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This study investigated the effects of tolterodine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a low-dose combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol 30 microg/levonorgestrel 150 microg).
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Analysis of the primary efficacy outcome did not reveal a statistically significant effect of treatment. However, secondary analyses demonstrated that tolterodine was well tolerated among 5 to 10-year-old children with diurnal incontinence. Exploratory analyses also showed that children weighing 35 kg or less with detrusor overactivity characterized by incontinence and/or frequent voiding benefited most from tolterodine treatment, suggesting that a weight adjusted dosing regimen may be required for optimal response among older and heavier children.
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Eligible patients, aged 18-75 years and with symptoms of OAB, were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled study. After a 2-week screening period, patients were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive either propiverine ER 30 mg or tolterodine ER 4 mg daily during the 8-week treatment period. Efficacy was assessed using a 3-day voiding diary and patient's self-reported assessment of treatment effect. Safety assessment included recording of adverse events, laboratory test results, measurement of post-void residual urine and electrocardiograms.
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In addition to antimuscarinic therapy, treatment satisfaction and OAB symptoms may be improved in many patients by using a focused educational pamphlet with verbal reinforcement that increases awareness of OAB causes, treatments, and strategies for improving bladder control, including behavioral interventions and keeping bladder diaries.
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Costs after 1 year were estimated to be an average of $32 less per patient for oxybutynin XL compared with tolterodine IR, and 3.1 additional patients in every 100 who received oxybutynin XL were expected to attain complete continence compared with those who received tolterodine. During the course of 1 year, patients receiving oxybutynin XL were expected to have a mean 16.5 additional incontinence-free days compared with those receiving tolterodine IR. The results were sensitive to relative drug prices. In the other sensitivity analyses, however, oxybutyrin XL maintained its advantage over a wide range of inputs.
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Children with a history of diurnal urinary incontinence were arbitrarily assigned to extended release oxybutynin, immediate release tolterodine or long acting tolterodine. The dose was titrated until effective (onset of complete diurnal urinary continence), maximal recommended dosage was achieved or bothersome anticholinergic side effects developed. An independent observer recorded the dose used, anticholinergic side effects and efficacy of therapy (incidence of urinary frequency, urgency, posturing and urinary incontinence).
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Results indicated that iontophoresis in combination with chemical enhancers is an effective method for transdermal administration of TT in the treatment of overactive bladder.
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Mechanisms of long-lasting DO in rats with cerebral infarction require signal transfer, which begins with the opening of glutamate receptors at the dorsal pontine tegmentum. DO induced by cerebral infarction has been proven to be accompanied by an increase in c-fos and zif268 expression in the dorsal pontine tegmentum and periaqueductal gray and mediated by the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES). Therefore, the arachidonic acid cascade is dynamically activated in the brain after brain ischemia. Bladder sensory pathways are potential targets for drugs used to treat various bladder dysfunctions because of their role in storage symptoms (i.e., urgency, frequency) and in triggering reflex bladder activity. Antimuscarinic drugs and alpha(1)-blockers are the main treatments for overactive bladder, a condition caused by neurologic lesions, aging, bladder outlet obstruction, and other pathologies. These drugs affect sensory bladder storage symptoms, suggesting an action on bladder and urethral afferent pathways. Using animal models of DO, we demonstrated that these drugs improved bladder storage function via suppression of C-fiber afferent nerves from the lower urinary tract.
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Several aspects of the reported cases support the validity of a proposed drug interaction when tolterodine is initiated in a patient stabilized on warfarin therapy. The temporal association of the course of tolterodine with an elevated INR, the return to the previous warfarin dose-INR response relationship after tolterodine discontinuation, and the absence of other causes for the elevated INR were factors found in both patients. Possible mechanisms to explain the suggested drug interaction are explored.
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Patients on transdermal oxybutynin or long-acting tolterodine for their OAB symptoms showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement, results that were documented in both 3-day and 7-day bladder diaries. However, compared with 7-day symptom records, 3-day diaries were associated with significantly better compliance with record-keeping (P < 0.001).
To investigate the tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in older subjects with overactive bladder (OAB).
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To evaluate the effects of individual and condition characteristics on satisfaction with extended release tolterodine or oxybutynin in overactive bladder (OAB).
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Baseline micturition volume and frequency characteristics of nine male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley age-matched adult rats (body weight 399 +/- 15 and 249 +/- 3 g, respectively) were evaluated over 24-h. Initial hydration conditions were standardized with an oral dose (5 mL) of water. Rats were subsequently placed in a metabolic cage and had free access to water. Micturition volume/frequency characteristics were derived from the measurements of voided volume (measured using a digital balance below the metabolic cage and connected to a computer). The total volume of water consumed over the 24 h was also measured. Two separate baseline studies were conducted, followed by the administration of a single oral dose of 1 mg/mL of tolterodine dissolved in 5 mL of water. The mean frequency of micturition and mean volume voided per micturition were computed in 3-h periods and plotted over the 24-h period. In addition, the mean values of the number of micturitions and voided volumes during the day/dark cycle were evaluated.
To investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of tolterodine and tolterodine metabolites after single-and multiple-dose administration in the absence and presence of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, in healthy volunteers with deficient CYP2D6 activity, i.e. poor metabolisers of debrisoquine.
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The FDC tablet of solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS provides important clinical benefits and is a cost-effective treatment strategy in the UK NHS compared with tolterodine plus tamsulosin for men with both storage and voiding LUTS/BPH.
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Between August 2010 and August 2014, 220 women with confirmed OAB, attended Urogynecology Outpatient Clinic and were prospectively enrolled in this study. 158 women were evaluated, with a comprehensive history, physical examination, urodynamic studies and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. 73 patients of group A (control group) received no treatment and 85 patients of group B received an anticholinergic regimen - tolterodine ER 4mg once daily. Data were evaluated again in accordance with FSFI after three months, using SPSS software.
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OXY-TDS and TOL-LA are effective and comparable treatments for patients with urge and mixed incontinence. OXY-TDS improves systemic safety with regard to anticholinergic side effects. Local skin irritation occurs in some OXY-TDS patients.
A total of 324 patients (244 female and 80 male) were included in the study. Both active treatments improved the variables included in the voiding diary and in the patient's self-reported assessment. The change from baseline in the number of voidings per 24 h was significantly greater in the propiverine ER 30 mg group compared with the tolterodine ER 4 mg group after 8 weeks of treatment (full analysis set [FAS] -4.6 ± 4.1 vs -3.8 ± 5.1; P = 0.005). Significant improvements were also observed for the change of urgency incontinence episodes after 2 weeks (P = 0.026) and 8 weeks (P = 0.028) of treatment when comparing propiverine ER 30 mg with tolterodine ER 4 mg. Both treatments were well tolerated, with a similar frequency of adverse drug reactions in both the propiverine ER 30 mg and tolterodine ER 4 mg groups (FAS 40.7 vs 39.5%; P = 0.8). More patients treated with tolterodine ER 4 mg discontinued the treatment because of adverse drug reactions compared with propiverine ER 30 mg (7.4 vs 3.1%).
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Thirty subjects were enrolled. Functional bladder capacity (volume at first leakage, first sensation of bladder fullness or 40 cm H(2)O pressure) increased by month 12 in the younger age groups but not in the oldest subjects. Volume to first detrusor contraction >10 cm H(2)O pressure and detrusor leak point pressure did not change in any age group. The number of incontinence episodes per 24h decreased in all subjects, as did the number of catheterizations per 24h. Mean volume per catheterization increased in all subjects. Seven treatment-related adverse events were reported.
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Overactive bladder is associated with symptoms of urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of local pathological factors. Muscarinic receptor antagonists (antimuscarinics) are the first-line pharmacotherapy. Tolterodine, a competitive, nonselective antimuscarinic specifically developed for the treatment of overactive bladder, demonstrated tissue selectivity for the bladder over the parotid gland in an animal model. As of March 5, 2003, the immediate-release (IR) formulation had been approved in 72 countries and the extended-release (ER) formulation had been approved in 28 countries, and tolterodine had been administered to 5 million patients. This review evaluates the benefit-risk profile of tolterodine in the treatment of adults with overactive bladder, summarising clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data. Tolterodine has been found to significantly reduce micturition frequency, urgency perception and the number of episodes of urge incontinence and increase the volume voided per micturition. Dry mouth, an antimuscarinic class effect, is the most commonly reported adverse effect but is mostly mild to moderate in severity. Serious adverse effects are reported infrequently. Based on summary and review of postmarketing surveillance and clinical trial safety data received by the market authorization holder and contained in the Periodic Safety Update Reports for tolterodine, several monitored serious events of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. ileus or haemorrhage), nervous system (e.g. syncope, convulsions and memory disorders) and cardiovascular system (e.g. ventricular arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, palpitations, bradycardia, transient ischaemic attacks and hypertension) were not considered related to tolterodine. QT or corrected QT (QTc) prolongation was not observed in any of the five cases of verified ventricular arrhythmia in patients administered tolterodine; there is insufficient evidence to indicate that tolterodine causes ventricular arrhythmia or extrasystoles or any specific type of cardiac rhythm abnormality. The safety profile of tolterodine is similar in patients aged > or =65 years and in younger adults. Clinically relevant drug interactions are limited to cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, and co-administration with such agents warrants a tolterodine dosage decrease. In addition, tolterodine IR 2mg twice daily is similar in efficacy to oxybutynin IR 5mg three times daily, and tolterodine ER 4 mg once daily is similar in efficacy to oxybutynin ER 10mg once daily. Dry mouth occurred less frequently with tolterodine than oxybutynin, and moderate to severe dry mouth occurred more than three times less frequently. Based on the low frequency of adverse events, the absence of unexpected adverse events and the very low frequency of serious adverse events, we conclude that tolterodine is a well tolerated treatment for overactive bladder in adults, in whom it should be considered as first-line therapy.
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Among the 1133 women who underwent urodynamic testings during the study period, 132 patients were eligible for final analysis. A significant difference in DO was observed in women with incontinence at orgasm (34 of 49; 69.4%) compared with women with incontinence during penetration (24 of 83; 28.9%) (p<0.0001). The 34 women with incontinence at orgasm associated with DO were given antimuscarinics treatment and were compared with 53 controls. Fourteen of 34 (41.2%) and 9 of 53 (17%) women did not respond to antimuscarinics in the cases and in the control group, respectively (p=0.023).
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No synergistic effect of local oestrogens and antimuscarinics in the treatment of OAB was found. Antimuscarinic treatment has lower cure rates in women with symptomatic DO complaining of incontinence at orgasm or in patients with DO following provocative manoeuvres. The association of local oestrogens does not influence the role of the two mentioned risk factors.