Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are exhibiting increasing rates of antibiotics resistance. A rapid increase of resistance was seen not only to penicillin but also other antimicrobial agents and therefore this paper describes the study of resistance and multiresistance of pneumococci to 7 antibiotics: penicillin (P), erythromycin (E), clindamycin (CC), tetracycline (T), co-trimoxazole (SXT), cefotaxime (CTX) and vancomycin (Va), using the disk-diffusion technique according to NCCLS procedure. We tested a total of 218 S. pneumoniae strains isolated from various materials: from sputum (54), noses (117), throats (28) and different swabs specimens (19). The overall percentage of resistant isolates to penicillin was 3.7%, to erythromycin--4.1%, to clindamycin--10.6%, to tetracycline--17.4%, to co-trimoxazole--15.6%, to cefotaxime--2.3%. In the sputum was most the monoresistant strains (66.7%). The multiresistance was highest in the penicillin resistant pneumococci. With the exception of vancomycin, the number of resistant strains to non-beta-lactam antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole) was higher in penicillin-resistant strains compared with penicillin susceptible isolates. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin.
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En la cohorte estudiada, predominó el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente. La resistencia a la clindamicina fue del 9%. Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirido en la comunidad predominaron en niños sanos. En los pacientes con Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente, fue más frecuente la bacteriemia persistente, el ingreso a unidades de cuidados intensivos y la cirugía.
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Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47) 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding next 4 to 7 days. The aim of this study was to create the preconditions for gunshot wounds closing without complications by the application of fibrin glue with antibiotics 24 h after primary surgical treatment.
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This article is the second of a two-part series reviewing antimicrobial agents that are used by the dermatologist. In part I we reviewed beta-lactam antibiotics and related compounds. In this section we again emphasize some newer agents (macrolides, fluoroquinolones) as well as some of the more commonly employed older agents (rifamycins, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin.
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Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP).
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Eighteen isolates of Bifidobacterium species, 99 of Eubacterium species, and 38 of anaerobic Lactobacillus species were recovered from 3,971 clinical specimens submitted to the anaerobic microbiology laboratory at the National Naval Medical Center over a period of 10 years (June 1978 to June 1988). Clinically significant infection was documented in association with 53 isolates recovered from 52 patients: 8 (44%) of the 18 Bifidobacterium isolates, 30 (30%) of the 99 Eubacterium isolates, and 15 (39%) of the 38 Lactobacillus isolates. The rest of the isolates were considered to be contaminants or to be of uncertain pathogenic significance. The significant infections that were documented mostly involved abdominal abscesses, obstetric and gynecologic sites, and wounds. Predisposing conditions (primarily prior surgery, immunodeficiency, malignancy, presence of a foreign body, or diabetes) were apparent in 7 (87.5%) of the 8 patients infected with Bifidobacterium species, in 23 (85%) of the 27 patients infected with Eubacterium species for whom clinical records were available, and in 8 (67%) of the 12 patients infected with Lactobacillus species for whom clinical records were available. Antimicrobial therapy was administered to 40 (85%) of the 47 patients for whom clinical records were available; such treatment was given in conjunction with surgical drainage or correction for 31 of these 47 patients (66%). No patient died of infection due to anaerobic, nonsporulating, gram-positive rods. These data illustrate that, although Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus species are infrequently associated with infections, they occasionally do cause serious illness.
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The in vitro dissolution time and pH were measured for 16 drug products in capsule or tablet form representative of oral medications known to cause esophageal injury. The test drugs included Vibramycin, Minocin, quinidine sulfate, Cleocin HCl, Indocin, Tolectin 200, ferrous sulfate, vitamin C, aspirin, Procardia, phenobarbital, Dilantin, Butazolidin, Noctec, K-Dur, and Quinaglute. Artificial saliva (10 mL) was placed in a small beaker along with a pH probe connected to a digital display pH meter and a strip-chart recorder. The salivary pH was measured at baseline and continuously during the dissolution of each test medication and the time taken for complete dissolution was recorded. This experiment was repeated six times for each drug. Baseline and final dissolution pH were compared statistically for differences using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Significance was established at the 0.05 level. Only three medications tested (vitamin C, aspirin, and Dilantin) produced a dissolution pH outside the range of physiological esophageal pH values. Although the majority of the test drugs significantly altered the baseline pH, the final dissolution pH did not fall outside the physiologic range. Nine of the 16 test drugs dissolved completely within 10 minutes, whereas the remaining 7 drugs took 30 minutes or longer (up to 24 hours) to dissolve. We conclude that the dissolution pH of potentially caustic medications does not appear to be a primary mechanism of drug-induced esophageal injury, whereas a rapid dissolution rate may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the lesion.
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An increased fibrin level enhances the activity of proangiogenic factors and may contribute to tumor formation. Formation of new blood vessels during angiogenesis leads to neoplasm development through interaction with factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukins. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perioperative antibiotic therapy in women with benign gynecological tumors with regard to basic fibroblast growth factor level, fibrinogen concentration and fibrin viscosity. The influence of clindamycin plus metronidazole therapy (group I) and cephazolin therapy (group II) on fibrinogen concentration, level of bFGF and fibrin viscosity was studied in women diagnosed with nonmalignant myomas and cysts. In patients with benign gynecologic tumors, higher bFGF levels (51.40 +/- 13.72 pg/ml), fibrinogen concentration (348.26 +/- 164.74 mg/dl) and fibrin viscosity (2.63 +/- 0.36 mPa) were observed, as compared with healthy women. There were strong indications that antiangiogenic activity occurred with both clindamycin plus metronidazole and cephazolin, although the response to these particular antibiotic therapies was different. The use of various drug therapies in groups I and II resulted in faster and delayed antiangiogenic effects, respectively. Further research is essential to provide more detailed information about the mechanisms of the induction of antiangiogenic activity by perioperative adjuvant antibiotic treatment.
Inactivation of clindamycin at the site of experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus was studied using rabbits with plastic capsules implanted in the peritoneal cavity. The mean percentage penetration of bioactive clindamycin (concentration in capsule divided by simultaneous concentration in serum times 100) into infected and noninfected capsules was 30.4 per cent and 13.0 per cent, respectively. In contrast, the mean penetration of radiolabeled clindamycin into infected capsules was 38.4 per cent. These findings indicate that the observed loss of bioactivity in infected capsules is due to intracapsular inactivation of clindamycin and not to an alteration in capsular permeability. Biologic inactivation of clindamycin was not evident after in vitro incubation of the drug with Staphylococcus aureus. These results suggest that the observed loss of bioactivity may be due to chemical modification by enzymes in the inflammatory exudate or to binding of the antibiotic to tissue components.
One hundred and ninety-four anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical sources were tested by agar dilution technique against seven antimicrobial agents. A comparison with international literature, generally used for selecting appropriate antimicrobial drug showed concordant patterns of susceptibility in the case of Cocci gram-positive, Clostridia, Fusobacterium and other species of Bacteroides excluded B. fragilis group. For these strains we did not found any particular problem in the choice of the therapeutic treatment. In the case of Bacteroides fragilis and B. fragilis group our data confirmed the widespread of resistance to clindamycin and cefoxitin. When the cefoxitin and clindamycin resistance is confirmed by in vitro tests, the piperacillin represent a valid alternative considering the safety profile compared to chloramphenicol (no bone marrow toxicity) and to carbenicillin (no sodium load).
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A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the role of parenteral antibiotics in elective operations upon the colon. All patients received a mechanical intestinal preparation, neomycin and erythromycin base orally and topical antibiotic administration intra-abdominally and to the wound at the time of operation. The patients were further randomized into three groups. One group received no parenteral antibiotics; the second group received parenteral cefamandole, and the third group received parenteral penicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. One hundred and thirteen patients completed the study. The sepsis rate postoperatively was similar for all three groups. When oral and topical antibiotics are used in elective operations upon the colon, parenteral antibiotics provide no additional benefit.
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The placebo group consisted of 64 women and the clindamycin group of 60 women. At week 31 the vaginal flora was similar to week 26 with placebo cream but changed from normal vaginal flora to intermediate or bacterial vaginosis with 2% clindamycin vaginal cream.
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Hypersensitivity adverse drug reactions are much more common among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) than in the general population. High rates of hypersensitivity reactions to clindamycin have been noted. To investigate the role of reactive metabolites in these reactions, the authors studied toxicity of clindamycin and sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and their metabolites in uninfected and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected MOLT3 cells. Infected and uninfected cells were incubated with clindamycin or sulphamethoxazole hydroxylamine in increasing concentrations; reactive metabolites were generated by coincubation of cells and drug with murine microsomes and a microsomal activating system. Over a concentration range of 0 to 400 microM SMX-HA, there was a significant concentration-dependent increase in cell death in HIV-infected compared to uninfected cells (28%+/-3% vs 8%+/-5% at 400 microM, P < .05). In contrast, coincubation of cells with clindamycin, microsomes, and a microsomal activating system, as well as combinations of primaquine or pyrimethamine, was not associated with an increase in cell death among infected compared to uninfected cells. No concentration-toxicity was demonstrated. These data support the role of reactive metabolites in adverse drug reactions to sulfonamides during HIV infection, whereas alternate mechanism(s) may be responsible for increased rates of adverse drug reactions to clindamycin among patients with AIDS.
The addition of a short course of clindamycin to flucloxacillin early on in limb cellulitis does not improve outcome. The addition of clindamycin doubles the likelihood of diarrhoea within the first few days.
Specimens from 1,267 dogs and 243 cats.
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To examine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antistaphylococcal drugs on Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL), α-haemolysin (Hla) and protein A (SpA) expression by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).
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The postoperative condition was without complication until the 7th day when arthritic signs set in, interpreted as part of the underlying disease, and cortisone was administered. After microbiological tests had been done and the patient's general state had deteriorated, antibiotic treatment with flucloxacillin and gentamycin as well as local irrigation and suction-drainage of all involved joints was started. Granulocyte and monocyte functions were analysed. Staphylococcal isolates from the patient induced reduced "respiratory burst" activity of the neutrophil granulocytes, apparently the cause of the septic dissemination. He was discharged on the 32. postoperative day, to be followed-up as an out-patient.
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We used interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis to examine associations between the intervention and changes in antimicrobial prescribing (quarterly rates of patients exposed to 4C antimicrobials, non-4C antimicrobials and any antimicrobial in 2005-12).
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Periprosthetic infection after breast reconstruction is not an uncommon complication, with incidence up to 24%. These infections are often treated empirically without knowing the causative bacteria or its sensitivities to various antibiotics. Even if cultures are obtained, results may not be available for several days.
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The emergence and sustained prevalence of Gram-positive organisms resistant to antimicrobials has been of interest for over a decade. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (formerly RP 59500 or Synercid) is a new injectable streptogramin combination that has been reported to have activity against Gram-positive organisms, even those with documented MLS(B) resistance. However, the two case reports presented here illustrate three well-documented Streptococcus spp. strains (S. mitis, S. pneumoniae) to be resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (MICs at 3, 8, and 12 microg/ml) following referral as routine isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. The S. pneumoniae pleural fluid isolate was cross-resistant to erythromycin. Both bacteremic S. mitis strains were resistant to macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin), lincosamides (clindamycin), and fluoroquinolones. Patient histories indicated no prior use of MLS class antimicrobials for the S. mitis case, but the patient having the S. pneumoniae isolate did receive prior treatment of erythromycin and clindamycin. All isolates had modestly increased penicillin MICs of 0.12 microg/ml. The mode of resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin was not evident (sat A-negative by PCR); and these cases illustrate the existence of streptogramin-resistant isolates before the introduction of this antimicrobial class into human clinical practice.
The percentage of isolates resistant to essential antibiotics among clinically significant bacterial pathogens was evaluated using data from 80089 qualifying admissions in 19 US hospitals (2007-2010). Percentage resistant was highest for the following pathogen/antibiotic pairs: Enterococcus faecium/vancomycin (87.1% [95% CI 86.0-88.1] of 4024 isolates), Staphylococcus aureus/oxacillin-methicillin (56.8% [56.1-57.4] of 23477 isolates), S. aureus/clindamycin (39.7% [39.1-40.4] of 21133 isolates), Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fluoroquinolones (32.6% [31.8-33.5] of 10982 isolates), and Escherichia coli/fluoroquinolones (31.3% [30.8-31.8] of 30715 isolates). The percentage resistant was 3.9% (3.2-4.9) for E. faecium/daptomycin (n = 2029 isolates). While these results are consistent with those from earlier studies in many respects, the percentage of E. faecium isolates resistant to daptomycin, while still small, is higher than has been reported to date.
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The efficacy of cefoxitin, either alone or in combination (+/-) with an aminoglycoside was compared with clindamycin plus (+), an aminoglycoside for the treatment of mixed aerobic-anaerobic surgical infections, in a prospective randomized single blinded study. One hundred patients were entered into the study; 37 patients were assessable for clinical outcome in both groups, while toxicity could be assessed in 46 patients in the cefoxitin group and 47 in the clindamycin group. The groups were evenly matched considering age, sex, and type of infection. Favorable clinical responses were achieved in 34 of 37 patients treated with cefoxitin +/- amikacin, and 29 of 37 patients treated with clindamycin + amikacin; there was no statistical difference between the groups (p greater than 0.1). The incidences of toxicity were the same. Our study has demonstrated that cefoxitin with or without an aminoglycoside is as effective as clindamycin plus an aminoglycoside in the therapy of serious mixed infections in surgical patients.
Ticarcillin/clavulanate plus gentamicin was clinically more effective than ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin combination therapy in the management of perforated appendicitis in our pediatric population.
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Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that has become increasingly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Genetic manipulation of MDR A. baumannii is useful especially for defining the contribution of each active efflux mechanism in multidrug resistance. Existing methods rely on the use of an antibiotic selection marker and are not suited for multiple gene deletions.
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Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in the older person, the dosification needs special care, since the pharmacokinetic parameters changes with aging and the side effects can be different in the older person. The creatinine clearance changes and we must modify the way we prescribe such antibiotics to the elderly, calculating. The variety of antibiotics now available led us to consider this paper in which we have presented the antimicrobial agents that can be considered in the treatment of the older person. We present several groups: the penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and betalactamase inhibitors or the great betalactam group. Other trimetroprin-sulfame-thoxazole, the newer macrolides (azithromycin and clarithromycin) as well as the aminoglycosides, vancomycin, clindamycin, metroridazole. The indications and contraindications are presented and reviewed.
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The MIC and MBC for Atopobium spp. for dequalinium chloride ranged between < 0.0625 and 2 μg/ml.
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A rapid bioassay for determination of concentrations of clindamycin in serum was developed with use of a strain of Lancefield group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) that is uniformly resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics, tetracycline, and polymyxin. An agar diffusion assay system was used that included the addition of patient's sera and three standard concentrations of clindamycin to 5-mm wells cut in the seeded agar. Pretreatment of serum with penicillinase allowed measurement of clindamycin in the presence of penicillins and cephalosporins by the same assay method. Assays of clindamycin in serum using this system could be read routinely in as little as 4 hr and allowed determination of levels of drug in serum of 2.5-40 microgram/ml. Linear regression analyses indicated that values obtained by this assay compared favorably with the results obtained with use of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 6633 or Sarcina lutea strain ATCC 9341 (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Md.). Repetitive measurement of sera with known concentrations of clindamycin indicated the average deviation to be +/- 10%. Seeded bioassay plates could be prepared in advance and stored at 2 C-8 C for up to one week before use. This assay may also be used for measurement of lincomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and certain beta-lactam antibiotics in the presence of aminoglycosides.
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The authors have noticed a significant decrease in incidence of GBS neonatal disease after implication of GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.