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Anthracycline and taxane-based primary chemotherapy (PCT) is the standard treatment for high-risk breast cancer (HRBC). However, conventional anthracyclines are not commonly used in elderly patients or those prone to cardiotoxicity. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, (PLD) has comparable efficacy, but less cardiotoxicity than conventional anthracyclines. We conducted a phase II single-arm trial to assess the efficacy and safety of PCT based on PLD followed by paclitaxel (PTX) in a HRBC population usually undertreated. Fifty patients with stage II-IIIB breast cancer and at least one risk factor for developing cardiotoxicity initiated PLD 35 mg/m(2) plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks for four cycles, followed by 80 mg/m(2) weekly PTX for 12. Close cardiac monitoring was performed. Primary endpoint was the pathological complete response rate (pCR) in the breast. Treatment delivery and toxicities were assessed. Eighty-four per cent of patients were older than 65 years, 64 % suffered from hypertension, and 10 % had prior cardiac disease. In an intention-to-treat analysis, breast pCR was 32 % (95 % CI 19.5-46.7 %) and pCR in breast and axilla was 24 % (95 % CI 12.1-35.8 %). At diagnosis only, 26 % of patients were candidates for breast conservative surgery, which increased to 58.7 % after PCT. No significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction was seen. PLD followed by PTX was feasible in a fragile population of patients who were not candidates for conventional doxorubicin. Moreover, it achieved a pCR similar to standard therapy and could therefore be an option for elderly patients or cardiotoxicity-prone who present HRBC.
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CP treatment led to a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the frequency of micronuclei and decrease in the mitotic index (MI) in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells. Moreover, CP also significantly increased the lipid peroxidation as evidenced by an increase in the MDA content and decreased the antioxidant enzyme (GSH) in mice liver. Pretreatment with AQEBM and ETEBM reduced the frequency of micronuclei and increased the MI in the bone marrow and peripheral blood cells and also restored the MDA and GSH levels in mice liver.
Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Invasive fungal infections (IFI) comprise a group of diseases caused by Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Aspergillus and Candida. Few studies of IFI have been published in patients with SLE and associated factors have not been completely defined.
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Among older patients with DLBCL who receive contemporary immunochemotherapy, 1 in 45 die during the first month of treatment, and 1 in 4 are hospitalized. Factors identifiable from administrative/electronic records can stratify this risk and could be incorporated into decision support tools. Prophylactic G-CSF is not administered to more than one-third of patients, indicating an opportunity for improved preventive interventions.
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Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a critical anti-apoptotic regulator that inhibits apoptosis-inducing ligand, (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis as well as chemotherapy-triggered apoptosis in malignant cells. The present study was designed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of c-FLIP expression in patients with nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with immunochemotherapy.
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Forty-five patients with breast cancer who experienced >Grade 1 nausea or any vomiting after the first cycle of chemotherapy using both epirubicin and cyclophosphamide were included. Low-dose olanzapine (2.5 mg/day) was administered orally from the first day of chemotherapy for 4 days, and the number of episodes of vomiting, scale of nausea, dietary intake and somnolence were compared with the symptoms after the first cycle.
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PRP did not suppress the histopathological changes in rats that had IC due to cyclophosphamide injection.
Cyclophosphamide treatment down-regulated expression of several genes mapped to immune/autoimmune activation and graft rejection including CD3, CD28, CTLA4, MHC II, PRF1, GZMB and IL-2R, and up-regulated immune-related receptor genes, e.g. IL1R2, IL18R1, and FLT3. Moreover, a high and significant expression of ANGPTL1 and c-JUN genes was observed independent of cyclophosphamide treatment.
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Chemotherapy-induced hair loss (alopecia) (CIA) is one of the most feared side effects of chemotherapy among cancer patients. There is currently no pharmacological approach to minimize CIA, although one strategy that has been proposed involves protecting normal cells from chemotherapy by transiently inducing cell cycle arrest. Proof-of-concept for this approach, known as cyclotherapy, has been demonstrated in cell culture settings.
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We studied the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of the investigational drug isavuconazole against mucormycosis due to Rhizopus delemar. Isavuconazole was effective, with MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values ranging between 0.125 and 1.00 μg/ml. A high dose of isavuconazole prolonged the survival time and lowered the tissue fungal burden of cyclophosphamide/cortisone acetate-treated mice infected with R. delemar and was as effective as a high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support the further development of this azole against mucormycosis.
CALGB 49907 showed the superiority of standard therapy, which included either cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin (AC) or cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil over single-agent capecitabine in the treatment of patients age ≥ 65 with early-stage breast cancer. The treatment allowed dosing adjustments of methotrexate and capecitabine for pretreatment renal function. The purpose of the current analysis was to assess the relationship between pretreatment renal function and five end points: toxicity, dose modification, therapy completion, relapse-free survival, and overall survival.
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A biosimilar G-CSF (Zarzio(®)) demonstrated similar efficacy and safety as the reference originator G-CSF (Neupogen(®)) in hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in patients with haematological malignancies.
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Ample evidence suggests that cancer is triggered by mutagenic damage and diets or supplements capable of reducing such incidences can be related to the prevention of neoplasy development or to an improvement in life quality of patients who undergo chemotherapy. This research aimed to evaluate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activity of β-glucan. We set up 8 experimental groups: control (Group 1), cyclophosphamide (Group 2), Groups 3-5 to assess the effect of β-glucan administration, and Groups 6-8 to evaluate the association between cyclophosphamide and β-glucan. The intraperitonial concentrations of β-glucan used were 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg. Micronucleus and comet assays showed that within the first week of treatment β-glucan presented a damage reduction rate between 100-62.04% and 94.34-59.52% for mutagenic and genotoxic damages, respectively. This activity decreased as the treatment was extended. During the sixth week of treatment antimutagenicity rates were reduced to 59.51-39.83% and antigenotoxicity was not effective. This leads to the conclusion that the efficacy of β-glucan in preventing DNA damage is limited when treatment is extended, and that its use as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant need to be better clarified.
The risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is mainly due to the type of chemotherapy regimen and the presence of specific risk factors in patients. The recent trend of using a dose-dense treatment schedule has enhanced the risk of FN. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the feasibility of a reduction of duration of therapy with colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dose-dense regimen.
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This was an observational multicenter study of all consecutive adult patients diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis at the French National Reference Centre, admitted to an ICU between 2008 and 2014. The primary outcome was a good neurologic outcome at 6 months after ICU admission, defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2.
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Poor prognostic factors for osteosarcoma in pediatric patients were identified under homogeneous surgical and chemotherapy schemes. The four-drug regimens consisting of MACI contributed to the remarkably increased good response rates and consequent improvement in the survival rates.
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The transplantation program with RVD induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance produced high-quality responses and showed favorable tolerability in patients with newly diagnosed MM. Overall, 68% of patients achieved MRD negativity; none of these patients relapsed. This program is being evaluated in the ongoing IFM/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 2009 phase III study.
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High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) is an effective salvage treatment of germ-cell tumors (GCTs) patients. In the first salvage setting, 30%-70% of patients may achieve durable remissions. Even when HDCT is administered as subsequent salvage treatment, up to 20% of patients may still be definitively cured. However, patients with refractory/relapsed disease still have a very poor long-term prognosis, requiring earlier intervention of HDCT.
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On the basis of our results, we conclude that the JAK-STAT pathway is implicated in the progression of renal inflammation in NZB/WF1 mice and that targeting JAK3 with CP-690,550 is effective in slowing down the course of experimental LN. Thus, CP-690,550 could become a new therapeutic tool in LN and other autoimmune diseases.
Aprepitant altered the exposure of cyclophosphamide and DCE but not the active 4-OH metabolite, making it unlikely that aprepitant would change the clinical efficacy of cyclophosphamide. African Americans were also found to have altered PK compared with Caucasian patients.
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Older age, previous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and BK virus in the urine are risk factors for hemorrhagic cystitis and are associated with a higher severity score. Higher severity scores are associated with increased rates of genitourinary complications and renal impairment.
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Chemotherapy-related side effects are frequent but usually mild in dogs receiving vincristine or cyclophosphamide. Prophylactic administration of maropitant does not reduce the frequency of adverse events and maropitant should be administered only as required for individual cases.