Ceftin is used for treating bacterial infections (sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat). It may also be used to treat Lyme disease and gonorrhea.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.
Generic name of Ceftin is Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is also known as Cefuroxime axetil, Zinacef, Bacticef, Cefasun, Cefudura, Cefuhexal, Cefurax, Cefutil, Cetil, Froxime, Elobact, Oraxim, Zinnat.
Brand name of Ceftin is Ceftin.
Take Ceftin by mouth with or without food.
Swallow Ceftin whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.
Ceftin works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ceftin suddenly. To clear up your infection completely, take Ceftin for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.
If you overdose Ceftin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Ceftin are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Ceftin if you are allergic to Ceftin components.
Ceftin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.
Be careful if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful if you are diabetes patient. Ceftin may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong.
To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Ceftin.
It can be dangerous to stop Ceftin taking suddenly.
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Limited data exist on differences of erythema migrans patients with either positive or negative Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture.
Despite high rates of beta-lactamase production among non-typeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, multiple oral treatment options exist for non-typeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Multidrug-resistant serotype 19A S. pneumoniae ( approximately 20%) limits treatment options for ambulatory S. pneumoniae respiratory disease.
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Assessment at enrollment, randomization (Anthonisen type 1 exacerbation), 7 to 10 days after treatment, and monthly until next AECB or up to 9 months. The primary efficacy variable was clinical success (sufficient improvement, no alternative antimicrobial therapy required) 7 to 10 days after therapy. Secondary predefined end points were clinical cure (return to pre-exacerbation status), further antimicrobial use, time to next AECB, and bacteriologic success.
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Since the 90% CI for AUClast and Cmax ratios were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the US FDA, it was concluded that cefuroxime axetil (test formulation, 250 mg/5 mL suspension) was bioequivalent to a reference formulation under fed conditions, for both the rate and extent of absorption.
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This double-masked, multicenter, randomized clinical trial compared the efficacy and tolerability of cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis. A total of 263 patients with acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of treatment with either cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily (n = 132) or amoxicillin/clavulanate 500/125 mg 3 times daily (n = 131). Patients' responses to treatment were assessed once during treatment (6 to 8 days after the start of treatment), at the end of treatment (1 to 3 days posttreatment), and at follow-up (26 to 30 days after cessation of treatment). Clinical success, defined as cure or improvement, was equivalent in the cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin/ clavulanate groups at the end-of-treatment and follow-up assessments. Patients in both groups showed improvements in symptoms of acute sinusitis at the during-treatment visit. Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than treatment with cefuroxime axetil (29% vs 17%), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events (23% vs 11%), particularly diarrhea. Two patients in the cefuroxime axetil group and 8 patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group withdrew from the study due to adverse events (P = 0.06). These results indicate that cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily is as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate 500 mg 3 times daily in the treatment of acute sinusitis and produces fewer gastrointestinal adverse events. cefuroxime axetil, amoxicillin/clavulanate, acute sinusitis.
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In this double-blind, randomized, multicentered, parallel-group study, patients received once-daily cefdinir 600 mg, twice-daily cefdinir 300 mg, or twice-daily cefuroxime axetil 250 mg for 10 days. Primary efficacy measures were microbiologic eradication rate, by pathogen and by patient, and clinical response rate, by patient.
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A randomized, single-blind, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil suspensions for the treatment of skin or skin structure infections in 287 children. Each drug was given at a dosage of 30 mg/kg of body weight per day in two divided doses. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, or a combination of the two, were the primary pathogens isolated from infected skin lesions. A satisfactory bacteriological response (cure or presumed cure) was obtained in 97.1 and 94.3% of children in the cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil groups, respectively (P greater than 0.05). Satisfactory clinical responses (cure or improvement) were more likely to occur in cefuroxime axetil recipients than in cefadroxil recipients (97.8 versus 90.3%; P less than 0.05). Both regimens were equally well tolerated, with adverse events occurring in 7.9 and 6.1% of cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil recipients, respectively. There were more patients who refused to take cefuroxime axetil (7 of 189) than there were who refused to take cefadroxil (0 of 98), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). In this study, cefuroxime axetil was at least as effective as cefadroxil in resolving skin and skin structure infections in children.
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Resolution of bronchial inflammation following AECB is related to bacterial eradication. Those in whom bacteria continue to be cultured in their sputum have partial resolution of inflammation which may reflect continued stimulation by the reduced bacterial load.
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Syntheses are described for penicillins (4b approximately 4i, 5a and 5b) which possess a 6 beta-(2-heteroaryl-3-substituted)-propenamido side-chain of fixed geometry. In vitro results for these compounds against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed in most cases good stability against both penicillinase and TEM-1 beta-lactamase; analogues (4b approximately 4i) bearing a 2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl) unit showed the best intrinsic activity, the cyclohexyl compound (4b) being the most promising. The 1-acetoxyethyl ester (6) of 4b was also prepared; in experimental animal studies the in vivo properties of this compound compared favourably with cefuroxime axetil and are reported together with selected in vivo data for the other compounds.
We recorded 129 reactions. The most commonly involved drugs were aminopenicillins, and the most widely reported symptoms were delayed urticaria and maculopapular exanthema. Seventeen patients had positive patch test results for cephalosporins, mostly for cephalexin (n=10), cefaclor (n=9), and cefuroxime axetil (n=5). All the patients-except 4 who experienced an exanthema after the challenge test with cephalexin-tolerated a therapeutic dose of the cephalosporin tested without any adverse effects.
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Levofloxacin continues to demonstrate good clinical efficacy in the treatment of a range of infections, including those in which S. pneumoniae is a potential pathogen. Importantly, it has efficacy in CAP similar to that of gatifloxacin and at least as good as that of the third generation cephalosporins. Extensive clinical data confirm the good tolerability profile of this agent without the phototoxicity, hepatic and cardiac events evident with some of the other newer fluoroquinolone agents. Levofloxacin therefore offers a unique combination of documented efficacy and tolerability, and provides an important option for the treatment of bacterial infections.
Serum concentrations of cefuroxime ranged from 2.8 to 7.3 microg/ml and were consistent with the results of previous pharmacokinetic study. These results show that serum concentrations of cefuroxime remain above the MIC90 (2.0 microg/ml) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis for at least 5 h (42%) of the 12-h dosing interval. Cefuroxime was detected in 14 of 17 (82%) middle ear effusion samples and ranged from 0.2 to 3.6 microg/ml, indicating that cefuroxime penetrates well into the middle ear.
Compliance with antibiotics is essential to ensure treatment efficacy and to prevent the emergence of bacterial resistant stains. In children who take oral form, the palatability and the frequency of administration seem to be factors important to good compliance.
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The efficacy and safety of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (AMX/CA) (875/125 mg b.i.d. for 14 days) were compared with that of cefuroxime axetil (500 mg b.i.d. for 14 days) in a multicenter, open, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial in 206 adults with chronic or acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis. Clinical response was similar, with 95% of AMX/CA-, and 88% of cefuroxime-treated, clinically evaluable patients cured (95% confidence interval; -0.6% to +15%). In bacteriologically evaluable patients, cure rates, defined as eradication of the original pathogen with or without re-colonization with non-pathogenic flora, were also similar, with 65% of AMX/CA- and 68% of cefuroxime-treated patients cured (95% confidence interval; -18% to +15%). However, clinical relapse was significantly higher in the cefuroxime group: 7% (7/89) of clinically evaluable patients, compared with 0% (0/98) in the AMX/CA (p=0.0049) group. A similar incidence of possible or definite adverse events related to the study drug was reported for both treatments (AMX/CA 4.4%, cefuroxime 4.3%), the most frequent being diarrhea. Four adverse events were recorded as serious or life-threatening with only one considered related to the study drug (urticaria, cefuroxime). AMX/CA 875/125 mg b.i.d. for 14 days is as effective and well tolerated as cefuroxime axetil 500 mg b.i.d. for 14 days in the treatment of chronic, or acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis, but is associated with a significantly lower clinical relapse rate.
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In France the current consensus for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia is based on the French Society for Infectious Diseases 1991 guidelines. In healthy adults without signs of severe disease, oral amoxicillin is recommended at the dose of 3 g per day for 8 to 10 days. This empirical choice is warranted by the prevalence of pneumococcal infections, found as causal agents in half to two-thirds of the bacteriologically proven cases. The 3 g dose is recommended due to the increasing risk of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae with MIC > 1 microgram/ml and exceptionally > 2 micrograms/ml. Clinical experience has shown that with a threshold at 2 micrograms/ml, 3 g of amoxicillin is a safe and sure choice. The duration is undoubtedly too long for most patients, but is a prudent measure due to the lack of clinical signs distinguishing between patent infection and its prolongation by inflammatory processes. Indiscriminate prescription of amoxicillin alone is however unacceptable as aminopenicillin is not effective against all microbial agents responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. The risk of selecting resistant strains is very real. Use of a large spectrum antibiotic could be indicated as first line treatment in patients with risk factors (underlying chronic disease, institutionalization, exposure to Gram negatives or S. aureus). For such patients, combination with a beta-lactamase inhibitor (coamoxiclav) or a cephalosporin with a MIC similar to that for penicillin G (cefpodoxime proxetil, cefuroxime axetil) could be recommended. In case of severe disease, Legionella pneumophila must be taken into consideration, implicating adjuction of a macrolide. Wide spectrum fluoroquinolones such as the soon to be available trovafloxacin offer a safe alternative, covering the main microorganisms responsible for community acquired pneumonia. Widespread use would however increase the risk of microbial resistance. In the current epidemiological situation in France, prescription of an aminopenicillin alone for alveolar community-acquired pneumonia in healthy adults remains the gold standard for first line therapy.
In malnourished animals of group K the levels of plasma proteins were low, and showed higher concentrations of fat in the liver. The relative bioavailability of cefuroxime was 78.2% for group M and 64.4% for group K. Groups M and K presented lower values of area under the curve, which means that the amount of antibiotic absorbed was lower than group C. In the second pharmacokinetic study although the animals received a good quality diet, it was observed that the area under the curve of group K was lower, and the relative bioavailability was 54.3%, while group M had similar pharmacokinetic values than control group.
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In 45 centers from eight African countries, 2,888 bacterial isolates were collected from patients with community-acquired infections. Isolated pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus (29%), Escherichia coli (20%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6%), Proteus species (6%), Klebsiella species (6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (4%). An overall sensitivity of 16.2% was shown to penicillin G (number of isolates tested = 2,467), 31.8% to ampicillin (2,687), 45% to amoxicillin (1,959), and 84.9% to cefuroxime (2,888). Beta-lactamase presence was measured by a chromogenic method. Beta-lactamase was found in 75% of all pathogens tested, including 69.5% of gram-negative and 83.3% of gram-positive pathogens; 73% of E coli isolates, 76% of N gonorrhoeae, 75% of Klebsiella species, and 84% of S aureus were beta-lactamase positive. Beta-lactamase presence was associated with bacterial resistance for penicillin G, ampicillin, and amoxicillin, but not cefuroxime, whose sensitivity remained high. The higher resistance rates and beta-lactamase prevalence in Africa suggest the need for national antibiotic prescribing policies and surveillance schemes and replacement of relatively ineffective penicillins with newer agents such as cefuroxime.
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Moxilloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of activity, encompassing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has improved activity against gram-positive species (including staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci) and anaerobes compared with ciprofloxacin. This is offset by slightly lower activity against pseudomonal species and Enterobacteriaceae. In common with other fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin attains good penetration into respiratory tissues and fluids and its bioavailability is substantially reduced by coadministration with an antacid or iron preparation. However, moxifloxacin does not interact with theophylline or warfarin. In clinical trials in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAP), acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) or acute sinusitis, moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily achieved bacteriological and/or clinical success rates of approximately 90% or higher. Moxifloxacin was as effective as amoxicillin 1 g 3 times daily and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily in CAP and as effective as clarithromycin in AECB. In patients with sinusitis, a 7-day course of moxifloxacin 400mg once daily was as effective as a 10-day course of cefuroxime axetil 250mg twice daily. In contrast to some other fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin appears to have a low propensity for causing phototoxic and CNS excitatory effects. The most common adverse events are gastrointestinal disturbances.
Cefuroxime axetil and phenoxymethyl penicillin are equally effective in the treatment of children with solitary erythema migrans; however drug-related adverse effects were more frequently observed with cefuroxime axetil.
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Female patients presenting to their general practitioner with symptoms of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (cystitis) were entered into one of three therapeutic trials in a study programme of cefuroxime axetil (125 mg twice daily or 250 mg twice daily) conducted throughout the United Kingdom. On entry to the study, demographic information, infection recurrence rate and clinical signs and symptoms were recorded and the patient given medication for 7-days' treatment. Post-treatment, clinical signs and symptoms were re-assessed and adverse event data collected. Of the 672 patients who entered the programme, 605 patients completed the course of treatment of whom 510 were taking the 125 mg and 95 taking the 250 mg dosage. No significant difference in clinical efficacy or adverse events was found between the two dosage regimens. Analysis of the changes in symptom severity from the pre-treatment to the post-treatment evaluation for all patients showed a highly significant improvement (p less than 0.001). One hundred and five (15.6%) of the patients who entered the study reported a total of 132 adverse events, 16 of whom were withdrawn from treatment. The most frequent event was diarrhoea/loose motions. This study shows that cefuroxime axetil appears to be effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of cystitis in general practice.
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Out of the 29436 emergencies studied on 30 days, 821 were diagnosed with acute otitis media. Fifteen point seven percent of the cases were already receiving antibiotics (22% amoxicillin clavulanate, 20% amoxicillin and 11% cefuroxime axetil). For the treatment, at discharge, of the 93% an antibiotic was prescribed (amoxicillin clavulanate in 41%, amoxicillin in 15%, cefuroxime axetil in 11%, cefaclor 6% and azithromycin 5%). Two point eight percent of the children were admitted. According to the guidelines of the panel of experts consulted, appropriateness was 61% for antibiotics of first choice, 12% for drugs of alternate use and 25% for inadequate treatment. The different hospitals presented significant variability in the type of antibiotic used and the appropriateness of such.
Years before the spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease was determined, the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for erythema chronicum migrans had been established. Revisions in antibiotic treatment have evolved in concert with a growing understanding of the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Current treatment recommendations are discussed.
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Moxifloxacin is an extended-spectrum fluoroquinolone which has improved coverage against gram-positive cocci and atypical pathogens compared with older fluoroquinolone agents, while retaining good activity against gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial spectrum of moxifloxacin includes all major upper and lower respiratory tract pathogens; it is one of the most active fluoroquinolones against pneumococci, including penicillin- and macrolide-resistant strains. In in vitro studies, emergence of bacterial resistance was less common with moxifloxacin than with some other fluoroquinolones, but this requires confirmation in large-scale clinical studies. As with other fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin achieves good penetration into respiratory tissues and fluids. It shows a low potential for drug interactions and dosage adjustment is not required for patients of advanced age or those with renal or mild hepatic impairment. The efficacy of oral moxifloxacin has been demonstrated in large, well-designed clinical trials in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or acute sinusitis. Moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily achieved bacteriological and clinical success rates of approximately 90% or higher. It was as effective as, or more effective than, comparators including clarithromycin, cefuroxime axetil and high dose amoxicillin in these trials. The most commonly reported adverse events in patients receiving moxifloxacin are gastrointestinal disturbances. Moxifloxacin is also associated with QTc prolongation in some patients; there are, as yet, no data concerning the possible clinical sequelae of this effect in high-risk patients. Moxifloxacin has a low propensity for causing phototoxic reactions relative to other fluoroquinolones, and animal data suggest that it has a low potential for causing excitatory CNS and hepatotoxic effects.
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We performed a prospective, randomized, non-blind, multicentric and multinational study to compare the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin 400 mg IV once daily followed by oral moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily to ceftriaxone 2 g IV once daily followed by oral cefuroxime axetil 500 mg twice daily to treat mild-to-moderate HAP in adult patients requiring initial parenteral therapy. The primary efficacy variable was clinical response 7-10 days after the end of a 7-14-day treatment period, secondary endpoints included clinical and bacteriologic response at different intervals for up to 31 days after treatment. The trial was terminated prematurely due to slow patient recruitment.
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Transport of 23 beta-lactam antibiotics was characterized by measuring their ability to inhibit the uptake of glycylsarcosine into Caco-2 cells, their uptake into the cells and their total flux across the cell monolayers.
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Antimicrobial agents play an important role in the treatment of patients with acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME). The study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of cefuroxime in the blood and middle ear effusions (MEE) of children between 6 and 12 years of age with acute otitis media and chronic OME after a single oral dose administration of cefuroxime axetil, the ester prodrug of cefuroxime. Cefuroxime axetil (250 mg) was administered 2 to 6 hours before either myringotomy for acute otitis media or myringotomy and tube insertion for chronic OME. Blood samples and middle ear aspirates were obtained from 31 children and the samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Cefuroxime was recovered in measurable concentrations in all serum samples and in 15 (79%) of the 19 MEE specimens analyzed. No correlation was seen between cefuroxime MEE concentrations and effusion type, bacteriology or serum concentrations. This study shows that cefuroxime does penetrate into MEE when OME is present and that therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in some patients.
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To evaluate a pilot project of social marketing of urethritis treatment packages. The project, initially designed for over the counter sale in private pharmacies, was finally restricted by national health authorities to primary healthcare settings in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon.
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