboratory investigations including fasting lipid panel, PSA (where indicated), LH, FSH, and testosterone levels (both free and total). All 9 patients Trileptal Pediatric Dosing demonstrated either abnormally low or low, normal testosterone levels. After supplementation with either pure testosterone in 5 of 7 male patients or combination testosterone/estrogen therapy in both female patients, the patients achieved cluster headache freedom for the first 24 hours. Four male chronic cluster patients, all with abnormally low testosterone levels, achieved remission.

calan medication 2017-04-12

Eighteen patients had applanation tonometry, pulse wave analysis and echocardiography, before and after atenolol 75 mg, perindopril 4 mg and verapamil 240 mg, each given for 4 weeks, in a random order, with 2 weeks between medications. Fourteen patients completed the study. Within-drug comparisons demonstrated that perindopril (-10·3 mmHg, P = 0·002), verapamil (-9·2 mmHg, P = 0·003) and atenolol (-7·1 mmHg, P = 0·01) all reduced central systolic Neem With Alcohol pressure and brachial pressure; central changes were least, and peripheral changes greatest with atenolol but between-drug comparisons (analysis of covariance) were not significant. There was a trend for augmentation to be reduced by perindopril (-6·3%, P = 0·05), verapamil (-5·5%, P = 0·07) and atenolol (-3·2%, P = 0·09). Only atenolol reduced heart rate (by 16%) and delayed expansion in the arch and abdominal aorta (by 8% and 11%) (P < 0·001, P < 0·01 and P < 0·05, respectively, for between-drug comparisons).

calan reviews 2017-11-25

Continuous observation of the morphological changes and MTT colorimetry were employed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and natural killer (NK) cells against multidrug-resistant (MDR) human oral carcinoma cell line-KBV200 (before and after reversal of MDR) and parental drug-sensitive cell line KB. The morphologic changes of LAK cells and the 3 target cell lines were observed continuously under inverted microscope 3 h after co-culture of LAK Nexium Coupons Medication cells with one of three target cell lines respectively. The lysis rates of three tumor cell lines in response to co-culture with LAK or NK cells were determined using MTT colorimetry.

calan sr dosage 2016-01-01

P-glycoprotein (PGP) substrates with high membrane permeability, such as propranolol and verapamil, are considered to be essentially "transparent" to PGP since the transporter does not significantly limit their absorption or elimination. However, the question of whether such compounds can modulate PGP expression in epithelial cells following short-term exposure, with potential consequences for drug interactions, has not been addressed. LS180 colonic epithelial cells were exposed to propranolol or verapamil at concentrations (50-300 microM) consistent with those likely to be present in the gut lumen during oral dosing. Both compounds stimulated four to six-fold increases in MDR1 mRNA and PGP protein expression measured by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. These changes were accompanied by an induction in transporter activity measured by rhodamine 123 efflux. In contrast, metoprolol, a compound with similar permeability but no affinity for PGP had no effect on PGP expression. The induction of PGP by propranolol and verapamil was rapid with significant increases occurring within 3h with maximal stimulation after 6h exposure. Rifampicin, shown to cause clinical drug interactions via a PXR-mediated increase in PGP expression, exhibited a very similar time-course and extent of induction. In conclusion, verapamil and propranolol, whose trans-epithelial permeability are unaffected by PGP, appear to be effective inducers of PGP expression in gut epithelial cells in vitro. While the in vivo significance of these observations is unknown, this questions whether Zyrtec D Online high permeability, "PGP-transparent" compounds, currently favoured in drug selection strategies, should be evaluated in terms of their potential for transporter-mediated drug interactions.

calan generic name 2016-03-04

A retrospective casenotes review was conducted on all children with suspected cluster headache seen in our centre from 2000 to 2005 Suprax Brand Name . Case ascertainment was conducted using International Headache Society guidelines, and by telephone interviews with the parents.

calan dosage 2017-09-19

Piperine, a major plant alkaloid found in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), has shown potential for inhibiting the efflux pump (EP) of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, a modulation assay showed that piperine could decrease the MIC of ethidium bromide (EtBr) twofold at 32 μg ml(-1) and fourfold at 64 μg ml(-1) against Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 ATCC 700084. A real-time, 96-well plate fluorometric method was employed to evaluate the EP inhibition ability of piperine in M. smegmatis. Reserpine, chlorpromazine, verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone were used as positive controls. Naprosyn 250mg Tablets Piperine significantly enhanced accumulation and decreased the efflux of EtBr in M. smegmatis, which suggests that it has the ability to inhibit mycobacterial EPs.

calan drug 2015-12-15

Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic whose action is mediated by both agonistic activity at opioid receptors and inhibitory activity on neuronal reuptake of monoamines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of tramadol by means of microdialysis studies in rat brain and in vitro studies with human immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). The Kp,uu,brain value of tramadol determined by rat brain microdialysis was greater than unity, indicating that tramadol is actively taken up into the brain across the BBB. Tramadol was transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was inhibited by type II cations (pyrilamine, verapamil, etc.), but not by substrates of organic cation transporter OCTs or OCTN2. It was also inhibited by a metabolic inhibitor but was independent of extracellular sodium or membrane potential. The uptake was altered by changes of extracellular pH, and by ammonium chloride- Zantac 500 Mg induced intracellular acidification, suggesting that transport of tramadol is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that tramadol is actively transported, at least in part, from blood to the brain across the BBB by proton-coupled organic cation antiporter.

calan eeze review 2017-05-17

The esophageal cancer radioresistant cells showed an increased cisplatin or paclitaxel resistance. Compared with their parental cells, the expressions of Voltaren Cost MDR1 mRNA and protein for P-gp were increased significantly in radioresistant cells. Verapamil reduced paclitaxel resistance but had no effect on cisplatin resistance in human esophageal cancer radioresistant cells.

calan dosage forms 2016-05-19

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is an uncommon cause of heart failure but with serious prognosis. We report the case of a patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy presenting acute heart failure (severe biventricular systolic failure) and incessant atrial tachycardia, a rare arrhythmia difficult to control, that was responsible for cardiogenic shock, fetus death and multiple organ failure: Lipitor Pill renal failure (hemodialysis during 17 days), respiratory and hepatic failure and ischemic acute cholecystitis (treated surgically). After emergency cesarean section, heart rate control was obtained only after administering verapamil. Progressive clinical improvement with total recovery of hepatic and renal functions followed under treatment with vigorous multiple organ support. Six months after referral, the patients is doing well with normal daily life controlled with conventional therapy for heart failure, in stable sinus rhythm. Echocardiography shows a dilated left ventricle with partial resolution of systolic dysfunction rhythm. Echocardiography shows a dilated left ventricle with partial resolution of systolic dysfunction. The use of verapamil in severe biventricular systolic failure is discussed.

calan tab 2017-03-21

HCM is the most common inherited heart condition occurring in 1:500 individuals in the general population. Uroxatral Buy Online Left ventricular outflow obstruction at rest or after provocation occurs in 2/3 of HCM patients and is a frequent cause of limiting symptoms. Pharmacologic therapy is the first-line treatment for obstruction, and should be aggressively pursued before application of invasive therapy. Beta-blockade is given first, and up-titrated to decrease resting heart rate to between 50 and 60 beats per minute. However, beta-blockade is not expected to decrease resting gradients; its effect rests on decreasing the rise in gradient that accompanies exercise. For patients who fail beta-blockade the addition of oral disopyramide in adequate dose often will decrease resting gradients and offer meaningful relief of symptoms. Disopyramide vagolytic side effects, if they occur, can be greatly mitigated by simultaneous administration of oral pyridostigmine. This combination allows adequate dosing of disopyramide to achieve therapeutic goals. Verapamil utility in obstructive HCM with high resting gradients is limited by its vasodilating effects that can, infrequently, worsen gradient and symptoms. As such, we tend to avoid it in patients with high gradients and limiting heart failure symptoms. In a head-to-head comparison of intravenous drug administration in individual obstructive HCM patients the relative efficacy for lowering gradient was disopyramide > beta-blockade > verapamil. Severe symptoms in non-obstructive HCM are caused by fibrosis or severe myocyte disarray, and often by very small LV chamber size. Symptoms caused by these anatomic and histologic abnormalities, in the absence of obstruction, are less amenable to pharmacotherapy. New pharmacotherapeutic approaches to HCM are on the horizon, that are to be evaluated in formal therapeutic trials.

calan tablets 2016-09-23

The ex-vivo assay is a sensitive and predictive model for assessing changes in heart Prograf Mg function and biomarkers of toxicity and injury. This assay demonstrates the potential for sunitinib and sorafenib to cause cardiac toxicity in humans. Also, TNFα appears to be a biomarker in the heart prior to injury. Due to its versatility, the isolated heart assay has potential to fill gaps in cardiac safety testing early in drug development.

calan 240 mg 2017-11-16

Previous studies conducted in our laboratory indicated that administration of amphetamine, fluoxetine or sibutramine affects the sympathetic nervous system of the rat vas deferens. Therefore, our goal was to verify the role of calcium in vasa deferentia from young rats pretreated with a single dose of these drugs. Young 40-day-old male Wistar rats were pretreated with amphetamine 3 mg/kg, fluoxetine 10 mg/kg or sibutramine 6 mg/kg for 4 h before the experiments. CaCl(2) (10 mM) was used to induce contraction through time-effect curves in calcium-free solution to measure phasic and tonic components. We also evaluated the calcium-induced fluorescence of vas deferens cut into thin slices. In rats pretreated with amphetamine, we found an increase of the tonic contraction component which was reduced by verapamil. The phasic and tonic responses were increased in the group treated with fluoxetine, but only the tonic response was more sensitive to the antagonism by verapamil. The group treated with sibutramine showed an increase of phasic response whereas the tonic component was decreased. In this group an increase of the affinity for verapamil antagonism was found. In the calcium fluorescence study it was observed that the group treated with amphetamine, fluoxetine or sibutramine showed higher basal Ca(2+) fluorescence after stimulus with KCl (70 mM), noradrenaline (10(-4)M) or acetylcholine (10(-4)M). In all pretreated groups the calcium fluorescence was diminished by nifedipine 10(-7)M. Therefore, the pretreatment with amphetamine, fluoxetine or sibutramine seems to affect the calcium contractility and homeostasis in young rat vas deferens.