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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

cytoxan cancer drug

Anthracycline and taxane-based primary chemotherapy (PCT) is the standard treatment for high-risk breast cancer (HRBC). However, conventional anthracyclines are not commonly used in elderly patients or those prone to cardiotoxicity. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, (PLD) has comparable efficacy, but less cardiotoxicity than conventional anthracyclines. We conducted a phase II single-arm trial to assess the efficacy and safety of PCT based on PLD followed by paclitaxel (PTX) in a HRBC population usually undertreated. Fifty patients with stage II-IIIB breast cancer and at least one risk factor for developing cardiotoxicity initiated PLD 35 mg/m(2) plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks for four cycles, followed by 80 mg/m(2) weekly PTX for 12. Close cardiac monitoring was performed. Primary endpoint was the pathological complete response rate (pCR) in the breast. Treatment delivery and toxicities were assessed. Eighty-four per cent of patients were older than 65 years, 64 % suffered from hypertension, and 10 % had prior cardiac disease. In an intention-to-treat analysis, breast pCR was 32 % (95 % CI 19.5-46.7 %) and pCR in breast and axilla was 24 % (95 % CI 12.1-35.8 %). At diagnosis only, 26 % of patients were candidates for breast conservative surgery, which increased to 58.7 % after PCT. No significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction was seen. PLD followed by PTX was feasible in a fragile population of patients who were not candidates for conventional doxorubicin. Moreover, it achieved a pCR similar to standard therapy and could therefore be an option for elderly patients or cardiotoxicity-prone who present HRBC.

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CP treatment led to a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the frequency of micronuclei and decrease in the mitotic index (MI) in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells. Moreover, CP also significantly increased the lipid peroxidation as evidenced by an increase in the MDA content and decreased the antioxidant enzyme (GSH) in mice liver. Pretreatment with AQEBM and ETEBM reduced the frequency of micronuclei and increased the MI in the bone marrow and peripheral blood cells and also restored the MDA and GSH levels in mice liver.

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Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Invasive fungal infections (IFI) comprise a group of diseases caused by Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Aspergillus and Candida. Few studies of IFI have been published in patients with SLE and associated factors have not been completely defined.

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Among older patients with DLBCL who receive contemporary immunochemotherapy, 1 in 45 die during the first month of treatment, and 1 in 4 are hospitalized. Factors identifiable from administrative/electronic records can stratify this risk and could be incorporated into decision support tools. Prophylactic G-CSF is not administered to more than one-third of patients, indicating an opportunity for improved preventive interventions.

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Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a critical anti-apoptotic regulator that inhibits apoptosis-inducing ligand, (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis as well as chemotherapy-triggered apoptosis in malignant cells. The present study was designed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of c-FLIP expression in patients with nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with immunochemotherapy.

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Forty-five patients with breast cancer who experienced >Grade 1 nausea or any vomiting after the first cycle of chemotherapy using both epirubicin and cyclophosphamide were included. Low-dose olanzapine (2.5 mg/day) was administered orally from the first day of chemotherapy for 4 days, and the number of episodes of vomiting, scale of nausea, dietary intake and somnolence were compared with the symptoms after the first cycle.

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PRP did not suppress the histopathological changes in rats that had IC due to cyclophosphamide injection.

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Cyclophosphamide treatment down-regulated expression of several genes mapped to immune/autoimmune activation and graft rejection including CD3, CD28, CTLA4, MHC II, PRF1, GZMB and IL-2R, and up-regulated immune-related receptor genes, e.g. IL1R2, IL18R1, and FLT3. Moreover, a high and significant expression of ANGPTL1 and c-JUN genes was observed independent of cyclophosphamide treatment.

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Chemotherapy-induced hair loss (alopecia) (CIA) is one of the most feared side effects of chemotherapy among cancer patients. There is currently no pharmacological approach to minimize CIA, although one strategy that has been proposed involves protecting normal cells from chemotherapy by transiently inducing cell cycle arrest. Proof-of-concept for this approach, known as cyclotherapy, has been demonstrated in cell culture settings.

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We studied the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of the investigational drug isavuconazole against mucormycosis due to Rhizopus delemar. Isavuconazole was effective, with MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values ranging between 0.125 and 1.00 μg/ml. A high dose of isavuconazole prolonged the survival time and lowered the tissue fungal burden of cyclophosphamide/cortisone acetate-treated mice infected with R. delemar and was as effective as a high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support the further development of this azole against mucormycosis.

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CALGB 49907 showed the superiority of standard therapy, which included either cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin (AC) or cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil over single-agent capecitabine in the treatment of patients age ≥ 65 with early-stage breast cancer. The treatment allowed dosing adjustments of methotrexate and capecitabine for pretreatment renal function. The purpose of the current analysis was to assess the relationship between pretreatment renal function and five end points: toxicity, dose modification, therapy completion, relapse-free survival, and overall survival.

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A biosimilar G-CSF (Zarzio(®)) demonstrated similar efficacy and safety as the reference originator G-CSF (Neupogen(®)) in hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in patients with haematological malignancies.

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Ample evidence suggests that cancer is triggered by mutagenic damage and diets or supplements capable of reducing such incidences can be related to the prevention of neoplasy development or to an improvement in life quality of patients who undergo chemotherapy. This research aimed to evaluate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activity of β-glucan. We set up 8 experimental groups: control (Group 1), cyclophosphamide (Group 2), Groups 3-5 to assess the effect of β-glucan administration, and Groups 6-8 to evaluate the association between cyclophosphamide and β-glucan. The intraperitonial concentrations of β-glucan used were 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg. Micronucleus and comet assays showed that within the first week of treatment β-glucan presented a damage reduction rate between 100-62.04% and 94.34-59.52% for mutagenic and genotoxic damages, respectively. This activity decreased as the treatment was extended. During the sixth week of treatment antimutagenicity rates were reduced to 59.51-39.83% and antigenotoxicity was not effective. This leads to the conclusion that the efficacy of β-glucan in preventing DNA damage is limited when treatment is extended, and that its use as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant need to be better clarified.

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The risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is mainly due to the type of chemotherapy regimen and the presence of specific risk factors in patients. The recent trend of using a dose-dense treatment schedule has enhanced the risk of FN. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the feasibility of a reduction of duration of therapy with colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dose-dense regimen.

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This was an observational multicenter study of all consecutive adult patients diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis at the French National Reference Centre, admitted to an ICU between 2008 and 2014. The primary outcome was a good neurologic outcome at 6 months after ICU admission, defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2.

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Poor prognostic factors for osteosarcoma in pediatric patients were identified under homogeneous surgical and chemotherapy schemes. The four-drug regimens consisting of MACI contributed to the remarkably increased good response rates and consequent improvement in the survival rates.

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The transplantation program with RVD induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance produced high-quality responses and showed favorable tolerability in patients with newly diagnosed MM. Overall, 68% of patients achieved MRD negativity; none of these patients relapsed. This program is being evaluated in the ongoing IFM/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 2009 phase III study.

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High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) is an effective salvage treatment of germ-cell tumors (GCTs) patients. In the first salvage setting, 30%-70% of patients may achieve durable remissions. Even when HDCT is administered as subsequent salvage treatment, up to 20% of patients may still be definitively cured. However, patients with refractory/relapsed disease still have a very poor long-term prognosis, requiring earlier intervention of HDCT.

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On the basis of our results, we conclude that the JAK-STAT pathway is implicated in the progression of renal inflammation in NZB/WF1 mice and that targeting JAK3 with CP-690,550 is effective in slowing down the course of experimental LN. Thus, CP-690,550 could become a new therapeutic tool in LN and other autoimmune diseases.

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Aprepitant altered the exposure of cyclophosphamide and DCE but not the active 4-OH metabolite, making it unlikely that aprepitant would change the clinical efficacy of cyclophosphamide. African Americans were also found to have altered PK compared with Caucasian patients.

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Older age, previous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and BK virus in the urine are risk factors for hemorrhagic cystitis and are associated with a higher severity score. Higher severity scores are associated with increased rates of genitourinary complications and renal impairment.

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Chemotherapy-related side effects are frequent but usually mild in dogs receiving vincristine or cyclophosphamide. Prophylactic administration of maropitant does not reduce the frequency of adverse events and maropitant should be administered only as required for individual cases.

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cancer drug cytoxan 2017-03-15

To report 2 cases of refractory idiopathic scleritis treated with buy cytoxan rituximab.

cytoxan 25mg tablets 2015-05-08

Thirty seven patients with SLE were enrolled in this study, and divided into conventional treatment group (control group, n = 20) and UC-MSCS adjuvant treatment group (treatment group, n= 17). All the patients in both two groups were treated with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide (CTX). In the UC-MSCs group, each patient additionally received the transplantation of 3 x 10(7) UC-MSCs infusion intravenously. The clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters of each patient were observed before the treatments buy cytoxan and 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, months,9 months and 12 months after the treatments.

cytoxan pill dosage 2015-03-28

Ältere Patientinnen mit Brustkrebs sind in klinischen Studien unterrepräsentiert, was zu einem Kenntnismangel in Bezug auf die Nebenwirkungen und die Effektivität von Brustkrebstherapien führt. Vor buy cytoxan allem bei dosis-dichten (dd) oder dosis-intensivierten Chemotherapieregimen wird diese Patientinnengruppe vernachlässigt.

cytoxan drug insert 2017-04-13

Sixty-one patients were included; 50 patients (82%) were female. Thirty-two patients (52.5%) showed ND, and 29 did not. Besides a more frequent use of cyclophosphamide (46.9% vs 20.7%; P = 0.03) in the ND group, clinical features were similar. A greater organ damage was found in patients with ND (median Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology index = 0.5, minimum = 0, maximum = 6) than in patients without ND (0, 0, 3, respectively; P = 0.04); specifically, only the skin domain was associated buy cytoxan with ND (P = 0.04). Onycholysis (40.6%) and longitudinal ridging (25%) were the most frequent nail changes. Nailfold capillaroscopy changes were more frequent in ND patients (40.6%) than in control subjects (13.8%) (P = 0.02). The most frequent nailfold capillaroscopy findings in the ND group were enlarged capillaries (40.6%) and microhemorrhages (12.5%). There was no association between ND and the autoantibody profile, plasma endothelin 1, or serum anti-endothelial cell antibodies.

cytoxan storage 2015-10-12

Proteasome inhibitors are a relatively new class of chemotherapeutic agents. Bortezomib is the first agent of this class and is currently being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, recent reports have linked exposure to bortezomib with the development of thrombotic microangiopathy. A new agent buy cytoxan in this class, carfilzomib, has been recently introduced as alternative therapy for relapsing and refractory multiple myeloma. We report a case of renal thrombotic microangiopathy associated with the use of carfilzomib in a patient with refractory multiple myeloma.

cytoxan 150 mg 2016-05-14

The curative treatment approach for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is controversial even in the rituximab (R) era. The aim of this study was to examine the FcγRIIIA gene polymorphism distribution of DLBCL patients buy cytoxan who had been treated with R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of FcγRIIIA gene polymorphism on the overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS).

cytoxan medication 2016-10-10

Oncotype DX® has been validated as quantifying the likelihood of distant recurrence at 10 years and overall chemotherapy benefit in patients with estrogen-receptor-positive and HER-2-negative early breast cancer. In 2012, this genomic signature was routinely available for patients in Franche-Comté, France. Patients eligible for Oncotype DX(®) testing had a ER-positive, HER-2-négative early breast cancer with a nodal involvement limited to buy cytoxan 0 or 1 positive-node without extracapsular spread; an adjuvant chemotherapy was indicated based on usual prognostic factors. The aim was to assess the economic impact of Oncotype DX(®) testing in a French region. A cost-minimisation analysis from the French Public Healthcare System perspective was performed. The availability of Oncotype DX(®) in Franche-Comté, France, and its use in clinical routine allowed a decrease of 73 % of adjuvant chemotherapy without increase of the cost of the patients' management and with a potential reduction of the cost for the French Public Healthcare System. This strategy was successful and may allow the reimbursement of this test in France for patients with early breast cancer.

cytoxan drug category 2015-02-21

Seventeen GTN patients with hepatic metastases were treated at our institution between buy cytoxan 1962 and 2010. Demographic data, disease characteristics, and survival were all analyzed retrospectively. Fisher's exact test was used to determine significance.

cytoxan iv cost 2015-02-21

Ovarian reserve was estimated by serial measurements of serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), quantified by the AMH Gen II ELISA assay. Ovarian AMH and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) were detected by immunoblotting. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by quantitative PCR. Ovarian GnRH receptor (GnRHR), AMH and CD34 were visualized by IHC, and apoptosis was evaluated using TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick buy cytoxan -end labeling (TUNEL).

cytoxan in pills 2015-11-17

A 12-year-old buy cytoxan girl presented to the emergency room because of sudden onset of photopsias in her right temporal visual field. One year previously, she had developed an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, resolving with steroids. Visual acuity was 10/10-P2 in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed a thin right inferior nasal artery. Fluorescein angiography revealed an occlusion of this artery and occlusive peripheral arterial vasculitis. An IV steroid bolus was administered urgently. Brain MRI showed high signal intensity abnormalities in the corpus callosum. The clinical triad was rapidly completed by a bilateral hearing loss. Intravenous immunoglobulins were initiated. The occurrence of contralateral occlusive retinal arteritis two months later led to treatment with cyclophosphamide. After 6 infusions, visual acuity was stable, but the visual field remained, and regression of the vasculitis remained incomplete.

cytoxan 600 mg 2016-06-25

Cyclophosphamide ( buy cytoxan CPA) chemotherapy leads to ovarian failure and infertility. Tocotrienol (T3) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The role of T3 in ovarian protection throughout chemotherapy remains unclear.

cytoxan high dose 2017-09-25

Ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the active ingredients isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Previous investigation demonstrated that Rg3 was stereospecific in promotion of the immune response. The present study was designed to evaluate Rg3 and its epimers, 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, for their effects on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) in mice. Forty-eight mice were randomly distributed into 6 groups and intraperitoneally administered saline solution, Cy, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3+Cy or 20(S)-Rg3+Cy. After that, the spleen, thymus and serum were collected to measure the indices of the organs and oxidative parameters. The results showed that Rg3 significantly inhibited Cy-induced oxidative stress in mice by increasing the indices of the spleen and thymus and total antioxidant capacity, elevating the activities of catalase, superoxidase dismutase and lysozyme as well as decreasing the activity of xanthine oxidase and the levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. Rg3 was stereospecific in antioxidant activities as buy cytoxan R form exhibited significantly higher antioxidant effects than S form. Therefore, R form should be used when Rg3 is considered to be used as an antioxidant agent.

cytoxan drug action 2015-08-01

In advanced unresectable and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, GC buy cytoxan regimen is recognized as a standard first-line chemotherapy, with a higher effectiveness and tolerable side effects. Taxane and molecular targeted drugs may further improve the therapeutic effect of the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinomas of the bladder in the future.

cytoxan pills 2017-09-01

The role of doxorubicin in treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has been controversial for 30 years. Despite its known activity in RMS, because of its risk of cardiotoxicity, its use is not justified in low-risk patients who have an excellent chance of cure with vincristine, actinomycin with or without cyclophosphamide, and primary tumor treatment. For patients with intermediate and high risks, the risk/benefit ratio must be carefully considered. In addition, the peak incidence of RMS is in toddlers, with whom the risk of cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is higher. A number of trials both in North America and Europe, which are reviewed in this article, have investigated the role of doxorubicin in RMS, with no conclusive outcomes. In addition, differences in risk-group assignment on two sides of the Atlantic further complicate comparisons and analyses. The current European EpSSG 2005 study for high-risk RMS ( buy cytoxan by the European definition) may come closest to giving an answer to the role of doxorubicin in RMS.

cytoxan oral medication 2015-12-27

Secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia (sMDS/sAML) are the most serious secondary events occurring after immunosuppressive therapy in patients with aplastic anemia. Here we evaluate the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 17 children and young adults with sMDS/sAML after childhood aplastic anemia. The median interval between the diagnosis of aplastic anemia and the development of sMDS/sAML was 2.9 Serevent Inhaler Dose years (range, 1.2 to 13.0 years). At a median age of 13.1 years (range, 4.4 to 26.7 years), patients underwent HSCT with bone marrow (n = 6) or peripheral blood stem cell (n = 11) grafts from HLA-matched sibling donors (n = 2), mismatched family donors (n = 2), or unrelated donors (n = 13). Monosomy 7 was detected in 13 patients. The preparative regimen consisted of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan in 11 patients and other agents in 6 patients. All patients achieved neutrophil engraftment. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 47%, and that of chronic GVHD was 70%. Relapse occurred in 1 patient. The major cause of death was transplant-related complication (n = 9). Overall survival and event-free survival at 5 years after HSCT were both 41%. In summary, this study indicates that HSCT is a curative therapy for some patients with sMDS/sAML after aplastic anemia. Future efforts should focus on reducing transplantation-related mortality.

cytoxan drug info 2017-05-20

Posttreatment AMH levels were significantly higher among patients receiving CYC + GnRH-a compared to Evista Generic Canada CYC alone, suggesting that GnRH-a coadministration mitigates CYC-induced ovarian injury.

cytoxan 75 mg 2016-06-24

Immunodepletion with alemtuzumab is an effective strategy for preventing graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), but it may be associated with graft failure. We tested the effectiveness of a purine analog-based reduced-intensity conditioning combination in patients undergoing allogeneic SCT for bone marrow aplasia. Patients with severe marrow aplasia who had a tissue-compatible sibling donor were conditioned with fludarabine 30 mg/m(2) for 5 days and cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg. Stem cells from HLA-identical sibling donors were mobilized with filgrastim, and the harvested blood concentrates were incubated ex vivo with alemtuzumab. After graft infusion, patients received therapeutic doses of cyclosporine up to day 90. The primary objective of this study was to examine the proportion of patients who achieved engraftment and overall survival. Secondary objectives were the rates of graft-versus-host disease, posttransplantation infections, and graft failure. The study group comprised 30 patients who received a total of 31 cytokine-mobilized blood stem cell Aggrenox Cost transplantations. The median CD34(+) cell dose infused was 4.99 × 10(6)/kg. All patients engrafted at a median of 12 days post-SCT. Two patients exhibited delayed graft failure, at 3 months and 7 months post-SCT, and required retransplantation or donor lymphocyte infusion to reestablish full-donor chimerism. At a median of 1,560 days post-SCT, all patients survived and were transfusion-free. We confirm that the combination of purine analog and cyclophosphamide is adequate for engraftment of grafts immunodepleted with alemtuzumab. This strategy is associated with excellent outcomes.

cytoxan lupus dose 2017-07-31

Our small cohort showed a high number of haematological treatment responses (VGPR in 75% of patients) as well as organ treatment Eldepryl Dosage response in patients with systemic AL-amyloidosis who were treated with bortezomib-containing treatment regimens.

buy cytoxan online 2015-08-11

Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly curable group of pregnancy-related tumours; however, approximately 25% of GTN tumours will be resistant to, or will relapse after, initial chemotherapy. These resistant and relapsed lesions will require salvage chemotherapy with or without surgery. Various salvage regimens are used worldwide. It is Combivir Medication Info unclear which regimens are the most effective and the least toxic.

cytoxan 500 mg 2016-06-13

Sixty Wistar rats were used. Leucopenia was induced in half of them by a single intravenous administration of 30 mg/kg Bystolic 20 Mg cyclophosphamide, while the remaining rats received the same volume of saline. All rats were infected 96 h later by tracheal instillation of 8 log(10) colony-forming units of E. cloacae. Twelve rats (6 immunocompetent and 6 leucopenic) were sacrificed 6 h later to assess the initial bacterial burden to the lungs. Then, the remaining 48 rats received a combination of 60 mg/kg cefepime twice a day and 25 mg/kg amikacin once a day given intraperitoneally or the same volume of saline. Six rats per group (leucopenic or not, treated or not) were sacrificed 12 and 30 h after therapy started.

cytoxan generic price 2016-06-15

We report on the efficacy of eculizumab in a pediatric patient who failed to respond to cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids, and plasma exchange. Complement biomarker profiling was remarkable for low serum C3, low properdin, and elevated soluble C5b-9. Consistent with these findings, the alternative pathway functional assay was abnormally low, indicative of alternative pathway activity, although neither C3-nephritic factors nor Factor H autoantibodies were detected. Eculizumab therapy was associated with significant improvement in proteinuria and renal function allowing discontinuation of hemodialysis (HD). Repeat C3 and soluble C5b-9 levels normalized, showing that terminal complement pathway activity was successfully blocked while the patient was receiving eculizumab therapy. Repeat testing for alternative pathway activation allowed for a successful decrease in eculizumab dosing.