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Imodium (Loperamide)
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Imodium

Generic Imodium is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of diarrhea, including Traveler's Diarrhea. Generic Imodium acts by slowing the activity of the intestines and affecting the movement of water and chemicals through the bowel.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Nexium, Motilium, Protonix, Prevacid, Prilosec, Maxolon, Aciphex, Reglan, Pepcid, Colospa

 

Also known as:  Loperamide.

Description

Generic Imodium is a perfect drug in struggle against diarrhea, including traveler's diarrhea.

Generic Imodium acts by slowing the activity of the intestines and affecting the movement of water and chemicals through the bowel.

Imodium is also known as Loperamide, Roko.

Generic name of Generic Imodium is Loperamide Hydrochloride.

Brand names of Generic Imodium are Imodium, Imodium A-D, Imotil, Kaopectate Caplet, Maalox Anti-Diarrheal.

Dosage

Generic Imodium is available in tablets and liquid forms.

Shake the liquid form of Generic Imodium before using.

Take Generic Imodium once or twice a day with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Generic Imodium tablets and liquid form orally.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Imodium suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Imodium and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Imodium overdosage: urinating less than usual, severe stomach cramps, bloating, lightheadedness, feeling drowsy, vomiting.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Imodium are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Imodium if you are allergic to Generic Imodium components.

Be careful with Generic Imodium if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Imodium can harm your baby.

Be careful when you are driving or operating machinery.

Keep Generic Imodium away from children and don't give it to other people for using.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Imodium suddenly.

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This review article focuses on neratinib in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer - early and metastatic stage - and HER2-mutant breast cancer, with particular emphasis on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

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The results of the present study lend some support to the anecdotal report for the traditional use of the flowers of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon in the control of dysentery.

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The antidiarrhoeal activity of Geranium incanum was investigated by studying the effect of leaf aqueous extract of the plant species on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. The leaf aqueous extract of Geranium incanum significantly reduced faecal output in castor oil -induced diarrhoea and also significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes. Geranium incanum significantly delayed the onset of diarrhoea induced by castor oil and significantly reduced the number of animals exhibiting diarrhoea. Loperamide, a standard antidiarrhoeal drug, produced similar effects to the leaf aqueous extract of Geranium incanum on castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Both Geranium incanum and loperamide significantly reduced the intestinal propulsion of charcoal meal in mice. The phytochemical analysis of the leaves revealed the presence of tannins, saponins particularly steroidal saponin, and flavonoids. The LD(50) of the plant species obtained was greater than 4000 mg/kg (p.o.).

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The study describes a model of chronic intestinal inflammation in mice. Inflammation was induced by the administration of one dose of croton oil (CO) (acute CO) or two doses (chronic CO) of intragastric CO, whereas controls received saline (SS); GI transit was measured with charcoal. Chronic CO induced intestinal inflammation substantiated by optical microscopy, weight loss (20%) and a 25% increase in GI transit. The ED50 values in SS animals were 1.67 +/- 0.13 mg/kg for morphine and 0.038 +/- 0.006 mg/kg for fentanyl; chronic CO significantly decreased the ED50 values to 0.16 +/- 0.03 mg/kg (morphine) and 0.006 +/- 0.0005 mg/kg (fentanyl). Thus the potency of morphine increased 10.4 times and that of fentanyl 6.3 times. The effects of enkephalin, but not those of U-50488H, were also significantly enhanced during chronic CO. The antitransit effects of p.o. loperamide increased 11.7 times during chronic CO. All effects were reversed by specific antagonists. The fraction of the active opioid receptor that mediates the antitransit effects of morphine was evaluated using beta-funaltrexamine. In chronic CO, the doses of beta-funaltrexamine needed to antagonize 1 mg/kg of morphine were significantly higher than in SS and acute CO, and the ED50/KA ratio was 20 times lower. These results suggest an increase in the active concentration of mu-opioid receptors during chronic inflammation.

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P-glycoprotein function is associated with a number of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases as well as with pharmacoresistance to for example antiepileptic drugs. The ability to measure P-gp function in vivo would allow for an increased understanding of the mechanisms of disease and treatment. This review assesses the various approaches to in vivo quantification of P-gp function using currently available P-gp tracers and PET in humans. First, the use of compartment models, and their interpretation in terms of P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier, is discussed. Then, the methods that have been used to quantify PET data of the P-gp tracers [11C]verapamil, [11C]N-desmetyl-loperamide (dLop), [11C]laniquidar, [11C]phenytoin, [11C]tariquidar and [11C]elacridar are reviewed. In summary, the extraction of P-gp substrate PET tracers, which is their plasma to tissue rate constant K corrected for variations in regional cerebral blood flow, is generally considered to be the preferred measure of P-gp function.

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Diarrhea, probably resulting from disruption of the autonomic nerve supply to the gut during clearance of tumor from the major vessels of the retroperitoneum, is common after resection of advanced abdominal neuroblastoma. Many children require long-term treatment to slow intestinal peristalsis, and a few have severe and unremitting diarrhea. More effective medical management of this complication is needed.

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Loperamide produces both QRS and QT prolongation at supra-therapeutic dosing. A blood loperamide concentration of 210 ng/mL is among the highest concentrations reported. Supra-therapeutic dosing of loperamide is promoted on multiple drug-use websites and online forums as a treatment for opioid withdrawal, as well as for euphoric effects. With the current epidemic of prescription opioid abuse, toxicity related to loperamide, an opioid agonist that is readily available without a prescription is occurring more frequently. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potentially life-threatening toxicity related to loperamide abuse in order to provide proper diagnosis, management and patient education.

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To determine the response rate, survival, and toxicity of the new anticancer agent, irinotecan (CPT-11), in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

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If this hypothesis is correct, the incidence of chloroquine and mefloquine psychosis can be greatly reduced by avoiding interacting medications and by conducting genetic screening prior to initiating chloroquine and mefloquine. Validation of the hypothesis would also provide a paradigm to follow for avoiding neuropsychiatric side effects if antidepressants and neuroleptics are used to overcome chloroquine resistance, if new antimalarial drugs chemically related to chloroquine and mefloquine are developed and if chloroquine and mefloquine are used for non-malarial applications such as HIV and cancer.

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The effectiveness and improvement in quality of life (QOL) of a long-acting formulation of octreotide (LAR) administration for cancer patients, with chronic loperamide-refractory diarrhea not attributed to medical therapy, were investigated.

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Loperamide is an opiate agonist, also exerting activity by inhibiting the action of calmodulin. The mode of action in the clinic is probably mainly due to its action on opiate receptors, since the effects of loperamide can be reversed by naloxone. The exclusive action in the gut is explained by the specific distribution of loperamide with extensive distribution to the gut and minimal influence on opiate receptors in CNS. Loperamide is well absorbed after oral administration and extensively metabolized. The pharmacokinetic properties are linear over a wide dose range.

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The evaluation and management of diarrhea can be a challenging problem for primary care physicians. The differential diagnosis is large and the multiplicity of diagnostic tests makes the evaluation complex. A strategy of taking a thorough history and performing simple objective tests can make the diagnostic process easier. This strategy will often lead to a specific diagnosis that can be treated specifically. When a diagnosis is not proven, however, diarrhea can be managed symptomatically with antidiarrheals such as loperamide. Such an approach improves the quality of life of patients with diarrhea and may mitigate associated symptoms, such as fecal incontinence.

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The aim of this study was to establish a pathophysiologic model of irritable bowel syndrome, and then to evaluate the pharmaceutical efficacy of ramosetron, a potent serotonin 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist, and other anti-irritable bowel syndrome agents in this model. Rats stressed by a conditioned stress procedure exhibited marked prolongation of freezing time, an index of fear level, and an increase in the frequency of defecation (P<0.01). A corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist, alpha-helical CRF, inhibited both defecation and freezing behavior, while the antidiarrheal loperamide inhibited defecation only. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists ramosetron, cilansetron and alosetron also inhibited defecation (ED(50) values: 0.012, 0.094, 0.078 mg/kg p.o., respectively) without affecting freezing behavior. Ramosetron showed longer-lasting effect on defecation than cilansetron. Stress also resulted in increases in both proximal and distal colonic transit rates. Ramosetron and other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists at doses inhibiting stress-induced defecation also ameliorated both stress-stimulated colonic transit rates. These results suggest that ramosetron, as well as agents used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, has beneficial effects against emotional stress-induced colonic dysfunction. Furthermore, this emotional stress model may be useful in evaluation of drugs to treat irritable bowel syndrome presenting with diarrhea.

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The diarrheal severity was reduced significantly (P<0.05) by methanol and petroleum ether extracts by 31.95% and 28.33%, respectively, whereas 54.75% inhibition was found for standard drug loperamide at 5 mg/kg. The two extracts also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the intestinal volume in case of castor oil induced enteropooling.

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Mutations in the ABCB1 gene have been associated with decreased expression and net function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We investigated the modulation of the central nervous effects of loperamide resulting from ABCB1 genetic variants.

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Thermal injury yielded a significant thermal hyperalgesia. Loperamide, but not the vehicle, posttreatment on the injured paw resulted in a dose-dependent antihyperalgesic effect, which was reversible with naloxone (1 mg/kg given intraperitoneally). Treatment with loperamide on the normal paw produced short-lasting hypoalgesia, but the effect was not reversible with naloxone. Pretreatment at 1 and 2 but not 4 h with loperamide was effective. A rightward shift of the dose-response curve was observed in rats made tolerant to systemic morphine with subcutaneous morphine pellets. No rats with drug treatment displayed any evident behavior changes (eg., loss of corneal or pinna reflexes or change in ambulation). Drug activity in the tissue revealed an elimination half life of 2.3 h and negligible concentration in the blood.

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In vivo studies were performed in the well-established rodent model of acute inflammatory pain. We are currently studying this approach in chronic pain models known to have clinical activation of the peripheral immune-derived opioid response.

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Although diarrhea is a common complaint, its evaluation and treatment can be challenging. Appropriately defining and classifying diarrhea provide the framework for approaching diagnostic and therapeutic options. Diarrhea can be defined based on frequency, consistency, and/or weight, and classified as acute or chronic with specific clinical characteristics and stool appearance. Colonoscopy is the most common diagnostic tool used in the evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhea. Other evaluation strategies include timed stool collections, evaluation of inflammatory markers, and hydrogen breath tests. A focused workup of chronic diarrhea may yield a specific diagnosis, including diarrhea-predominant IBS (dIBS), functional diarrhea, diabetic diarrhea, bile acid-induced diarrhea, and microscopic colitis. Ideally, therapeutic decisions are specifically tailored to target the underlying pathophysiology, including, for example, gluten restriction for celiac disease, rotating antibiotics for small bowel bacterial overgrowth, budesonide therapy for collagenous colitis, and loperamide for treatment of functional diarrhea. It is also important to assess the role of diet and medications in chronic diarrhea. However, if no specific causes are identified following workup, empiric therapy with simple opiate antidiarrheals such as loperamide may be effective. If this proves unsuccessful, the use of more potent agents, including codeine and opium, may be considered.

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The effects of the antidiarrheal drug, loperamide, on HCO3 and Na transport across guinea-pig gallbladder epithelium were investigated using Ussing-chamber methods. Under basal conditions, mucosal loperamide (10(-4) mol/l) moderately lowered both the absorptive (JHCO3ms) and the secretory HCO3 flux (JHCO3sm) (pH-stat method), most likely by changing paracellular HCO3 flow. Exposure to serosal prostaglandin E1 (10(-6) mol/l) abolished Na absorption and turned HCO3 secretion electrogenic. The associated short-circuit current (Isc) was inhibited by loperamide in a concentration-dependent manner; mucosal addition (threshold at 3 x 10(-6) mol/l) of the drug was more effective. Inhibition of Isc was related to a decrease in JHCO3sm, but exceeded the drop in JHCO3net. The effects on JHCO3sm and Isc were mimicked by [Met5]enkephalin. Naloxone (10(-6) mol/l) was unable to influence the effects of loperamide and [Met5]enkephalin on Isc. There were no pro-absorptive effects of loperamide on unidirectional Na fluxes. We conclude that antisecretory properties of loperamide are solely due to inhibition of electrogenic HCO3 secretion, an effect unrelated to opiate receptor binding.

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CASAD is a promising strategy for treatment of MTC-related diarrhea. In this small pilot study, improvements in frequency and quality of diarrhea as well as QOL were noted. Further studies in this population are warranted.

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To evaluate the influence of the opioid system on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

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The transit time measured as the peak radioactivity occurring in the rectum was 6 to 7 h after gavaging of 99mTc-Ch-DTPA. After 1 h, the bolus had passed into the small intestine and entered the cecum and the colon. At 6 and 8 h, the cecum, the ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the rectum showed significant labeling. Several pellets were stored in the rectum for defecation. After 22 h, little activity remained in the stomach and none was detected in the transverse colon or other GI locations. In contrast, 6 h after administration of loperamide, only the cecum and part of the transverse colon were labeled. After 22 h, both structures retained significant amount of label. This delay has been verified by non-radiolabeled dye trypan blue GI measurements (n = 4).

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The prognosis for patients with nonpulmonary metastatic Ewing sarcoma remains poor with survival in the order of 15-20%. The need to introduce effective new agents into clinical practice is clear. Based on a preclinical rationale of responses in xenografts and backed by a phase I study in children, the Euro-E.W.I.N.G consortium planned a phase II window study of irinotecan in newly diagnosed high risk metastatic patients with Ewing sarcoma.

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Loperamide, a non-prescription anti-diarrheal agent, is a peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist that is excluded from the blood-brain barrier by p-glycoprotein at therapeutic doses. Overdoses of loperamide penetrate the central nervous system (CNS), leading to abuse. We report cardiac conduction abnormalities and dysrhythmias after ingestion of a recreational supra-therapeutic dose of loperamide confirmed with an elevated blood loperamide concentration.

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A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 or greater diarrhea and/or the use of loperamide was observed in 24 of 41 patients in the placebo group and 30 of 44 in the probiotic group (p = 0.568). No differences were found in the median time to the presentation of the primary endpoint. Probiotic intervention had a significant effect on stool consistency (p = 0.04). The median time for patients to present with Bristol scale stools of Type 6 or greater was 14 days for patients receiving the probiotic drink vs. 10 days for those receiving placebo.

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Diarrhea resolved in 19 patients in the octreotide arm (one within the first day; four within the second day; and 14 within the third day) versus only three (all after the third day of therapy) in the loperamide arm (P < .005). Median frequency of stools in the 3 days of therapy was four, three, and zero in the octreotide arm and five, five, and five in the loperamide arm. No side effects were observed in both arms. Ten patients on the loperamide arm and only one on the octreotide arm required hospitalization for parenteral replenishment of fluids and electrolytes.

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Patients (n=1443) had metastatic (CLEOPATRA [n=804]) or early-stage breast cancer (NeoSphere [n=416] and TRYPHAENA [n=223]). The incidence and severity of diarrhea were analyzed by treatment received. The incidence of febrile neutropenia concurrent with diarrhea and the effect of pre-existing gastrointestinal comorbidities were also evaluated. Subgroup analyses were performed using CLEOPATRA data.

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imodium ad dosage 2017-03-05

Surgical approach with full tickness excision and immediate skin-grafting and regular follow-up demonstrated effective to buy imodium treat GCA and to minimize disease recurrence.

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Loperamide is an over-the-counter antidiarrheal with opioid-receptor agonist properties. Recommended over-the-counter doses (range = 2-8 mg daily) do not produce opioid effects in the central nervous system because of poor oral bioavailability and P-glycoprotein efflux* of the medication (1); recent reports suggest that large doses (50-300 mg) of loperamide produce euphoria, central nervous system depression, and cardiotoxicity (2-4). Abuse of loperamide for its buy imodium euphoric effect or for self-treatment of opioid withdrawal is increasing (5). Cases of loperamide abuse reported to the Upstate New York Poison Center and New York City Poison Control Center were analyzed for demographic, exposure, clinical, and laboratory characteristics. Cases of intentional loperamide abuse reported to the National Poison Database System (NPDS) also were analyzed for demographic, dose, formulation, and outcome information.

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Loperamide was compared double-blind with diphenoxylate and a placebo in 59 women with diarrhoea due to prostaglandin administration for mid-trimester abortion. Treatment was started with the intake of two capsules two hours before the first intramuscular injection of 15(S-)15 methyl prostaglandin F2alpha and was then adapted individually, i. buy imodium e. one capsule after each unformed stool, with a maximum of ten per 24 hours. Both antidiarrhoeals were significantly more effective than the placebo in preventing diarrhoea, and loperamide was found to be more active than diphenoxylate. The course of abortion, BP and vital signs, or prostaglandin side-effects other than diarrhoea were not affected by either antidiarrhoeal, nor could any adverse experience be specifically attributed to them.

dosage of imodium 2016-04-05

MOR and Kir6.2 are expressed in the rat prostate and loperamide induces buy imodium rat prostate relaxation through activation of peripheral MOR. K(ATP) channels are involved in mediating the effect of loperamide on the relaxation of prostate.

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Loperamide is widely used in adults for acute diarrhea. However, its use in children has been discouraged by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics buy imodium owing to concerns over safety and efficacy in young children.

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Dietary substances, including herbal products and citrus juices, can perpetrate interactions with conventional medications. Regulatory guidances for dietary substance-drug interaction assessment are lacking. This deficiency is due in part to challenges unique to dietary substances, a lack of requisite human-derived data, and limited jurisdiction. An in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach to help address some of these hurdles was evaluated using the exemplar dietary substance grapefruit juice (GFJ), the candidate marker constituent 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), and the purported victim drug loperamide. First, the GFJ-loperamide interaction was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers. Loperamide (16 mg) was administered with 240 ml of water or GFJ; plasma was collected from 0 to 72 hours. Relative to water, GFJ increased the geometric mean loperamide area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) significantly (1.7-fold). Second, the mechanism-based inhibition kinetics for DHB were recovered using human intestinal microsomes and the index CYP3A4 reaction, loperamide N-desmethylation (KI [concentration needed to achieve one-half kinact], 5.0 ± 0.9 µM; kinact [maximum inactivation rate constant], 0.38 ± 0.02 minute(-1)). These parameters were incorporated into a mechanistic static model, which predicted a 1.6-fold increase in loperamide AUC. Third, the successful IVIVE prompted further application to 15 previously reported GFJ-drug interaction studies selected according to predefined criteria. Twelve buy imodium of the interactions were predicted to within the 25% predefined criterion. Results suggest that DHB could be used to predict the CYP3A4-mediated effect of GFJ. This time- and cost-effective IVIVE approach could be applied to other dietary substance-drug interactions to help prioritize new and existing drugs for more advanced (dynamic) modeling and simulation and clinical assessment.

imodium maximum dose 2016-10-03

This review discusses the pharmacotherapeutic options for IBS-D including currently used medications, the two newly FDA approved medications, buy imodium as well as emerging therapies with potential benefit in IBS-D. Particular emphasis is placed on rifaximin and eluxadoline and their possible use in IBS-D.

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To determine the frequency of the MDR1 gene mutation (polymorphism) associated with ivermectin sensitivity buy imodium in a sample population of Collies in Washington and Idaho.

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To evaluate the response to sodium blocking agents, changes in the nasal PD in 20 transgenic CF mice were compared with 14 control mice (MF1 buy imodium strain) before and after administration of nebulised amiloride and loperamide (both in a concentration of 1 mmol/l). The duration of action for both drugs was also determined after a single inhaled dose of 1 mmol/l for two minutes.

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Methylnaltrexone (MNTX) is approved for subcutaneous treatment (MNTX-SC) of opioid induced constipation. MNTX in oral immediate-release (MNTX-IR) and extended-release (MNTX-ER) dosage forms may antagonize the opioid induced delay in oro buy imodium -cecal transit time (OCT) as measured by using radiolabeled lactulose. Because lactulose acts laxative by its own and efficacy of MNTX on colon transit time (CTT) was unknown, the opioid antagonistic effects MNTX-IR and MNTX-ER (both 500 mg) relative to MNTX-SC (12 mg) were evaluated in 15 healthy subjects with loperamide (LOP, 3 × 4 mg, 12 hourly) induced experimental constipation using the sulfasalazine/sulfapyridine method and radio-opaque markers to measure OCT and whole gut transit time (WGT). MNTX-ER significantly antagonized the LOP effects in 12 of our 15 subjects who responded to LOP with prolongation of WGT by 20.6-74.1 h (OCT by 0.50-10.5 h, CTT by 18.3-73.6 h). MNTX-SC and MNTX-IR were without significant influence. Compared to MNTX-SC, bioavailability of MNTX-IR and MNTX-ER was 1.53-5.49% and 0.11-1.24%, respectively. MNTX-SC and MNTX-IR achieved active serum levels only for ∼ 3-5 h. MNTX-ER antagonized the opioid-induced delay of CTT most likely by local effects on µ-opioid receptors in the colon.

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Statewide buy imodium poison control system electronic database.

imodium 200 mg 2015-01-01

The observed duodenal concentration-time profile of paromomycin under fasting conditions, with a high average Cmax obtained after 15 min, clearly indicated a fast transfer of drug solutions from stomach to duodenum (estimated gastric half-life between 4 and 13 min). The three-compartmental in vitro model adequately reflected the in vivo fasted state gastrointestinal transfer of paromomycin. For both TIM-1 and Simcyp®, modifications in gastric emptying and dilutions were required to improve the simulation of the transfer of drug solutions. As expected, transfer from stomach to duodenum was delayed in the fed state, resulting in lower duodenal paromomycin concentrations and an estimated gastric half-life between 21 buy imodium and 40 min. Administration of domperidone or loperamide as transit-stimulating and transit-inhibiting agent, respectively, did not affect the fed state gastric half-life of emptying.

imodium 25 mg 2015-05-25

The effect of loperamide on mucus secretion and the net transport of fluid, sodium and potassium was investigated in the perfused rat colon in vivo. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 1 mg/kg per h intraarterially) and deoxycholic acid (2 mM intraluminally) were used as secretagogues. Mucus secretion was determined as the total amount of protein-bound hexose in the effluent. Under basal conditions, loperamide (6 mg/kg subcutaneously) slightly decreased mucus secretion and increased the absorption of fluid and sodium. PGE2 and deoxycholic acid stimulated mucus secretion about 4- and 9-fold, respectively. Loperamide abolished buy imodium the mucus secretory response to PGE2 and reduced the response to deoxycholic acid by 50%. It also reduced the fluid secretion following PGE2 but did not affect the diminished fluid absorption following deoxycholic acid. Potassium secretion was not significantly influenced by loperamide and therefore was independent of the secretion of mucus. The data suggest that loperamide is a potent inhibitor of colonic mucus secretion, a property that possibly contributes to the antidiarrheal effect of this opiate analogue.

imodium generic 2016-01-04

We compared the dependence liabilities of therapeutic doses of nufenoxole and loperamide. Ten subjects received 10 mg nufenoxole every 12 hr for 10 days, and 9 others received 4 mg loperamide every 12 hr for 10 days. On the eighth day of drug a sensitive single-blind intravenous naloxone challenge was used to assess dependence liability. After 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg naloxone, pupillary constriction (0.618 to 0.540 cm, p less than 0.005) was measured in subjects receiving nufenoxole, whereas slight dilation (0.596 to 0.622 cm, p less buy imodium than 0.05) was observed in those receiving loperamide. Trapezius electromyogram activity decreased by 30% for nufenoxole and 12% for loperamide. There were slight decreases in core and skin temperatures (0.06 degrees to 0.12 degrees) in both groups, partly attributable to experimental conditions. Changes in physiologic measurements after naloxone were similar in both groups and not of sufficient importance to suggest physical dependence liability for either loperamide or nufenoxole at the doses used.

imodium 82 mg 2017-04-02

Hydrophobic drugs, loperamide and paclitaxel, were loaded in poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles by polymerization of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in aqueous-organic media in Avodart Cheap the presence of a drug. The particles were stabilized by dextran 70,000 and poloxamer 188 or by 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-5000] sodium salt. It was shown that in the presence of dichloromethane, methanol or ethanol the encapsulation efficiency of loperamide in the nanoparticles reached 80%. Loading of paclitaxel was efficient only in the presence of the lipid. The organic solvents did not significantly influence the nanoparticle morphology or their physicochemical parameters. Thus produced poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles enabled delivery of loperamide across the blood-brain barrier, which was evidenced by the drug analgesic effect evaluated by the tail-flick test.

imodium usual dosage 2016-01-22

Loperamide is a peripherally acting Imodium Medication antidiarrheal opioid with some affinity for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). One of the main reasons for its lack of central nervous system (CNS) activity is a combination first-pass metabolism and P-gp-mediated efflux preventing brain penetration. It was assumed that P-gp would also have a similar effect at the intestinal tract, limiting loperamide systemic absorption. However, previous in vitro studies had not determined loperamide flux using pH gradients present in the intestinal tract. Hence, our aim was to determine the influence of pH gradient conditions on the gastrointestinal uptake of loperamide, including any changes to its P-gp-mediated efflux.

8 mg imodium 2015-06-13

Because, in recent years, patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses have been encountered increasingly, their endocrine function was investigated in basal conditions and after dynamic tests. Thirty-two patients (23 women and 9 men, aged 28-74 years) were studied. Lesion diameter, as documented by computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, ranged between 5 and 65 mm; the tumors were localized on the right in 22 patients, on the left in 5 and bilaterally in 5 cases. In basal conditions, urinary free cortisol (UFC) excretion, plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels were normal, except for 4 patients who showed high UFC and ACTH levels in the low-normal range. Ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, 1 microgram/kg iv) was given to 18 patients, inducing normal ACTH and cortisol responses in 12, blunted responses in 4 and no response in 2 cases. No reduction in ACTH and cortisol levels after Cymbalta Drug Card suppression tests was observed in 4 of 29 patients after dexamethasone (1 mg overnight) or in 6 of 29 after loperamide. The 4 patients who were unresponsive to both tests did not show any further inhibition after high-dose dexamethasone administration, had low plasma ACTH levels and showed impaired or absent responses to the CRH test: they were diagnosed as affected with preclinical Cushing's syndrome. An exogenous ACTH test performed in 30 patients caused a normal cortisol rise. Basal mean 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17-OHP) levels were not different from those in normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

imodium dosage instructions 2016-03-06

Surgery Voltaren Reviews is the only curative modality but occasionally it can have some long term complication such as short bowel syndrome. We presented a case reporting a 63-year-old man who had subtotal colectomy with liver metastasectomy according to the colon adenocarcinoma, following the couple of months of surgery; he had acute kidney injury without any end-organ damage while he had a regular diet and nutrition. Following the regular treatment of renal failure, colorectal cancer recurrence was excluded and then he was discharged from the hospital with a normal serum creatinine level. The patient was admitted to the nephrology clinic again for acute renal failure within 3 weeks of last admission to the hospital. He also denied the insufficient oral water intake and nutrition, but laboratory examination revealed acute renal failure. We suspected for short bowel syndrome (SBS). Following the hydration, loperamide hydrochloride 10 mg/day was started and the patient was followed up with normal serum creatinine and uric acid levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report, in which a patient with short bowel syndrome presented with prerenal acute renal failure even though he had sufficient oral intake and nutrition and can be treated with hydration and loperamide hydrochloride.

imodium overdose symptoms 2015-12-30

Our preliminary observation suggests value of octreotide in the Tegretol Medicine control of CPT-11 induced refractory diarrhea. Prospective studies are warranted.

imodium syrup 2016-05-02

With regards to mean NUS 0-24, the loperamide-simeticone caplet was non-inferior to loperamide-simeticone tablets (3.4 vs. 3.3; one-sided 97.5 % confidence interval ≤0.5), with both significantly lower than S. boulardii (4.3; p < 0.001). The loperamide-simeticone groups had a shorter median TLUS [14.9 and 14.0 vs. 28.5 h (loperamide-simeticone caplet and chewable tablet groups, respectively, vs. S. boulardii); p < 0.001], TCRD (26.0 and 26.0 vs. 45.8 h; p Zocor Dosage Timing < 0.001) and TCRAD (12.2 and 12.0 vs. 23.9 h; p < 0.005) than S. boulardii. Treatment effectiveness for overall illness, diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort relief was greater (p < 0.001) in the loperamide-simeticone groups than with S. boulardii. At 7-day follow-up most subjects reported passing stool at least once since the final study visit (loperamide-simeticone caplet 94.1 %, loperamide-simeticone chewable tablet 94.8 %, S. boulardii 97.0 %), did not experience continued or recurrent diarrhoea [loperamide-simeticone caplet 3.7 % (p < 0.03 vs. S. boulardii), loperamide-simeticone chewable tablet 3.7 %, S. boulardii 5.7 %] and felt completely well [loperamide-simeticone caplet 96.3 % (p < 0.02 vs. S. boulardii), loperamide-simeticone chewable tablet 96.3 % (p < 0.02 vs. S. boulardii), S. boulardii 88.6 %]. All treatments were well-tolerated with few adverse events.

imodium ad pills 2015-07-17

Loperamide is a peripherally acting mu opioid receptor agonist and an avid substrate for P-glycoprotein. This may give rise to drug-drug interactions and increased risk for central adverse effects. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the predictability of non-clinical data using loperamide as a probe P-glycoprotein substrate. We searched the literature for papers containing data on drug-drug interactions of loperamide-containing products in humans. We also reviewed the internal worldwide safety database Lanoxin Elixir Dose of Johnson & Johnson for spontaneous case reports suggestive of a central opioid effect after coadministration of loperamide with a P-glycoprotein inhibitor or substrate.

imodium capsules 2017-10-26

The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method to quantify the relative activities of carboxylesterases (CESs) in biological samples. Taking the advantage of loperamide, a specific Atarax Generic Name carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) inhibitor, and bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (BNPP), an irreversible CESs inhibitor, we propose for the first time a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method that enables detecting and distinguishing CES2 activity from other CESs in complex biological samples. The capillary electrophoresis method proved to be fast, simple, repeatable, and applicable to the measurement of the specific activity of CESs. The method was successfully applied to the evaluation of human cells overexpressing human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE-2) and to several mammalian sera, using extremely small amounts of samples in comparison with traditional spectrophotometric methods. The same rationale can be applied to establish methods for determining the activity of other isoenzymes, using the appropriate specific inhibitors.

imodium review 2015-03-18

The effect of loperamide and naloxone on mouth-to-caecum transit time was evaluated by the lactulose hydrogen breath Requip 5 Mg test in four men and four women. Each subject underwent tests during the administration of placebo, loperamide (12-16 mg po), naloxone (40 micrograms/kg/h by a three-hour intravenous infusion), and loperamide plus naloxone, carried out at intervals of one or two weeks. The transit time was significantly longer after loperamide, and this effect was antagonised by the concomitant administration of naloxone whereas naloxone administered alone had no effect on mean transit time. No clinically important side effects were reported.

imodium recommended dosage 2016-05-15

The potency order of opiate agonists at decreasing the rate of peristalsis in the rat isolated ileum was: difenoxin > loperamide > DADLE (D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin) > morphine > DSLET (D-Ser2,Leu5-Thr6-enkephalin). U-50488 (trans 3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) cyclohexyl) benzeneacetamide methane sulphonate) was inactive at 300 nM. Naloxone (400 nM) caused a significant 1.52-fold increase in the rate of peristaltic contractions and inhibited the effects of the active opiate agonists. The apparent pA2 values of naloxone were similar using difenoxin, loperamide and morphine as agonists, but the value was slightly, though significantly lower when DADLE was the agonist. It is suggested that the previously identified delta-opiate receptors of the rat small intestine have a functional role in suppressing the peristaltic reflex. The same response is subserved by mu-opiate receptors and either of these opiate-receptor subtypes could be activated by endogenous enkephalins.

imodium kitten dosage 2017-12-05

Both groups of patients passed similar numbers (mean +/- S.E.M.) of stools before recovery (3.5 +/- 0.5 for racecadotril vs. 2.9 +/- 0.4 for loperamide), and the duration of diarrhoea (mean +/- S.E.M.) was similar in both groups (14.9 +/- 2.0 h for racecadotril and 13.7 +/- 2.2 h for loperamide). Both treatments reduced the incidence of associated symptoms and signs during the study, and both were similarly well tolerated. However, more patients on loperamide reported rebound constipation during treatment (18.7% vs. 9.8% with racecadotril).

imodium syrup dosage 2015-07-23

Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles (NP) were prepared by desolvation. Insulin or an anti-insulin receptor monoclonal antibody (29B4) were covalently coupled to the HSA NP, using the NHS-PEG-MAL-5000 crosslinker. Loperamide-loaded HSA NP with covalently bound insulin or the 29B4 antibodies induced significant antinociceptive effects in the tail-flick test in ICR (CD-1) mice after intravenous injection, demonstrating that insulin or these antibodies covalently coupled to HSA NP are able to transport loperamide across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which it normally is unable to cross. Control loperamide-loaded HSA NP with immunoglobulin G antibodies yielded only marginal effects. The loperamide transport across the BBB using the NP with covalently attached insulin could be totally inhibited by the pretreatment with the antibody 29B4.