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This article describes the development of SPE and HPLC methods for the simultaneous determination of metformin and glipizide, gliclazide, glibenclamide or glimperide in plasma. Several extraction and HPLC methods have been described previously for the determination of each of these analytes in plasma separately. The simultaneous determination of these analytes is important for the routine monitoring of diabetic patients who take combination medications and for studying the pharmacokinetics of the combined dosage forms. In addition this developed method can serve as a standard method for the plasma determination of these analytes therefore saving time, effort and money. The recoveries of the developed methods were found to be between 76.3% and 101.9%. The limits of quantification were between 5 and 22.5 ng/ml. The intraday and interday precision (measured by coefficient of variation, CV%) was always less than 9%. The accuracy (measured by relative error %) was always less than 12%. Stability analysis showed that all analytes are stable for at least 3 months when stored at -70 degrees C.
Transient global forebrain ischemia induces in rat brain a large increase of expression of the immediate early genes c-fos and c-jun and of the mRNAs for the 70-kDa heat-shock protein and for the form of the amyloid beta-protein precursor including the Kunitz-type protease-inhibitor domain. At 24 hr after ischemia, this increased expression is particularly observed in regions that are vulnerable to the deleterious effects of ischemia, such as pyramidal cells of the CA1 field in the hippocampus. In an attempt to find conditions which prevent the deleterious effects of ischemia, representatives of three different classes of K+ channel openers, (-)-cromakalim, nicorandil, and pinacidil, were administered both before ischemia and during the reperfusion period. This treatment totally blocked the ischemia-induced expression of the different genes. In addition it markedly protected neuronal cells against degeneration. The mechanism of the neuroprotective effects involves the opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels since glipizide, a specific blocker of that type of channel, abolished the beneficial effects of K+ channel openers. The various classes of K+ channel openers seem to deserve attention as potential drugs for cerebral ischemia.
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In hepatocytes isolated from fed rats, both tolbutamide and glipizide caused a dose-dependent activation of glycogen phosphorylase, possibly by a Ca2+-mediated mechanism. Maximal effects (about twofold) were already obtained when drugs were used at 0.5 mmol/L, the calculated concentrations of tolbutamide and glipizide responsible for the half-maximal effects being 60 and 30 mumol/L, respectively. The activation of glycogen phosphorylase caused the mobilization of glycogen and increased the cellular concentration of hexose 6-phosphates (glucose 6-phosphate plus fructose 6-phosphate) and that of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Under the influence of sulfonylureas, glucose formation was slightly stimulated while the rate of L-lactate production was more markedly incremented, indicating that sulfonylureas canalize the metabolic flux coming from glycogen mainly to the glycolytic pathway. These results suggest that a glycogenolytic action of sulfonylureas could collaborate to raise hepatic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration in the fed animal.
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We identified a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older who took glyburide or glipizide for diabetes from a 5% national sample of Medicare Part D claims data in 2008 (n = 34,239). We tracked each participant's claims during 2008-2010 for a co-trimoxazole prescription and subsequent emergency room visits for hypoglycemia. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling were used to evaluate hypoglycemia-related emergency room visits after coadministration of co-trimoxazole with sulfonylureas and its utilization patterns in older adults with diabetes.
We have previously demonstrated that oral glipizide suppresses the absorption of xylose in diabetics treated with diet alone. We suggested that glipizide might influence postprandial glucose levels by interfering with absorptive mechanisms. In the present study we have extended our observations to insulin-dependent diabetics (IDDM). Nine non-obese diabetics without residual beta-cell function and with normal respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva ratio were studied on two occasions. Their ordinary insulin treatment was discontinued 24 hours before the study and glucose control was maintained by i.v. insulin infusion. The experiments began at 8 a.m. after an overnight fast. Insulin was given as a continuous i.v. infusion of 0.01 U/kg/h at 8-11 a.m. and 0.005 U/kg/h at 11 a.m. -2 p.m. At 8 a.m. the patients ingested 25 g of xylose and 15 g of glucose in 300 ml of water. Glipizide (5 mg) or placebo were given 30 min prior to the glucose-xylose load in random order, each patient serving as his own control. Blood samples were taken every 60 min for analysis of glucose, xylose, C-peptide and glipizide. The rise in blood glucose in the control experiment was similar to that previously seen in non-insulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM) given the same xylose-glucose load. Glipizide did not exert any effects on either blood C-peptide, glucose or xylose levels. We conclude that oral glipizide administered in a therapeutic dose does not reduce xylose absorption in IDDM, in contrast to its previously demonstrated effect in NIDDM.
CsA pharmacokinetics is not significantly altered by glipizide coadministration.
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The role of insulin in the therapy of NIDDM is still under discussion. To clarify the problem we performed a randomized double-blind placebo controlled crossover study of insulin treatment for 4 weeks in diabetic patients (n = 18, age 52-74 years) who were unsatisfactorily controlled by oral antidiabetic agents. The patients continued to use these agents during the study. Special attention was given to informing the patients about the trial and, in particular, about self-monitoring the blood glucose by the use of a reflectance meter. Insulin treatment produced the following significant changes: decreases in blood glucose (at 7.00, 10.00, 16.00), mean daily blood glucose, HbA1, urinary glucose and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increased postglucose immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels. Significant changes were also observed during the placebo periods: decreases in HbA1 urinary glucose and LDL cholesterol (but not in blood glucose). Therapy with insulin increased the body weight, whereas the placebo insulin had the opposite effect. The finding emphasizes the importance of using not only a run-in period but also a placebo design when the metabolic effects of antidiabetes therapy are to be evaluated. The study indicates that insulin therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes can be initiated at home.
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This post hoc analysis assesses the efficacy and tolerability of the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone maleate (RSG) when added to an SU treatment regimen in patients with type 2 DM with mild to moderate renal impairment that is inadequately controlled by SU monotherapy.
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Twenty patients (11 men, 9 women, mean age 55.2 +/- 9.9 yrs) with type II diabetes mellitus who were currently receiving oral hypoglycemic agents or were hyperglycemic with diet.
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Secondary failure to treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents is determined by the disease itself rather than by patient-related factors. Treatment of secondary drug failure should therefore aim at ameliorating both hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance.
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The two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Mean fasting blood glucose decreased from 13.7 +/- 3.4 to 8.3 +/- 2.7 mmol/L at 3 months and 7.3 + 2.0 mmol/L at 1 year. Glycosylated hemoglobin decreased from 9.0% +/- 1.9% to 6.2% +2- 1.16% at 3 months and 6.3% +/- 1.22% at 1 year.
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Sulfonylurea drugs including chlorpropamide, gliclazide, tolbutamide, glipizide, glibenclamide (glyburide) and glimepiride are the most widely used oral hypoglycaemic agents in people with type 2 diabetes. This review investigates the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulfonylurea drugs. CYP2C9 is the major enzyme involved in sulfonylurea drug metabolism. CYP2C9 variant allele carriers have significant lower apparent clearance of these medicines. CYP2C19 genotype is more influential for gliclazide pharmacokinetics when compared to CYP2C9. Sulfonylurea pharmacodynamics is affected by several genes. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1, ABCC8 gene) and K+ inward rectifier Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) have been correlated to significant variation in sulfonylurea response. Diabetics with the SUR1 exon 33 G allele are more sensitive to gliclazide and the rs5210 variant of the KCNJ11 gene was associated with improved clinical efficacy of gliclazide. Carriers of Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) variants are more likely to fail sulfonylurea therapy. On the other hand, patients with HNF-1alpha mutations had a significant greater response to gliclazide when compared to those with type 2 diabetes. The Arg972 polymorphism of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) may lead to secondary failure of sulfonylurea therapy. Calpain 10 gene (CAPN10) polymorphism has also been linked to sulfonylurea drug response. Despite the available evidence, larger population studies that investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulfonylurea drugs are needed to investigate the influence of key SNPs amidst all potential contributing factors to variability in response to these which inturn will provide information to optimise sulfonylurea use in people with diabetes.
The addition of sibutramine to oral hypoglycemic therapy resulted in significant weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters in this patient group. Sibutramine is an effective adjunct to oral hypoglycemic therapy in obese women with type 2 diabetes.
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Pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide or metformin blocked DIA in a dose-dependent manner, and combining either sulfonylurea with metformin produced even greater effects. The observed ED50s for the combinations were approximately fourfold lower than the calculated additive effects. These data indicate that sulfonylureas interact to produce antagonism of DIA. Combination therapy is a common second-line treatment for patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, a group that experiences pain from multiple sources. The results suggest that at least some anti-inflammatory agents may not be effective in this group.
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The recirculating single cotyledon human placenta model tested maternal-to-fetal transport in term placentas perfused immediately after delivery. Drug levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid scintillation spectrometry, and transport rates were calculated by comparing maternal and fetal concentrations.
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A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/positive ion electro-spray tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the quantification of fexofenadine with 100 microL human plasma employing glipizide as internal standard (IS). Protein precipitation was used in the sample preparation procedure. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C(18 )column (5 microm, 100 x 2.1 mm) with methanol : buffer (containing 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid; 70 : 30, v/v) as mobile phase. The total chromatographic runtime was approximately 3.0 min with retention time for fexofenadine and IS at approximately 1.9 and 2.1 min, respectively. Detection of fexofenadine and IS was achieved by LC-MS/MS in positive ion mode using 502.1 --> 466.2 and 446.0 --> 321.1 transitions, respectively. The method was proved to be accurate and precise at linearity range of 1-600 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of > or =0.9976. The validated method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in human volunteers following oral administration of 60 or 120 mg fexofenadine formulations, successfully.
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The purpose of this investigation was to study the feasibility of transdermal delivery of glibenclamide and glipizide. In vitro permeation of these drugs was studied through mouse skin using various penetration enhancers like Tween -20, polyethyleneglycol-400, ethanol and d-limonene by simultaneous application of drug and enhancer solution or by pretreatment of the skin with neat enhancer. The partition coefficient values indicated that both drugs partition well into the skin. Glipizide did not show any skin metabolism, while glibenclamide showed a minimal metabolism during in vitro skin metabolism studies. The flux values (microgram/cm2/h) of both drugs significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the presence of penetration enhancers. The glibenclamide flux values ranged from 1.39 +/- 0.13 without enhancer, to 19.01 +/- 2.14 in a combination of 50% ethanol and 5% d-limonene. Glipizide flux values ranged from 3.01 +/- 0.74 without enhancer, to 62.97 +/- 7.10 in a combination of 50% ethanol and 5% d-limonene. Skin retention and solubility of both drugs increased with all penetration enhancers compared to control. The target permeation rates for glibenclamide and glipizide were calculated to be 193.8 and 184.8 micrograms/h respectively. The present study showed that the target permeation rates for both drugs could be achieved with the aid of enhancers by increasing the area of application in an appreciable range.
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Activation of GPR40 is reported to enhance insulin secretion in the presence of glucose. We determined whether sulfonylureas could replace glucose for GPR40-mediated enhancement of insulin secretion and investigated underlying mechanisms using INS-1E cells. GW9508, a specific agonist of GPR40, significantly enhanced insulin secretion in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. In contrast, sulfonylureas increased insulin secretion in the absence of glucose. In the presence of sulfonylureas, activation of GPR40 significantly enhanced insulin secretion. The L-type calcium channel (LTCC) activator S-(-)-Bay K8644 also concentration-dependently increased insulin secretion in the absence of glucose. In the presence of 10 micromol/L S-(-)-Bay K8644, GW9508 significantly increased insulin secretion. On the other hand, the LTCC blocker nifedipine significantly inhibited insulin secretion mediated by either glucose, glipizide or glucose plus GW9508. Thus, sulfonylureas could replace glucose to support GPR40-mediated enhancement of insulin secretion, whereas blockage of LTCC reduced both glucose and sulfonylurea-mediated insulin secretion.
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Glipizide was detected in all treated cats. Mean +/- SD transdermal absorption was 20 +/- 14% of oral absorption. Mean maximum glipizide concentration was reached 5.0 +/- 3.5 hours after oral and 16.0 +/- 4.5 hours after transdermal administration. Elimination half-life was variable (16.8 +/- 12 hours orally and 15.5 +/- 15.3 hours transdermally). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased in all treated cats, compared with concentrations in control cats. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower 2 to 6 hours after oral administration, compared with after transdermal application; concentrations were similar between treatment groups and significantly lower than for control cats 10 to 24 hours after treatment.
Thirteen reports of ten studies with a total of 1,915 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with placebo or no treatment, DPP-4 inhibitors reduced HbA1c significantly (-0.52%, 95%CI -0.64 to -0.39) and had no increased risk of hypoglycemia (RR 1.10, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.32) or weight gain. In contrast to glipizide monotherapy, DPP-4 inhibitors showed no difference in HbA1c lowering effect (-0.08%, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.25) but had a lower incidence of hypoglycemia (RR 0.40, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.69). Furthermore, DPP-4 inhibitors were well-tolerated, without any additional mortality and adverse events. However, the quality of evidence was mostly as low, as assessed using the GRADE system for each outcome.
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Incubation of MIN6 and INS-1 832/3 insulinoma cell cultures with GKA significantly reduced cell death and impairment of intracellular NADH production caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Progression from prediabetes (normoglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia) to overt diabetes (hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia) was significantly delayed in male ZDF rats by in-feed treatment with Cpd-C, but not glipizide. Glucose tolerance, tested in the fifth week of treatment, was also significantly improved by Cpd-C, as was pancreatic insulin content and beta cell area. In a limited immunohistochemical analysis, Cpd-C modestly and significantly enhanced the rate of beta cell proliferation, but not rates of beta cell apoptosis relative to untreated ZDF rats.