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A group of ten normal volunteers were studied, each subject visiting the laboratory on three occasions with intervals of at least 2 weeks between visits.
The allergy cascade presents widespread inflammatory and proinflammatory activation, robust cytokine and chemokine signaling, and heterogeneous immune and endothelial responses that lead ultimately to the manifestations of allergic reaction. Histamine, a small peptide with inherent vasoactive properties, is released from granules contained within mast cells, basophils, lymphocytes, and other reservoirs and interacts with histamine receptors to regulate numerous cellular functions involved in allergic inflammation and immune modulation. Of the known histamine receptors, the H(1)-receptor is most clearly associated with potentiation of proinflammatory immune cell activity and enhanced effector function and is the prime focus of suppressive therapy. Second-generation oral H(1)-antihistamines, such as cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, and loratadine, are mainstays of allergy treatment, acting as highly specific, long-acting H(1)-receptor agonists at its unique receptor. The ongoing identification of immune effector cells and mediators involved in the allergic cascade indicates that further research is necessary to define the role of antihistamines such as desloratadine in anti-inflammatory therapy.
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Six hundred thirty-four patients completed the study. Desloratadine consistently diminished perennial allergic rhinitis symptoms, reducing the morning-evening instantaneous TSS (P =.005), the morning-evening reflective TSS (P =.007), the morning-evening reflective total nonnasal score (P =.023), and the individual nasal symptom scores for rhinorrhea, nasal itching, sneezing, and postnasal drip/drainage (P =.05 to P =.013) during weeks 1 through 4. Improvement in symptoms was observed after the first dose. Dropouts, and the type and frequency of adverse events (headache, viral infection, pharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infection), were similar in both treatment groups. No clinically significant changes in QTc intervals were observed.
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The number of circulating eosinophils decreased during DL treatment, and there was a reduced increase in circulating eosinophils after NP in these subjects. There was also a significant reduction in early bronchial clinical response. There was no significant lessening in the severity of the nasal symptoms. Nasal and bronchial mucosal inflammation parameters did not alter under DL treatment.
As has been reported throughout this supplement, the pathophysiologic factors of allergic diseases involve many elements of systemic disease-effector-cell recruitment from circulation, stimulation of bone marrow progenitors, systemic effector-cell priming, anaphylactic reactions, and others. With this understanding, allergic inflammation can be thought of as a reflection of systemic immunologic responses with compartmentalized manifestations in various organ systems, including the upper respiratory tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Thus, any therapeutic approach to the treatment of allergic disease should address, in addition to the localized disease manifestations, the systemic immunologic dysregulation. Second-generation antihistamines (cetirizine, fexofenadine, loratadine) have been used since the 1980s to treat localized allergy symptoms in upper airways, skin, and, in some cases, the lungs; however, the efficacy of these agents in controlling systemic immune dysregulation and chronic allergic inflammation (eg, nasal congestion) has not been proved. The potential role of newer antihistamines in the amelioration of both localized and systemic aspects of allergic disease represents an active area of interest. Desloratadine, a new selective histamine H(1)-receptor antagonist with potent antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory activity, is introduced and its potential for treating the systemic aspects of allergic disease is discussed.
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We analyzed data from a 20% beneficiary sample (approximately 120,000 continuously enrolled beneficiaries per year) for the Medi-Cal Fee-for-Service program during 1999 to 2000. AR medications available under Medi-Cal included three SGA medications (loratadine, fexofenadine, and cetirizine) and over 200 FGA products containing either diphenhydramine or chlorpheniramine or both. Because multiple medications were evaluated, a sample selection model was estimated using a two-stage multinomial logistic--variance components regression framework.
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Loratadine is a new selective peripheral histamine H1-receptor antagonist, that is orally effective, long-acting, and devoid of significant central and autonomic nervous system activity. Its safety and efficacy were evaluated in a 28-day study conducted in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (loratadine, 10 mg OD; terfenadine, 60 mg BID; or placebo). Evaluation of efficacy included weekly assessments of the individual disease signs and symptoms, the overall disease condition, and therapeutic response to treatment. Throughout the 28-day treatment period progressive improvement was observed in the loratadine and terfenadine treatment groups; however, at each evaluation, loratadine was significantly more effective than placebo (P less than .01) and clinically more effective than terfenadine in reducing disease signs and symptoms. Terfenadine was significantly more effective than placebo at day 7 and endpoint (last valid visit). The overall therapeutic response at the endpoint of treatment was rated as marked or complete relief of symptoms in 64%, 52%, and 25% of the patients in the loratadine, terfenadine, and placebo treatment groups, respectively. Loratadine was well tolerated and comparable to terfenadine and placebo in incidence of adverse experiences. Sedation was reported in one patient each in the terfenadine and placebo treatment groups and an anticholinergic side effect (dry mouth) in one terfenadine-treated patient. No sedative or anticholinergic side effects were observed in patients receiving loratadine. We concluded that loratadine, 10 mg, once daily is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic relief of chronic idiopathic urticaria.
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Symptom scores, including both 'perennial index' (PIN = sneezing + nasal itching + discharge) and total 'nasal index' (TNI = PIN + nasal stuffiness) showed statistically significantly greater improvements with ebastine 10 or 20mg than with loratadine 10mg for all parameters except sneezing, itching and ocular symptoms. The mean TNI scores were reduced by 44, 47 and 32%, respectively, over 4 weeks, and treatment differences were apparent from week 1 onwards. Patient and physician final opinions (percentage of patients improved) were also significantly in favour of ebastine (79 to 85%) vs loratadine (65 to 66%). The treatments were equally well tolerated and no serious adverse events occurred.
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Allergic rhinitis is a high-cost, high-prevalence disease. In the year 2000, over $6 billion was spent on prescription medications to treat this illness. Although it is not associated with severe morbidity and mortality, allergic rhinitis has a major effect on the quality of life of the more than 50 million Americans with this illness. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) and nonsedating antihistamines (NSAH) are the most common prescription medications for this disease. INCS are recognized as the most effective treatment regimen for chronic symptoms. NSAH are perceived as important in the treatment of patients with mild disease, or as add-on therapy to INCS. When the literature is reviewed, the INCS produce the greatest decrease in total nasal symptom scores, the largest effect size, when compared with NSAH. Both classes of medications produce similar effects on concurrent allergic conjunctivitis. Further recent studies indicate that the INCS are also superior when used on an as-needed basis, and that there is little clinical benefit from the addition of loratadine to intranasal fluticasone. INCS have lower average wholesale prices as a class than the NSAH. Since the INCS are the dominant medication in efficacy studies and cost less, cost-effectiveness studies always favor intranasal corticosteroids.
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Our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergy has moved to the molecular level, while study of epidemiology and genetics has revealed risks of developing allergies based on environmental and genetic profiles, and pharmacoeconomic data have enabled accurate measurement of the immense burden of allergic disease. These advances in allergy research have affected its management, particularly the search for new antiallergy therapies. New therapies should intervene in the systemic allergy inflammatory cascade and provide clinical efficacy that extends to multiple allergic disease states. In addition, these new therapies should present no additional safety issues, offer improvements over existing therapies, and have an impact on disease-impaired quality of life. In vitro studies show that desloratadine, a new, once-daily, nonsedating, selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist, blocks the systemic allergy cascade at multiple points. Desloratadine 5 mg once daily relieves the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria and of both seasonal (SAR) and perennial allergic rhinitis. In patients with concomitant asthma and SAR, asthma symptoms are relieved and beta2-agonist medication use is decreased by desloratadine. Unlike many other second-generation histamine H1-receptor antagonists, desloratadine provides the added benefit of efficacy against nasal obstruction in SAR. Desloratadine improves quality of life by decreasing the impact of allergic symptoms on sleep and on daily activities.
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Ebastine is a long-acting, second-generation selective histamine H(1) receptor antagonist. The pharmacodynamics of a new 10mg fast-dissolving tablet (FDT) oral lyophilisate tablet formulation of ebastine were compared with those of desloratadine and placebo following histamine skin intradermal test challenge. The acceptability of the FDT was also assessed.
Rupatadine and loratadine showed similar inhibitory effect on histamine and TNF-alpha release, whereas SR-27417A only exhibited inhibitory effect against TNF-alpha.
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Objective: To investigate the effect of methyleugenol on expression of MUC5AC in nasal mucosa of rats with allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods: Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups:normal control group, AR group, loratadine group, low-dose methyleugenol group, middle-dose methyleugenol group and high-dose methyleugenol group with 12 rats in each group. AR was induced by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin in latter 5 groups. 10 mg loratadine q.d was given to rats in loratadine group by gavage; and 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg methyleugenol were given by gavege q.d to rats in low-, middle-and high-dose methyleugenol groups, respectively. Nasal mucosa samples were obtained from rats at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after drug intervention. The expression of MUC5AC protein and mRNA in nasal mucosa was detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescence quota PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. Results: Compared with AR, the percentage of cells staining positively for MUC5AC protein and the relative quantity of MUC5AC mRNA in middle-and high-dose methyleugenol groups were significantly decreased after 2 and 4 weeks of drug intervention (P<0.05), but no such decrease was observed in low-dose methyleugenol group at all time points (P>0.05). The percentage of cells with positive expression of MUC5AC protein and mRNA in loratadine group were significantly decreased after 1 week of administration (P<0.05). The percentage of cells with positive MUC5AC protein in middle-dose methyleugenol group was higher than that in loratadine group (P<0.05) after 6 week of drug intervention, but the difference was not seen in high-dose group (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in relative quantities of MUC5AC mRNA after 4 weeks of administration between high-and middle-dose methyeugenol groups and loratadine group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Methyleugenol can attenuate AR through inhibiting the expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein in nasal mucosa of AR rats.
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These data underscore the importance of nighttime problems in patients with SAR and the need to treat nighttime symptoms. In these studies, montelukast significantly improved the NSS, a clinically relevant and valid measure in patients with SAR.
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Ketoconazole altered the pharmacokinetic profiles of both ebastine and loratadine although the effect was greater for the former drug. The coadministration of ebastine with ketoconazole resulted in a non significant mean increase of 5.25 ms (-0.65 to 11.15 ms) over ketoconazole with placebo (6.96 ms) while ketoconazole plus loratadine resulted in a nonsignificant mean increase of 3.16 ms (-2.73 to 8.68 ms) over ketoconazole plus placebo (7.52 ms). Changes in uncorrected QT intervals for both antihistamines were not statistically different from those observed with ketoconazole alone. The greater effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of ebastine was not accompanied by a correspondingly greater pharmacodynamic effect on cardiac repolarization.
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An improved gradient, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed and subsequently validated for the determination of Loratadine and its impurities/degradation products in pharmaceutical drug substance. Separation was achieved with Inertsil ODS-3V, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5μ column with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was performed at 220 nm. The described method is linear over a range of LOQ (0.044, 0.088, 0.084, and 0.072 μg mL(-1) for impurity-B, impurity-C, impurity-D, and impurity-E respectively) to 1.2 μg mL(-1) (0.6 μg mL(-1) of the specification limit) for all the impurities and degradation products. The recovery of impurities were found to be in the range of 85-115 %. The method is simple, selective, and accurate for the quantification of impurities and degradation products of Loratadine in its bulk drug samples.
Prescription-event monitoring studies.
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The primary variable to assess the effects of the antihistamine component--mean change from baseline in average AM/PM reflective total symptom score (TSS), excluding nasal congestion--was significantly greater (-6.54) for DL/PSE than for desloratadine (-5.09) or pseudoephedrine (-5.07) monotherapy (P < .001 for both). The primary variable to assess the effects of the decongestant component--mean change from baseline in average AM/PM reflective nasal congestion score--was also significantly greater (-0.93) for DL/PSE than for desloratadine (-0.66) or pseudoephedrine (-0.75) (P < .001 vs desloratadine; P = .006 vs pseudoephedrine).
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Offering second-tier prescription and limited OTC benefits provides greater effectiveness and is not significantly more expensive PMPM than discontinuation. Some of the drug savings from limiting coverage of prescription SGA may be attenuated by the cost of lost productivity and direct medical expenditures due to unintentional injuries associated with increased FGA use in addition to the increased cost of therapeutic substitutes.
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Despite the development of many new therapies for the treatment of asthma, the prevalence of this disease is still increasing in many areas of the world. Today no intervention is able to completely cure asthma but chronic therapies could decrease its severity. Moreover, asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and its pharmacoeconomic burden is huge. Epidemiologic studies have identified some of the major factors involved in the pathogenesis and evolution of asthma. Several prevention programs have been developed in different countries with various success rates. Most of those interventions were based on allergen avoidance. From studies aimed at controlling early asthma and from epidemiologic data, we have learned to identify high-risk groups, e.g, the atopic child with allergic asthma, with a family history of asthma or allergy-related disease and early sensitization to aeroallergens. Only a few prospective studies aimed at preventing the onset of asthma have been published. With ketotifen, Iikura et al. could prevent the onset of asthma after a 1-year period in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Another study has been published by Bustos et al. concerning children with a family history of allergy and high total IgE levels. Those studies involved about 100 patients. No follow-up data has been published for either of them. Recently, the first results from the ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) trial have been reported. This study involved 817 atopic children with atopic dermatitis and a family history of atopy: cetirizine halved the number of patients developing asthma in the subgroups (200 children) sensitized to house dust mite (51.5% versus 28.6%) or pollen (58.8% versus 27.8%). The optimal target for pharmaceutical intervention to prevent asthma would seem to be high risk patients: children with atopic dermatitis, a family history of asthma or atopic disease and early sensitization to aeroallergens. Primary prevention in whole populations (e.g. starting even before the onset of atopic dermatitis or allergen sensitization) does not at present appear to be a realistic approach.
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The present study investigates the possibility of using poloxamers as solubility and dissolution rate enhancing agents of the poorly water soluble drug substance desloratadine that can be used for the preparation of immediate release tablet formulation. Two commercially available poloxamer grades (poloxamer P 188 and poloxamer P 407) were selected, and solid dispersions (SDs) containing different weight ratio of poloxamers and desloratadine were prepared by a low temperature melting method. All SDs were subjected to basic physicochemical characterization by thermal and vibrational spectroscopy methods in order to evaluate the efficiency of poloxamers as solubility enhancers. Immediate release tablets were prepared by direct compression of powdered solid dispersions according to a General Factorial Design, in order to evaluate the statistical significance of two formulation (X(1) - type of poloxamer in SD and X(2) - poloxamer ratio in SD) and one process variable (X(3) - compression force) on the drug dissolution rate. It was found that desloratadine in SDs existed in the amorphous state, and that can be largely responsible for the enhanced intrinsic solubility, which was more pronounced in SDs containing poloxamer 188. Statistical analysis of the factorial design revealed that both investigated formulation variables exert a significant effect on the drug dissolution rate. Increased poloxamer ratio in SDs resulted in increased drug dissolution rate, with poloxamer 188 contributing to a faster dissolution rate than poloxamer 407, in accordance with the results of intrinsic dissolution tests. Moreover, there is a significant interaction between poloxamer ratio in SD and compression force. Higher poloxamer ratio in SDs and higher compression force results in a significant decrease of the drug dissolution rate, which can be attributed to the lower porosity of the tablets and more pronounced bonding between poloxamer particles.
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Thirty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, single-dose, crossover study. Flares and wheals induced by skin-prick testing with histamine 1.8 mg/mL were measured before treatment, every 20 minutes during the first hour after dosing, and thereafter hourly between 2 and 12 hours and between 23 and 25 hours postdose.
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In this parallel, double-blind, active controlled multicentre study, 299 patients with severe allergic rhinitis were randomly allocated to either betamethasone 1.0mg or betamethasone 1.0mg plus loratadine 10mg or betamethasone 0.5mg plus loratadine 10mg or loratadine 10mg alone for 5-7 days. Total symptom scores, nasal obstruction, and doctor and patient perception of improvement were measured as markers of disease severity.
All participants had a documented history of SAR, positive response to a skin prick (wheal 3-mm greater than negative control or equal to the positive control) for seasonal aeroallergens, and clinically identifiable symptoms at the time of randomization. Following confirmation during baseline of current SAR symptoms, participants were randomized to 1 of the 2 treatments and returned 2 weeks later for evaluation of symptom control, quality of life, attention, reaction time, and memory.