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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on 5-HT-induced constrictions of isolated human intrapulmonary arteries and explore the mechanisms.

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To determine whether a mixture for intravenous perfusion containing tramadol (5 mg/ml), ranitidine (1.5 mg/ml), ketorolac (1.5 mg/ml) and metoclopramide (0.5 mg/ml) in a 0.9% sodium chlorides solution is compatible and stable at room temperature during a 48-hour period.

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HH can be clearly differentiated by its clinical presentation as well as imaging and electrophysiological study results from other primary headaches such as migraine or cluster headache. The underlying pathophysiology is still enigmatic but a hypothalamic involvement seems to be likely.

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In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10(-5)M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium intact or endothelium denuded effect was determined. The agents used were N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), an irreversible inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, indomethacin (10 microM), a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, and glibenclamide (10 microM), an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker. The extract was found to exert a vasorelaxant effect and rosmarinic acid quantity, the characteristic compound of the plant, was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (18.75%), and was further confirmed by LC-MS analysis giving a prominent [M(+1)] molecular ion peak at m/z 365. Total phenol amount in the extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (0.284 mg/mg extract). Vasorelaxant effect of the extract was entirely dependent on the presence of endothelium and was abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME, whereas pretreatment with indomethacin and glibenclamide reduced the relaxation to a minor extent. Rosmarinic acid was also tested in the same manner as the extract and was found to exert vasorelaxant effect. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of MOO vasodilates via nitric oxide pathway with the possible involvement of prostacycline and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathways as well.

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Experiments were designed to determine the mechanism of the relaxation induced by tamoxifen in porcine coronary arteries at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels.

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Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted data. We sought additional information from study authors. Results are presented using risk ratio (RR; dichotomous data) and mean difference (MD; continuous data) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The number needed to treat for benefit (NNTB) and the number needed to treat for harm (NNTH) were calculated for statistically different categorical outcomes.

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDs is due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by preventing cyclooxygenase (COX) activity of prostaglandin H synthase (PGS). However, administration of NSAIDs causes gastrointestinal mucosal lesions and a decrease of granulocytes as side effects. PGS catalyzes two distinct enzyme reactions: (1) bis-dioxygenation of arachidonic acid catalyzed by COX activity of PGS to form PGG(2); and (2) reduction of the hydroperoxide group in PGG(2) by PGS hydroperoxidase. Most NSAID are oxidized by peroxidases to produce NSAID radicals that damage biological components such as lipids and enzymes. Indomethacin, phenylbutazone, and piroxicam are more toxic under aerobic conditions than anaerobic conditions during the interaction with peroxidase. We discuss the contribution of peroxidases in the formation of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions induced by NSAIDs.

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While SC-560 significantly delayed recovery from the effects of cutaneous barrier disruption, NS-398 had no such effect. SC-560 was significantly more effective than NS-398 in reducing skin PG levels at 6 and 24 h after cutaneous barrier disruption. SC-560 strongly inhibited biosynthesis of cutaneous PGD(2) to a greater extent than that of other PGs.

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Human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) regulate nuclear receptors by controlling ligand availability. Enzymes implicated in regulating ligand occupancy and trans-activation of the nuclear receptors belong to the AKR1C family (AKR1C1-AKR1C3). Nuclear receptors regulated by AKR1C members include the steroid hormone receptors (androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors) and the orphan peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARgamma). In human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells, ligand access to PPARgamma is regulated by AKR1C3, which diverts PGD(2) metabolism away from J-series prostanoids (Desmond et al., 2003). Inhibition of AKR1C3 by indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), caused PPARgamma-mediated terminal differentiation of the HL-60 cells. To discriminate between antineoplastic effects of NSAIDs that are mediated by either AKR1C or cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes, selective inhibitors are required. We report a structural series of N-phenylanthranilic acid derivatives and steroid carboxylates that selectively inhibit recombinant AKR1C isoforms but do not inhibit recombinant COX-1 or COX-2. The inhibition constants, IC(50), K(I) values, and inhibition patterns were determined for the NSAID analogs and steroid carboxylates against AKR1C and COX isozymes. Lead compounds, 4-chloro-N-phenylanthranilic acid and 4-benzoyl-benzoic acid for the N-phenylanthranilic acid analogs and most steroid carboxylates, exhibited IC(50) values that had greater than 500-fold selectivity for AKR1C isozymes compared with COX-1 and COX-2. Crystallographic and molecular modeling studies showed that the carboxylic acid of the inhibitor ligand was tethered by the catalytic Tyr55-OH(2)(+) and explained why A-ring substituted N-phenylanthranilates inhibited only AKR1C enzymes. These compounds can be used to dissect the role of the AKR1C isozymes in neoplastic diseases and may have cancer chemopreventive roles independent of COX inhibition.

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To investigate the effects of prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) in the development of hyperdynamic circulatory state on chronic portal hypertensive rats.

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We conducted oligonucleotide microarray experiments on the isolated mRNA from DA and ascending aorta from three study groups (premature fetus-97 ± 0 d, near-term fetus-136 ± 0.8 d, and newborn lamb-12 ± 0 h). We compared the alterations in mRNA expression in DA and aorta to identify genes specifically involved in DA maturation.

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Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

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The antiulcerogenic effect of diffractaic acid (DA) isolated from Usnea longissima, a lichen species, on indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric lesions was investigated in rats. Administration of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of DA and ranitidine (RAN) (50 mg/kg dose) reduced the gastric lesions by 43.5%, 52.9%, 91.4%, 96.7% and 72.7%, respectively. It is known that oxidative stress leads to tissue injury in organisms. Thus, in all treated groups of rats, the in vivo activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. IND caused oxidative stress, which resulted in LPO in tissues, by decreasing the levels of GPx, SOD and GSH as compared to healthy rats. In contrast to IND, the administration of DA and RAN showed a significant decrease in LPO level and an increase in tissue SOD, GPx and GSH levels. However, while CAT activity was significantly increased by the administration of IND, the administration of DA and RAN decreased CAT activity. The administration of IND also increased the myeloperoxidase (MPx) activity, which shows neutrophil infiltration into the gastric mucosal tissues. In contrast to IND, the administration of DA and RAN decreased MPx activity. The changes in activities of gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthases (NOS) throughout the development of gastric mucosal damage induced by IND were also studied. A decrease in constitutive NOS (cNOS) activity and an increase in inducible NOS (iNOS) activity were determined in gastric damaged tissues induced by IND. The administration of DA (100 mg/kg dose) and RAN reversed the activities of iNOS and cNOS. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effect of DA can be attributed to its enhancing effects on antioxidant defense systems as well as reducing effects of neutrophil infiltration.

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Dodonaea viscosa Linn. (Sapindaceae) is used as a medicinal herb by the tribes of Shola forest regions of Western Ghats. It is used for headaches, backaches, stomach pain, piles and simple ulcers. The present study was performed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect and acute toxicity of this plant in various experimental models.

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patients with primary or recurrent inguinal hernia underwent Lichtenstein repair with a polypropylene mesh. All patients with a follow-up of at least three years were sent a detailed questionnaire and offered an outpatient visit. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to analyse the relationship between time to event variables and explanatory variables including anaesthesia type.

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To evaluate the risk of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage associated with perioperative ketorolac use.

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Intravenous regional blocks (IVRBs) with ketorolac and lidocaine have been reported to be useful in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This is the first controlled prospective study of IVRB with lidocaine and ketorolac for treatment of pain and edema in CRPS of the lower extremity in adults.

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To assess the effect of indomethacin on the growth and invasion of Hep-2 cell line in human laryngeal cancer in vitro.

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Advancing age as well as diseases such as diabetes are characterized by both increased large artery stiffness and impaired peripheral artery function. It has been hypothesized that greater large artery stiffness causes peripheral artery dysfunction; however, a cause-and-effect relationship has not previously been established. We used elastin heterozygote mice (Eln(+/-) ) as a model of increased large artery stiffness without co-morbidities unrelated to the large artery properties. Aortic stiffness, measured by pulse wave velocity, was ∼35% greater in Eln(+/-) mice than in wild-type (Eln(+/+) ) mice (P = 0.04). Endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD), assessed by the maximal dilatation to acetylcholine, was ∼40% lower in Eln(+/-) than Eln(+/+) mice in the middle cerebral artery (MCA, P < 0.001), but was similar between groups in the gastrocnemius feed arteries (GFA, P = 0.79). In the MCA, EDD did not differ between groups after incubation with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (P > 0.05), indicating that lower NO bioavailability contributed to the impaired EDD in Eln(+/-) mice. Superoxide production and content of the oxidative stress marker nitrotyrosine was higher in MCAs from Eln(+/-) compared with Eln(+/+) mice (P < 0.05). In the MCA, after incubation with the superoxide scavenger TEMPOL, maximal EDD improved by ∼65% in Eln(+/-) (P = 0.002), but was unchanged in Eln(+/+) mice (P = 0.17). These results indicate that greater large artery stiffness has a more profound effect on endothelial function in cerebral arteries compared with skeletal muscle feed arteries. Greater large artery stiffness can cause cerebral artery endothelial dysfunction by reducing NO bioavailability and increasing oxidative stress.

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In recent years there has been growing interest in advancing amorphous pharmaceuticals as an approach for achieving adequate solubility. Due to difficulties in the experimental measurement of solubility, a reliable estimate of the solubility enhancement ratio of an amorphous form of a drug relative to its crystalline counterpart would be highly useful. We have developed a rigorous thermodynamic approach to estimate enhancement in solubility that can be achieved by conversion of a crystalline form to the amorphous form. We rigorously treat the three factors that contribute to differences in solubility between amorphous and crystalline forms. First, we calculate the free energy difference between amorphous and crystalline forms from thermal properties measured by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Secondly, since an amorphous solute can absorb significant amounts of water, which reduces its activity and solubility, a correction is made using water sorption isotherm data and the Gibbs-Duhem equation. Next, a correction is made for differences in the degree of ionization due to differences in solubilities of the two forms. Utilizing this approach the theoretically estimated solubility enhancement ratio of 7.0 for indomethacin (amorphous/gamma-crystal) was found to be in close agreement with the experimentally determined ratio of 4.9.

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The onset of diabetes causes disruption of respiratory epithelial mediators. The present study investigates whether diabetes modifies the epithelium mediated bronchial responses in hyper-reactive airway smooth muscle (ASM) primarily through nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), and epithelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF) pathways.

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We collected data from 102 patients who had received elective colorectal resection. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups and received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) morphine (M group) or IVPCA morphine plus ketorolac (M+K group). Time-scale morphine consumption (per 12 h), recovery of bowel functions (the first bowel movement and passage of flatus), pain scores, and opioid-related side effects were then recorded.

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Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by acetic acid. Four days later, animals were treated daily with equivalent acid-inhibiting doses of esomeprazole or famotidine, alone or in combination with indomethacin. At day 3 or 7 of treatment, ulcerated tissues were processed to assess: ulcer area; malondialdehyde; prostaglandin E(2); nuclear factor-kB; proliferating cell nuclear antigen and caspase-3 (Western blot).

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Male Wistar rats were treated with 2 mg/kg diet of folic acid for 21 days. Gastric ulceration was induced by indomethacin, scored, and assayed to determine the concentration of total protein, mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in homogenized samples. Normal saline and Ranitidine treated group served as negative and positive control, respectively. Basal and stimulated acid secretion was measured by continuous perfusion method.

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The results of the pharmacological studies on MELP demonstrated potent and effective gastroprotection against ethanol, indomethacin and cold stress-induced acute ulcers and ulcer healing in acetic acid induced chronic ulcer. MELP had no significant effect on the intestinal motility and it is also independent of mucus production but rather have a mucolytic effect. In pylorus-ligated rats the extract showed anti-secretory activity by decreasing total gastric juice volume and gastric acidity while increasing the gastric pH. The gastroprotection against ethanol is partially attributed to effective attenuation in the decrease in NP-SH levels, inhibition of the increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-17. Phytochemical analysis of MELP revealed the presence of pyrrogalic tannins, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids and simple phenols, with ellagic acid being the major components.

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Previous studies have reported that mouth breathing is associated with respiratory acidosis. Regarding to the reports that renal elimination of weak acids such as indomethacin is pH dependent, this study was carried out to evaluate the role of mouth breathing on plasma level of indomethacin and indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rabbits. Mouth breathing was induced by surgical ligation of nostrils under general anesthesia. One day after the operation, arterial blood samples were collected for acid-base balance analysis and indomethacin was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 40mg/kg. The animals were killed 4h after indomethacin administration and blood samples were collected for spectrofluorometric determination of indomethacin in plasma. The results showed that indomethacin induces more severe gastric damage in nose obstructed rabbits compared with sham and unoperated (UNOP) animals. Acid-base analysis revealed a respiratory acidosis in nose obstructed rabbits and indomethacin level of plasma was significantly higher in nose obstructed animals in comparison with control rabbits. The study shows that mouth breathing can increase the potentiation of indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage that may be due to higher level of indomethacin in plasma of nose obstructed animals.

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indocin er dosage 2017-03-27

EOHc was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Swiss male mice (25-30g) were used for the studies. The gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45min after oral pretreatment with EOHc, vehicle and positive control drugs. One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomachs were removed and the area buy indocin of the lesions was measured. The volume, pH and total acidity of the gastric secretions were determined using the pylorus ligature model. The gastrointestinal motility was measured using gastric emptying and intestinal transit. The ethanol-induced gastric mucus depletion and lipid peroxidation were also analyzed.

indocin renal dosing 2017-06-30

This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients undergoing major surgery who were randomized to receive intranasal ketorolac, 10 mg or 31.5 mg, [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED]or placebo every 8 h for 40 h. After surgery, patients with pain intensity of at least 40 on a 100-mm visual analog scale were assessed at 30 min and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 h after receiving the study buy indocin drug. Patient-controlled i.v. morphine provided supplemental analgesia.

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Death and other important clinical buy indocin conditions.

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Astrocytes are highly secretory cells, participating in rapid brain communication by releasing buy indocin glutamate. Recent evidences have suggested that this process is largely mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent regulated exocytosis of VGLUT-positive vesicles. Here by taking advantage of VGLUT1-pHluorin and TIRF illumination, we characterized mechanisms of glutamate exocytosis evoked by endogenous transmitters (glutamate and ATP), which are known to stimulate Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes. At first we characterized the VGLUT1-pHluorin expressing vesicles and found that VGLUT1-positive vesicles were a specific population of small synaptic-like microvesicles containing glutamate but which do not express VGLUT2. Endogenous mediators evoked a burst of exocytosis through activation of G-protein coupled receptors. Subsequent glutamate exocytosis was reduced by about 80% upon pharmacological blockade of the prostaglandin-forming enzyme, cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, receptor stimulation was accompanied by extracellular release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Interestingly, administration of exogenous PGE2 produced per se rapid, store-dependent burst exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles in astrocytes. Finally, when PGE2-neutralizing antibody was added to cell medium, transmitter-evoked exocytosis was again significantly reduced (by about 50%). Overall these data indicate that cyclooxygenase products are responsible for a major component of glutamate exocytosis in astrocytes and that large part of such component is sustained by autocrine/paracrine action of PGE2.

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The contribution of central PGE(2) levels to the nociceptive response in rats was assessed and the effects of the selective cPLA(2)α inhibitor efipladib, and pain therapies of different classes on these responses was determined. An inflammatory pain model was optimized in rats so that PGE(2) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be directly correlated to the nociceptive response. Since efipladib appears to have limited permeation of the blood-brain barrier, we used this compound to determine the extent of pain reversal resulting primarily from peripheral, but not central, inhibition of the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway. The nociceptive response was significantly inhibited by orally administered efipladib, yet spinal fluid levels of PGE(2) and temperature measurements were unaffected compared to vehicle-treated animals. Conversely, intrathecal (IT) administration of efipladib reduced PGE(2) levels in the CSF by 45-60%, yet there was no effect on the nociceptive response. With COX-2 selective inhibitors and ibuprofen, a return of the nociceptive response developed over time, despite complete inhibition of PGE(2) in the spinal fluid. The opposite was true with low doses of indomethacin: inhibition of the nociceptive response was observed despite the lack of effect on central PGE(2) levels. Our results demonstrate that levels buy indocin of PGE(2) in the spinal fluid do not directly correlate with the nociceptive response and that blocking cPLA(2)α in the periphery significantly decreases inflammatory pain.

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The extent (augmentation index, AIX%) and timing (reflected wave transit time, RWT, ms) of aortic wave reflection (measured using radial applanation pulse wave analysis, PWA, SphygmoCor device) were assessed on a single occasion in 114 consecutive RA patients without overt CV disease aged 40-65 years. A higher AIX% and lower RWT indicate arterial dysfunction. Assessment included a fasting blood sample, patient questionnaire and medical record review. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for age, sex, mean blood pressure buy indocin , smoking, cumulative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR-years) and Stanford disability score.

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Endothelium-independent relaxation elicited by sodium nitroprusside was similar in all groups. The maximal response elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) was not different between groups, whereas pD2 values (-logEC50, EC50 being the concentration of ACh that elicited 50% of the maximal response) significantly correlated with frequency of training. nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reduced the relaxation buy indocin elicited by 10(-7) mol/l ACh or higher in control and all trained groups, and by 10(-6) mol/l ACh or higher in SED group. Indomethacin inhibited the vasodilating response to 10(-7) mol/l ACh or higher in control, SED and Ex1 groups, and to 10(-8) mol/l or more in Ex3 and Ex5 animals. Tetraethylammonium attenuated the response to 10(-6) mol/l ACh or higher in control and SED groups and to 10(-7) mol/l or more in all trained animals.

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The present study aimed to characterize the chemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the essential oil obtained from C buy indocin . rhamnifolioides Pax (OECC) in mice.

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The nuclear receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) has three subtypes named alpha, delta(beta), and gamma that may act as receptors for a range of compounds including antihyperglycaemic drugs, insulin sensitizers, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although profiling of the subtype selectivity of the compounds for PPAR is indispensable to elucidate their pharmacological action, the absence of an appropriate transactivation assay for PPAR delta led us to develop a sensitive and reproducible method. We found that co-expression of PPAR delta, retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha, and coactivators such as CBP and SRC-1 enhanced basal and agonist-dependent activation of PPAR responsive element (PPRE)-driven transcription by PPAR delta, rendering a PPRE-driven buy indocin reporter assay reliable and sensitive. Utilizing this assay for PPAR delta, we re-evaluated the subtype selectivity of a variety of anti-inflammatory drugs for human PPAR. The PPAR agonists tested included two leukotriene (LT) D(4) antagonist, seven NSAIDs, and two anti-rheumatoid drugs. We found that a novel LTD(4) antagonist, FK011 ([2-(((2-(4-tert-butyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1-benzofuran-5-yl)oxy)methyl)phenyl]acetic acid), showed marked agonistic activity for PPAR gamma. NSAIDs were classified into the following three groups: those showing no activity for all subtypes, those that were selective for PPAR gamma such as indomethacin and diclofenac, and those showing agonistic activity for the delta and gamma subtypes such as ibuprofen. These results will be important to studies on the molecular mechanisms of pharmacological actions of LTD(4) antagonists and NSAIDs.

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Oxidizing solution enriched with linoleic acid significantly increased oxidative stress in neutrophils. Compared with linoleic acid, oxidizing solution enriched with linoleic acid significantly increased neutrophil production of thromboxane and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Indomethacin and buy indocin aspirin inhibited oxidizing solution enriched with linoleic acid stimulation of thromboxane, but NS-398 was equally effective implicating cyclooxygenase-2 in the thromboxane response. Indomethacin inhibited oxidizing solution enriched with linoleic acid stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but so did pinane thromboxane implicating thromboxane in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha response.

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A 44-year-old man with AS from 22 years ago was treated with NSAIDs and sulfasalazine buy indocin . He visited for developed pain and stiffness in spine from 7 years ago. He did not confer with the rheumatologist from 2012 due to the lack of treatment satisfaction and maintained his treatment with 75 mg indomethacin daily. The patient was assessed in the Iranian traditional medicine clinic and other problems were chronic fatigue, interrupted sleep, and extreme dry skin. Diagnosis was general dryness and treatment started with oral and tropical moisture and nutritional advice.

indocin reviews 2017-01-29

These data indicate that in the vascular endothelium, IL-13 induces the buy indocin expression of 15-lipoxygenase and increases the production of the vasodilatory eicosanoids HEETA and THETA.

indocin medication dosage 2017-02-14

The contractile response was not inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine chloropyramine (0. buy indocin 3 μmol/l), the leukotriene cys-LT1 receptor antagonist MK 571 (3 μmol/l), the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor MK 886 (5 μmol/l), the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 μmol/l), tetrodotoxin, or atropine. Chloropyramine, combined with either MK 571 or MK 886 significantly reduced the response.

indocin capsules 2015-11-14

We investigated whether the balance between endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) and endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCFs) might be altered buy indocin in mesenteric arteries from aged Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (a Type 2 diabetic model) [vs. age-matched control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats]. ACh-induced relaxation was impaired in the OLETF group, and a tendency for the relaxation to reverse at high ACh concentrations was observed in both groups. This tendency was abolished by indomethacin. Nitric oxide- and/or endothelium-derived hypolarizing factor-mediated relaxation and the protein expressions of phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser1177) and extracellular superoxide dismutase were also reduced in OLETF. An ACh-induced contraction was observed at higher ACh concentrations in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) but was greater in OLETF rats. This contraction in OLETF rats was reduced by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors and by prostanoid-receptor antagonists. The ACh-induced productions of thromboxane A(2) and PGE(2) were greater in OLETF than LETO rats, as were the mesenteric artery COX-1 and COX-2 protein expressions. Moreover, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) (membrane-permeant oxidant) induced a concentration-dependent contraction that was greater in OLETF rats. The t-BOOH-mediated contraction was increased both by L-NNA and by endothelium removal in LETO but not OLETF rats, suggesting that a negative modulatory role of the endothelium was lost in OLETF rats. These results suggest that an imbalance between EDRFs and EDCFs may be implicated in the endothelial dysfunction seen in aged OLETF mesenteric arteries, and may be attributable to increased oxidative stress.

indocin suppository dosage 2016-05-02

The aim of this study was to investigate whether amorphous indomethacin samples prepared using different preparative techniques and processing parameters exhibit different structural and thermodynamic characteristics and whether these differences can be correlated to their dissolution behaviour. Samples were prepared either by cooling the drug melt at different cooling rates or by cryo-milling the drug for different milling times. The resulting amorphous materials were characterised using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and polarising light microscopy. All samples were entirely X-ray amorphous, except for the sample cryo-milled for 15 min, which exhibited residual crystallinity. The shape of the halos in the diffractograms, however, varied depending on the preparation method and processing parameters, suggesting structural variations in the near order of the molecules between Vermox 500 Mg the prepared amorphous forms. This finding was supported by principal component analysis of the Raman spectra, as the samples clustered in the scores plot according to processing parameters for both of the preparative methods used. When investigating the dissolution behaviour, the samples cooled at different cooling rates showed no significant differences in their dissolution profiles and dissolution rates (≈0.55 μg/ml/cm(2)). In contrast, for cryo-milled samples, dissolution rate depended on the milling time, with samples milled for 120, 180 and 240 min, showing significantly increased dissolution rates of 0.28, 0.48 and 0.59 μg/ml/cm(2), respectively, when compared to crystalline indomethacin (≈0.06 and 0.05 μg/ml/cm(2) for α and γ-indomethacin, respectively). The milling processes appear to continue to affect the degree of disorder in the solid material, enhancing its dissolution rate, although all samples milled for > 30 min were X-ray amorphous. Thus, choosing the right preparation technique and parameters for preparing amorphous solids is critical for producing materials with enhanced dissolution profiles.

indocin 50mg dose 2016-10-23

In contrast to the general view on the harmfulness nature Coreg Reviews of the stress, we were unable to find a harmful effect of chronic stress on the internal diseases (gastric ulceration and angina pectoris). However, its protective effect was also missing among present experimental conditions.

indocin purchase 2016-09-01

Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to the development of chronic interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy in renal allograft patients. Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 actively participate in acute ischemic injury by activating endothelial cells and inducing oxidative stress. Furthermore, blockade of COX 1 and 2 has been associated with organ improvement after ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of COX 1 and 2 in the development of fibrosis by performing a COX 1 and 2 blockade immediately before IRI. We subjected C57Bl/6 male mice to 60 min of unilateral renal pedicle occlusion. Prior to surgery mice were either treated with indomethacin (IMT) at days -1 and 0 or were untreated. Blood and kidney samples were collected 6 wks after IRI. Kidney samples were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), osteopontin (OPN), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-10, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), vimentin, connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen I, and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7). To assess tissue fibrosis we performed morphometric analyses and Sirius red staining. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis of anti-actin smooth muscle. Renal function did not significantly differ between groups. Animals pretreated with IMT showed significantly less interstitial fibrosis than nontreated animals. Gene transcript analyses showed decreased expression of TGF-beta, MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, vimentin, collagen I, CTGF, and IL-10 mRNA (all P < 0.05). Moreover, HO-1 mRNA was increased in animals pretreated with IMT (P < 0.05). Conversely, IMT treatment decreased osteopontin expression and enhanced BMP-7 expression, although these levels did not reach statistical significance when compared with control expression levels. The blockade of COX 1 and 2 resulted in less tissue fibrosis, which was associated with a decrease in Effexor Common Dose proinflammatory cytokines and enhancement of the protective cellular response.

indocin sr alcohol 2015-03-20

In nonneuronal tissues, activation of oxytocin receptors (OTRs), like other Galpha(q/11) type G-protein-coupled receptors (Galpha(q/11)/GPCRs), increase prostaglandin (PG) expression. This is not known for the OTRs expressed by central OT neurons. We examined mechanisms underlying OT's effects on supraoptic nucleus (SON) OT and vasopressin (VP) neurons in hypothalamic slices from lactating rats. OT application (10 pM, 10 min) significantly increased firing rates of OT and VP neurons, both of which expressed OTRs. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG synthetases, blocked these increases. OTR (but not a V1 receptor) antagonist blocked OT effects without blocking the excitatory effect of PGE2. Tetanus toxin blocked OT effects on fast synaptic inputs and firing activity of SON neurons but not OT-evoked depolarization, suggesting involvement of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Indomethacin also blocked the excitatory effects of phenylephrine, another Galpha(q/11)/GPCR activating agent but not those of PGE2, a non-Galpha(q/11)/GPCR activating agent in the SON. OT or phenylephrine, but not glutamate or KCl, enhanced cyclooxygenase 2 expression at cytosolic loci in SON neurons and nearby astrocytes, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. This OT effect was not blocked by TTX. Western blot analyses showed that OT significantly increased cyclooxygenase 2 but not actin expression. OT promoted the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) networks at membrane subcortical areas of Zithromax Uses Medication both OT and VP neurons. Indomethacin blocked enhancement of F-actin networks by OT but not by PGE2. These results indicate that PGs serve as a common mediator of Galpha(q/11)/GPCR-activating agents in neuronal function.

indocin drug class 2015-02-14

BK receptor density and affinities of BK, its analogues and antagonists Augmentin Generic Names were measured in cultured human and rat chondrocytes by radioligand binding. Effects of BK were assessed by accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP) and release of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8.

indocin mg 2017-01-20

The inhibitors niflumic acid, nimesulide and rofecoxib increased the rate of hexose uptake in L6 myotubes in the absence of insulin and in a dose- and time-dependent manner. They did this by increasing the total cell content of member 4 of the solute carrier family 2 (SCLC2A4, previously known as glucose transporter 4 [GLUT4]) (but not SCLC2A1 [previously known as GLUT1]) mRNA and protein and the amount of it in the plasma membrane. AMPKalpha was not involved in the latter effect since the inhibitors did not activate it. In addition, none of the inhibitors modulated the rate of hexose transport in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells expressing PTGS2 and SCLC2A1. Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (also known as cyclooxygenase 1) inhibitors (acetylsalicylic Amalaki Review acid and indomethacin) did not alter the rate of hexose uptake and SCLC2A4 subcellular distribution in L6 myotubes.

indocin tablets 2017-09-08

Methamphetamine (METH) causes irreversible damage to brain cells leading to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, the mechanisms underlying life-threatening effects of acute METH intoxication remain unclear. Indeed, most of the hypotheses focused on intra-neuronal events, such as dopamine oxidation, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Yet, recent reports suggested that glia may contribute to METH-induced neuropathology. In the present study, we investigated the hippocampal dysfunction induced by an acute high dose of METH (30 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection), focusing on the inflammatory process and changes in several neuronal structural proteins. For that, 3-month-old male wild-type C57BL/6J mice were killed at different time-points post-METH. We observed that METH caused an inflammatory response characterized by astrocytic and microglia reactivity, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) system alterations. Indeed, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD11b immunoreactivity were upregulated, likewise TNF-alpha and TNF receptor 1 protein levels. Furthermore, the effect of METH on hippocampal neurons was also investigated, and we observed a downregulation in beta III tubulin expression. To clarify the possible neuronal dysfunction induced by METH, several neuronal proteins Lasix Buy Online were analysed. Syntaxin-1, calbindin D28k and tau protein levels were downregulated, whereas synaptophysin was upregulated. We also evaluated whether an anti-inflammatory drug could prevent or diminish METH-induced neuroinflammation, and we concluded that indomethacin (10 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented METH-induced glia activation and both TNF system and beta III tubulin alterations. In conclusion, we demonstrated that METH triggers an inflammatory process and leads to neuronal dysfunction in the hippocampus, which can be prevented by an anti-inflammatory treatment.

indocin 50mg capsules 2015-05-27

Six studies were carried out to Cardura Overdose test the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of intramuscular ketorolac tromethamine (in saline) and its propyl ester (in five depot formulations) 240 micromol/kg on Sprague-Dawley rats treated with intraplantar carrageenin.

indocin and alcohol 2015-11-03

A case of an asthmatic woman who collapsed within a few minutes after intramuscular ketorolac tromethamine (KT) injection is reported. Autopsy findings revealed anatomic evidence of a recent asthma attack. KT was found to be present in the blood at a concentration within the therapeutic range and consistent with the administered dose. Based on the timing of the collapse in relation to the KT administration, death was attributed to an adverse reaction to KT, resulting in acute bronchospasm and cardiac arrest, with asthma as an underlying contributing factor. In this case, asthma alone was not responsible for the death of the patient but only a contributing factor. Physicians have to be aware that in asthmatic patients bronchospasm can be induced by drugs among which aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as KT are the most common; therefore, death may have an iatrogenic cause. The paper also describes the pathogenic mechanism of an adverse reaction to such drugs and analytical methods for the isolation and detection of KT in postmortem blood.

indocin name brand 2017-09-30

This study investigated the gastroprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Ulceration was induced by a single oral administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg). 50 male albino rats were allocated into 5 equal groups: control group received normal saline orally, indomethacin group rats received normal saline orally for 5 days and indomethacin (50 mg/kg) on the last day, ranitidine group received ranitidine (reference drug) orally for 5 days (50 mg/kg) before receiving indomethacin (50 mg/kg) on the last day, and NAC groups received NAC orally at 300 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, for 5 days before receiving indomethacin (50 mg/kg) on the last day. Gastric tissue interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and caspase-3 levels were immunoassayed. Total thiol (T-SH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were determined by spectrophotometry. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 2α (CINC-2α) gene expression was evaluated in addition to Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with NAC improved the inflammatory, apoptotic, and redox status in a dose-dependent manner particularly in NAC 500 mg/kg pretreated group. These results show a role for NAC in improving indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration via antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory interactive mechanisms.

indocin user reviews 2015-12-02

The effects of long-term use of celecoxib, ibuprofen, and indomethacin on types I, II, and III collagen metabolism were evaluated in rat osteoarthritis (OA) model. One hundred and thirty wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the celecoxib group, the ibuprofen group, the indomethacin group, and the normal saline group. The osteoarthritis was induced by the excision of the left Achilles tendon. In the 3rd, 6th, and 9th month of treatment after surgically induced osteoarthritis, the articular cartilage was observed with microscope using HE staining. The expression of proteoglycans was semiquantified using toluidine blue staining. And, the expressions of types I, II, and III collagen in chondrocytes were examined using immunohistochemistry. The results suggested that celecoxib had no remarkable effects on the expression of types I, II, and III collagen. Ibuprofen upgraded the expression of types I, II, and III collagen and increased the synthesis of collagen. Indomethacin suppressed the expression of type II collagen and enhanced the expression of types I and III collagen. Therefore, during the long-term use of NSAIDs in osteoarthritis, celecoxib may have no remarkable influences on collagen metabolism of the articular cartilage and may be the ideal choice in the treatment of chronic destructive joint disease when anti-inflammatory drugs need to be used for a prolonged period. Ibuprofen may be unfavorable, and indomethacin may be harmful to collagen metabolism in OA treatment.

indocin gel 2017-10-13

Intraoperative NSAIDs and higher preoperative NLR are associated with improved outcome in conservative breast cancer surgery. Prospective, randomized trials to evaluate if these associations are causal are warranted.

indocin gout medication 2017-11-13

Hantaan viruses cause two severe diseases lacking efficient treatment, yet no effective prophylactic vaccines are available. Continued exploration of alternative antiviral agents to treat hantavirus-related syndromes remains compulsory. The fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the touchstone for target gene quantification. In the present study, standard curves for Hantaan virus (HTNV), mouse, and human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were generated by serial 10-fold dilutions of the constructed recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/HTNV, pGEM-T/mouse-GAPDH, and pGEM-T/human-GAPDH, respectively. Comparisons between the indirect immunofluorescence assay and qPCR assay in the detection of HTNV-infected Vero E6 cells showed improved detection limit and sensitivity of latter method. To characterize the inhibitory effect of several conventional antivirals (arbidol and ribavirin) and unconventional antivirals (indomethacin and curcumin) on HTNV, the levels of viral RNAs were measured for 4 days post-treatment of HTNV-infected Vero E6 cells and 18 days post-inoculation of HTNV-infected suckling mice. Our results validated that HTNV was sensitive to ribavirin and arbidol treatment, while indomethacin and curcumin may also be therapeutically effective in treating HTNV infection. As a result, the establishment and application of qPCR may be a useful tool for the evaluation of potential antivirals for Hantaan virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

indocin gout medicine 2015-03-05

A sepsis model of mice made with cecum deligation and perforation was established, and a radioimmunoassay for FABP and 96-well spectrophotometry assays for myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) which were related with clearance of free radicals,were used to detect their levels in lung and intestine homogenized fluids. Hematoxylin-eosin stain was used simultaneously to check the histopathologic chanes of both tissues.

indocin 40 mg 2016-08-02

The results support the use of the investigated plant in treating pain and cramp related to gastro-intestinal tract infections. To some extent, the observed anti-inflammatory activity could be attributed to the various plant secondary metabolites detected in the plant materials.

dosage of indocin 2016-11-01

Compared with normal saline group, LI (11.00 (1.00 - 22.5), 8.50 (0.75 - 14.50), 11.00 (3.50 - 14.75), P < 0.01) of three model subgroups (Ia, Ib, Id), and pathohistology indexes (1.00 (0.00 - 1.25), 2.00 (0.00 - 5.00), 1.00 (0.00 - 3.00), 2.00 (0.00 - 2.00), P < 0.01) of the whole model group increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with corresponding model subgroups, LIs (0.00 (0.00 - 0.25), 1.00 (0.00 - 1.50), 0.00 (0.00 - 0.00), 0.00 (0.00 - 1.00), P < 0.05) and pathohistology indexes (0.00 (0.00 - 0.00), 0.00 (0.00 - 0.50), 0.00 (0.00 - 0.25), 0.00 (0.00 - 0.50), P < 0.05) of prophylaxis subgroups were decreased significantly (P < 0.05). There was obvious difference in LI between Ic and Ia as well as between Ic and Id (P < 0.05). Compared with normal saline group, COX-1 mRNA expression of the groups (Ia, Ib, Id, IIa, IIb and IId) increased (0.384 +/- 0.031, 0.354 +/- 0.026, 0.753 +/- 0.049, 0.366 +/- 0.035, 0.381 +/- 0.036, 0.766 +/- 0.401, P < 0.001) while COX-2 mRNA expression of the above groups decreased statistically (0.483 +/- 0.056, 0.448 +/- 0.046, 0.461 +/- 0.050, 0.479 +/- 0.032, P < 0.001).