Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
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We report a case of squamous differentiated prostate carcinoma that developed after combination endocrine therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient was a 68-year-old man who visited our hospital with microscopic hematuria. His serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 7. 06 ng/ml. Transperineal needle biopsy was performed and histological examinations indicated moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 4 + 4 = 8. Computed tomography showed swelling of left external iliac lymph node. The clinical stage was T3aN1M0. Six weeks after combination endocrine therapy using goserelin acetate and bicalutamide, the patient underwent radical prostatectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate with very small areas of adenocarcinoma. The treatment measure was changed from endocrine therapy to combination chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5- FU. Eighteen month has passed after the surgery without any evidence of distant metastasis.
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We prospectively examined the development of depressive symptoms and fatigue among men with locally advanced prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy.
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The bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promotes cell proliferation, survival, and migration by acting on cognate G protein-coupled receptors named LPA(1), LPA(2), and LPA(3). We profiled gene expression of LPA receptors in androgen-dependent and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells and found that LPA(1) gene is differentially expressed in androgen-insensitive and LPA-responsive but not androgen-dependent and LPA-resistant cells. In human prostate specimens, expression of LPA(1) gene was significantly higher in the cancer compared with the benign tissues. The androgen-dependent LNCaP cells do not express LPA(1) and do not proliferate in response to LPA stimulation, implying LPA(1) transduces cell growth signals. Accordingly, stable expression of LPA(1) in LNCaP cells rendered them responsive to LPA-induced cell proliferation and decreased their doubling time in serum. Implantation of LNCaP-LPA(1) cells resulted in increased rate of tumor growth in animals compared with those tumors that developed from the wild-type cells. Growth of LNCaP cells depends on androgen receptor activation, and we show that LPA(1) transduces Galphai-dependent signals to promote nuclear localization of androgen receptor and cell proliferation. In addition, treatment with bicalutamide inhibited LPA-induced cell cycle progression and proliferation of LNCaP-LPA(1) cells. These results suggest the possible utility of LPA(1) as a drug target to interfere with progression of prostate cancer.
Intermittent androgen deprivation is an acceptable treatment in different stages of PC. Duration of cycle decreased progressively during therapy. Age, Gleason score and PSA are factors predicting mortality.
To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of bicalutamide plus anastrozole in young males with testotoxicosis.
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Testicular macrophages increase in concentration during postnatal development in rats. This process may be under hormonal control since administration of hCG stimulates a similar increase to occur precociously. The purpose of the present studies was to determine how the macrophage population is regulated during normal postnatal development and in response to exogenous hCG. We first determined that testicular macrophages proliferate in situ during development and that hCG administration results in an increase in proliferation when given to 10-day-old rats. We next evaluated whether hCG might exert its effects through enhanced secretion of testosterone from Leydig cells. We found that testosterone could not induce a precocious increment in the macrophage concentration when it was administered to newborn pups for 10 days. Finally, the normal increase in macrophage concentration that occurs prior to puberty could not be blocked by treatment with the antiandrogen Casodex. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the macrophage population expands by proliferation, perhaps under gonadotropin control. In addition, neither the precocial expansion that occurs in response to hCG nor the normal expansion that occurs before puberty is mediated by testosterone.
We report a pilot study on a novel protocol of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) treatment of prostate cancer (PC), in which androgen deprivation is restarted when serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) level reached more than 2 ng/ml and is stopped when PSA level decreased below 0.3 ng/ml. Thirty-two patients (aged 60 to 86 years, median 74 years) with prostate cancer (Stage A in 4 patients, B in 20, C in 1, D in 5, and relapse after radical prostatectomy in 2) were treated with IAD. Median serum PSA prior to the start of endocrine therapy was 15.65 (range 2.67 to 306.3) ng/ml. Eleven patients were treated with lutenizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist alone and 21 were treated with LHRH agonist plus an antiandrogen. Median duration of first endocrine therapy was 572 (range 100 to 1,543) days. Median serum PSA at the start of first off-phase was 0.038 (range 0.003 to 0.489) ng/ml. After a median of 207 days (range 140 to 843) of follow-up, 19 patients were in the first cycle, 9 in the second cycle, 3 in the third cycle, 1 in the fourth cycle. Two patients developed androgen-independent PC. The median duration of first off-phase of IAD was 287 days. There was a significant inverse relation between the duration of the first on-phase and testosterone level measured 4 months after the cessation of first on-phase therapy (R = -0.518). These results suggest that our protocol provides a reasonable length of off-phase duration and that the long term-androgen deprivation phase might delay the recovery of the testicular endocrine function which should be maintained during the off-phase of IAD.
In a phase II multicenter study, men with castration sensitive metastatic prostate cancer were treated with AT-101, a small molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor, and androgen deprivation therapy. At the end of 7 cycles of therapy in 55 patients, an undetectable PSA was achieved in 31%. However, the combination did not meet the pre-specified level of activity for further development.
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Changes observed in TC and LDL after 6 months of ADT were transitory. No significant differences were observed according to the modality of ADT.
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We examined FLII protein and mRNA expression in clinical prostate cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to evaluate the difference in disease-overall survival associated with the expression levels of FLII and AR. Prostate cancer cells stably expressing FLII or shRNA knockdown were used for functional analyses. Immunoprecipitation, Luciferase reporter, and immunofluorescence staining assays were performed to examine the functional interaction between FLII and AR.
In all, 106 men with prostate cancer (T1b-T4/Nx/M0) and no current gynecomastia/breast pain were enrolled in this randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group multicenter trial. Patients received either a single dose of electron beam radiotherapy (10 Gy) or sham radiotherapy. Bicalutamide (Casodex) 150 mg/day was administered for 12 months from the day of radiotherapy. Every 3 months, patients underwent physical examination and questioning about gynecomastia and breast pain.
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Prostate tissue expresses 2 estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, ER-α and ER-β, and estrogen-based therapies have shown activity in preclinical studies. Raloxifene, a selective ER modulator, has inhibited the growth of prostate cancer xenograft models and was tested in a phase II trial of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), with some patients achieving stable disease. However, no studies have examined the safety of the combination of bicalutamide plus raloxifene for CRPC. Therefore, we investigated the safety of treatment with bicalutamide plus raloxifene in patients with CRPC in an initial study.
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Androgen deprivation therapy is the initial treatment choice for metastatic disease. When enrolling patients into androgen deprivation trials, it is important to consider stratification of enrollees based on prognostic factors that have been identified as important in determining the likelihood of response. Prognostic factors are also helpful in identifying which patients are less likely to respond to treatment; this information also would help to counsel patients. Performance status is an important prognostic factor; however, its impact is minimal because the great majority of men who receive treatment for advanced disease have a normal performance status. Hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, and a semiquantitative grading scale for the number of metastatic foci on the bone scan are useful prognostic factors. The pretreatment serum testosterone level is a powerful prognostic factor. Patients with a low serum testosterone level have a shorter progression-free survival than men whose pretreatment serum testosterone level is above normal. The prognostic importance of pretreatment serum testosterone level has been evaluated in studies using treatment methods that lower this level to castrate levels. Recently, we found that serum testosterone level was not a prognostic factor for men taking the nonsteroidal antiandrogen, Casodex (Zeneca, Wilmington, DE), which does not alter the serum testosterone level. The pretreatment serum prostatic-specific antigen also is a prognostic factor. This antigen may be the best single method for monitoring patients in regard to response to or progression following therapy. The return of the prostatic-specific antigen level to normal (< 4 ng/ml), or the decline in the prostatic-specific antigen level of > 90% indicates a prolonged progression-free survival. In the future, it will be interesting to incorporate both the initial prognostic factors as well as monitor the prostatic-specific antigen into a multivariate analysis, which will be highly predictive of a man's response to treatment.
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Patients on LHRH analogues for prostate carcinoma with evidence of biochemical or clinical progression were randomized into one of the treatment arms (n=58). The first group (group A, n=26) received 1 mg of DES with 75 mg of aspirin per day in addition to the primary hormonal treatment. The second group (group B, n=32) received bicalutamide at a dose of 50 mg/day in addition to the primary treatment. Patients were followed up every 3 months with their PSA being checked and were also monitored for any clinical progression and adverse effects as a result of treatment. Any adverse event occurring after patients were started on treatment was attributed to the drug and patients were clinically assessed at each visit. Failure of treatment was defined as a 50% or greater increase in PSA after commencing treatment. Once randomized, all patients were followed up for survival regardless of failure of second-line hormonal manipulation.
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Parthenolide at low micromolar concentration inhibited proliferation of CWR22Rv1 and HUVEC cells, promoted apoptosis and abrogated NFkappaB-DNA binding. Parthenolide downregulated anti-apoptotic genes under NFkappaB control, TRAF 1 and 2, and promoted sustained activation of c-jun-NH2 kinase (JNK). Parthenolide also augmented the in vivo efficacy of docetaxel and restored sensitivity to anti-androgen therapy.
Treatment choices for metastatic prostate cancer are complex and can involve men balancing survival versus quality of life. The present study aims to elicit patient preferences with respect to the attributes of treatments for metastatic prostate cancer through a discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire. Men with recently diagnosed localized prostate cancer were asked to envisage that they had metastatic disease when completing a survey. As expected, men with prostate cancer placed considerable importance on gains in survival; however, avoiding side effects of treatment was also clearly important. Survival gains should be considered alongside side effects when discussing treatment options in metastatic disease.
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We investigated the efficacy of prophylactic radiotherapy for gynecomastia/breast pain induced by 150 mg bicalutamide in a prospective, randomized, multi-institutional trial.
In this open-label, multicentre, phase 3 randomised controlled trial, patients were recruited from ten university hospitals throughout Spain. Eligible patients had clinical stage T1c-T3b N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma with intermediate-risk and high-risk factors according to 2005 National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive either 4 months of androgen deprivation combined with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy at a minimum dose of 76 Gy (range 76-82 Gy; short-term androgen deprivation group) or the same treatment followed by 24 months of adjuvant androgen deprivation (long-term androgen deprivation group), stratified by prostate cancer risk group (intermediate risk vs high risk) and participating centre. Patients assigned to the short-term androgen deprivation group received 4 months of neoadjuvant and concomitant androgen deprivation with subcutaneous goserelin (2 months before and 2 months combined with high-dose radiotherapy). Anti-androgen therapy (flutamide 750 mg per day or bicalutamide 50 mg per day) was added during the first 2 months of treatment. Patients assigned to long-term suppression continued with the same luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue every 3 months for another 24 months. The primary endpoint was biochemical disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02175212.
A 61-year-old man with a history of recurrent prostate cancer presented with obstructive urinary symptoms. He had been diagnosed with locally invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate 10 years previously and treated with neoadjuvant hormonal and external beam radiation therapies. Because of the patient's rising PSA level, he had been started on goserelin 6 years after this diagnosis and bicalutamide 6 months before the current presentation. The patient presented to the urology clinic with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms consisting of nocturia, urgency, and weak stream.
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The current study was undertaken to explore novel anti-androgens. We investigated a series of tetrahydroquinoline compounds and identified 1-(8-nitro-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-4-yl)ethane-1,2-diol (S-40542).
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Abarelix was more effective in avoidance of testosterone surge (p <0.001) and the rapidity of reduction of testosterone to castrate levels on day 8 (p <0.001) than combination therapy. No significant difference was seen between the groups in the initial rate of decline of serum prostate specific antigen or the ability to achieve and maintain castrate levels of testosterone. No unusual or unexpected adverse events were reported.
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Androgen receptors are present in most advanced prostate cancer specimens, having a critical role in development of this type of cancer. For correct prognosis of patient conditions and treatment monitoring, noninvasive imaging techniques have great advantages over surgical procedures. We developed synthetic methodologies for preparation of novel androgen receptor-targeting agents in an attempt to build a versatile platform for prostate cancer imaging and treatment. The structure of these compounds comprises of a lanthanoid metal ion, gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA)-based binding fragment and, connected to it by a flexible linker, bicalutamide-derived nonsteroidal antiandrogen moiety. A representative gadolinium complex 15 was evaluated as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent in C57/bl6 male mouse bearing orthotopic TRAMP C2 prostate tumor.
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Gynecomastia is a benign condition characterized by proliferation of mammary glandular tissue. Hormonotherapy with bicalutamide for prostate cancer is one of the causes of gynecomastia. The well known aim of treatment is to decrease psychological distress and to improve cosmetic appearance. Prophylactic breast irradiation may prevent the appearance of gynecomastia.
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51 patients were randomly assigned to 150 mg bicalutamide per day, 50 patients to 150 mg bicalutamide per day and to 10 mg tamoxifen per day for 24 weeks, and 50 patients to 150 mg bicalutamide per day and radiotherapy (one 12-Gy fraction on the day of starting bicalutamide). 35 of the 51 patients allocated bicalutamide alone developed gynaecomastia or breast pain and were subsequently randomly allocated to tamoxifen (n=17) or radiotherapy (n=18) soon after symptoms started (median 180 days, range 160-195). Gynaecomastia and breast pain were assessed once a month. Severity of gynaecomastia was scored on the basis of the largest diameter. Breast pain was scored as none, mild, moderate, or severe. The primary outcome was frequency of gynaecomastia or breast pain; secondary outcomes were safety and tolerability, relapse-free survival, as assessed by concentration of prostate specific antigen, and quality of life. Analyses were by intention to treat.
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