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Karela

Karela is a herbal medication of high-quality which helps regulate blood sugar levels. Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence. Karela is also a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

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Description

Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence.

Karela helps to control blood glucose naturally. It is proved to be a boon for patients suffering from high glucose levels.

Karela is known to be a wonderful product for the purification of the blood and increasing immunity to prevent any infection.

Karela is alsox a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

Karela's main ingredient is: Bitter Lemon.

Dosage

Karela is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Karela capsule twice a day after meals.

Overdose

If you overdose Karela and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Karela are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Karela if you are allergic to Karela components.

Be careful with Karela if you are pregnant. Consult your doctor first.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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Kuguaglycoside C is a triterpene glycoside isolated from the leaves of Momordica charantia, and the biological effects of this compound remain almost unknown. We investigated the anti-cancer effect of kuguaglycoside C against human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. In the MTT assay, kuguaglycoside C induced significant cytotoxicity against the IMR-32 cells (IC(50) : 12.6 μM) after 48 h treatment. Although examination by Hoechst 33342 staining revealed that kuguaglycoside C induced nuclear shrinkage at a high concentration (100 μM), no apoptotic bodies were observed on flow cytometry. No activation of caspase-3 or caspase-9 was observed at the effective concentration (30 μM) of kuguaglycoside C. On the other hand, the substance significantly decreased the expression of survivin and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Kuguaglycoside C also significantly increased the expression and cleavage of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Moreover, kuguaglycoside C was found to induce caspase-independent DNA cleavage in the dual-fluorescence apoptosis detection assay. These results suggest that kuguaglycoside C induces caspase-independent cell death, and is involved, at least in part, in the mechanism underlying cell necroptosis.

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Glycoconjugates in the kidney play an important role in the maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier. Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is well characterized in diabetic nephropathy. Changes in GBM mainly include reduction and undersulfation of heparan sulfate, and laminin with accumulation of type IV collagen leading to kidney dysfunction and there is a need to identify therapies that arrest disease progression to end-stage renal failure. In the present investigation, effect of bitter gourd on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with particular emphasis on kidney heparan sulfate (HS) was studied. Earlier, our study showed partial reversal of all the diabetes-induced effects by bitter gourd. Increase in the components of glycoconjugates during diabetes was significantly decreased by bitter gourd feeding. Diabetes associated elevation in the activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were significantly lowered by bitter gourd supplementation. GAGs composition revealed decrease in amino sugar, and uronic acid contents during diabetes and bitter gourd feeding was effective in countering this reduction. Decrease in sulfate content in the GAGs during diabetes was ameliorated by bitter gourd feeding. HS decreased by 43% in diabetic rats while bitter gourd feeding to diabetic rats showed 28% reduction. These results clearly indicate beneficial role of bitter gourd in controlling glycoconjugate and heparan sulfate related kidney complications during diabetes thus prolonging late complications of diabetes.

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Young women with PCOS presented an increased PV under OC treatment with 35 μg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate.

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Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC.

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The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

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Momordica charantia or bitter melon is traditionally used as an antidiabetic agent in Asia, Africa, and South America. Recent studies indicate that bitter melon can also lower plasma lipids and VLDL in diabetic animal models as well as animals fed a high-fat diet, suggesting an effect on lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the lipid-lowering properties of bitter melon and regulation of apolipoprotein B (apoB). Human hepatoma cells, HepG2, treated with bitter melon juice (BMJ) for 24 h reduced apoB secretion with and without the addition of lipids (P < 0.05). However, BMJ did not increase apoB secretion in cells treated with N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal, indicating a lack of effect on the proteasomal degradation pathway. BMJ reduced the secretion of new triglycerides (P < 0.05) and decreased microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression, suggesting that lipid bioavailability and lipidation of lipoprotein assembly are likely involved in decreased apoB secretion. Interestingly, BMJ increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, P < 0.05), involved in MTP secretion. Our data suggest that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of apoB secretion and TG synthesis and secretion that may be involved in the plasma lipid- and VLDL-lowering effects observed in animal studies.

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The complete amino acid sequence of momordin-a, a ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of bitter gourd, has been analyzed. Twenty-two peptides were isolated from the tryptic digest of momordin-a and sequenced by the DABITC/PITC double coupling method. The alignment of these tryptic peptides was done by analyzing the amino acid sequences of the peptides derived from chymotryptic digestion and cyanogen bromide cleavage of momordin-a as well as V8 protease-digestion of the CNBr fragment. Momordin-a consisted of 250 amino acid residues and carbohydrate residues attached to Asn227, and its molecular mass was calculated to be 28,690 Da. The sequence comparison with ricin A-chain shows that 33% of the residues of momordin-a are identical to those of ricin A-chain and that the residues involved in the catalytic site of the ricin A-chain are conserved in momordin-a.

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At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey.

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Tetracyclic triterpenoids, including the dammarane, cucurbitane, cycloartane, lanostane and protostane groups, is a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in various medicinal plants, particularly those commonly used for the treatment of diabetes and its complications, such as Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Astragalus membranaceus, Momordica charantia, and Ganoderma lucidum. This review highlights recent findings on the chemistry and bioactivities of tetracyclic triterpenoids from these plants and other popular herbal medicines.

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Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants' ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control.

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We have recently described the presence of a guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.2] inhibitor (GCI) in an aqueous extract of the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata). Because the guanylate cyclase-cyclic GMP system is though to be involved in cell growth, DNA and RNA synthesis, and possible malignant transformation, we examined the effect of the aqueous extract containing GCI on an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of the rat prostate and concanavalin-A-stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into cultured splenic lymphocytes, a process thought to be mediated by cyclic GMP. The results demonstrate that the extract of the balsam pear blocks both the growth of the rat prostatic adencarcinoma in vitro and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. DNA histograms from flow cytometry indicated that the extract containing GCI inhibited in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle, a presumed locus of cyclic GMP effects. In addition, guanylate cyclase activity was significantly greater in the tumor than normal prostate tissue and was decreased by the extract containing GCI. Cyclic GMP levels in the tumor in culture wer also decreased by addition of the extract. It remains to be determined whether or not the anti-tumor agent and GCI are the same substance.

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All single dose groups showed normal behavior after the dosing and no statistical changes were observed in blood parameters (p>0.05). Histological examinations revealed normal organ structures, however, the group treated for 7 days showed statistically a significant change in BUN (p=0.002) and a borderline significance in Cr (p=0.051).

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The aim of the study was to examine whether Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and Momordica leaves extract (MLE) might exert any chemopreventive effect in a two stage protocol in skin carcinogenesis with Swiss albino mice. The tumour incidence, tumour yield, tumour burden and cumulative no. of papillomas were found to be higher in the controls (without either extract) as compared to the MFE or MLE treated experimental groups. In a melanoma model, the mice which received fruit and leaf extracts of Momordica at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days showed increase in life span of animals and tumour volume was significantly reduced as compared to control values. In cytogenetic studies, a single application of Momordica extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight, 24 hours prior the i.p. administration of cyclophosphamide, significantly prevented micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations in a dose dependent manner in bone marrow cells of mice. The present study demonstrate chemopreventive potential of Momordica fruit and leaf extracts on DMBA induced skin tumorigenesis, melanoma tumour and cytogenicity.

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Dose dependent glucose uptake assay was performed on L6 myotubes using 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H] glucose. Up-regulatory effects of the extracts on the mRNA expression level of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K have been studied.

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C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM) for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22), IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO) were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array.

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Present study demonstrated that MC caused dose-dependent reductions in body weight and serum cholesterol concentration in male Sprague-Dawley rats. MC may, therefore, be useful in controlling body weight increase in individuals of growing age as well as be a potential agent in the management of overweight and obesity.

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We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats.

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When alpha- momorcharin was injected intraperitoneally (0.2 mg/25 g body weight) into pregnant mice on Days 1-3 of pregnancy, over 50% of the mice failed to support an implantation. In-vitro study of the effects of the protein on preimplantation embryos showed that the protein did not significantly disturb embryonic development from the 2-cell to compacting morula stage except when high concentrations (greater than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml) of protein were present. In many embryos, compaction of blastomeres was incomplete and subsequent blastocyst formation was impaired. Other protein-treated embryos that formed compacted morulae and early blastocysts later showed decompaction and degenerated. The protein-treated embryos generally had fewer numbers of cells because cell division beyond the morula stage was impaired. The poor development of morulae may be the cause of inhibition of early pregnancy in the mouse by alpha- momorcharin .

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Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods.

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A water-soluble peptide MC2-1-5 from Momordica charantia L. Var. Abbreviata Ser., with hypoglycemic effect, was purified by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The infrared (IR) spectra showed characteristic absorption peaks and the molecular mass of MC2-1-5 was found to be 3405.5174Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The sequence of its first 10 N-terminal amino acids was GHPYYSIKKS as determined by a protein sequencer. MC2-1-5 reduced the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by 61.70% and 69.18% at 2 and 4h, respectively, after oral administration at a dose of 2mg/kg. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed MC2-1-5 produced a reduction of 25.50%, 39.62% and 41.74% in blood glucose level after 1, 2 and 3h, respectively, of oral administration compared with a diabetic control.

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Diet is now one of the well established means in the management of diabetes. Bitter gourd and spent turmeric at 10% level were tested for their efficacy on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in various tissues viz., liver, spleen, lungs, heart and testis in control, diabetic and treated rats. The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were isolated from defatted and dried tissues. The contents of sulfated GAGs decreased in all the tissues and the decrease was more prominent in heart and testis. In the isolated GAGs, contents of total sugar, amino sugar, uronic acid and sulfate were studied. Decrease in total sugar content was maximum in testis. Amino sugar content decreased considerably in testis (38%) and lungs (15%). The content of uronic acid also decreased in testis (33%) besides heart (29%) and liver (25%). Sulfate groups in GAGs perform pivotal functions in many biological events and decrease in sulfate content was significant in heart (40%), testis (37%) and liver (37%). GAGs profile on the cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed that heparan sulfate (HS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) were present in liver, spleen and lungs. HS, CS were present in heart, DS/CS was observed in testis. The observed beneficial effects in GAGs metabolism during diabetes may be due to the presence of high amounts of dietary fibres present in bitter gourd and spent turmeric, besides, possible presence of bioactive compounds in one or both of them.

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The present study explores the hepatoprotective activity of various extracts of Ferula asafoetida, Momordica charantia Linn and Nardostachys jatamansi against experimental hepatotoxicity. Polyherbal suspensions were formulated using extracts showing significant activity and evaluated for both physicochemical and hepatoprotective activity in comparison with LIV-52 as standard. Petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ), chloroform, benzene, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Ferula asafetida, Momordica charantia Linn and Nardostachys jatamansi were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats. Polyherbal suspensions were prepared by the trituration method using a suspending agent and other excipients. Formulation F3 has shown significant hepatoprotective effect by reducing the elevated serum enzyme levels such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Various parameters evaluated for all formulations were within the official specifications. Experimental data suggested that treatment with formulation F3 enhances the recovery from carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity. From these results it may be concluded that the F3 formulation (containing chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of Ferula asafetida, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Momordica charantia Linn. and petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Nardostachys jatamansi) demonstrated significant hepatoprotective activity, that might be due to combined effect of all these extracts.

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It has been well documented that Momordica charantia polysaccharide (MCP) has multiple biological effects such as immune enhancement, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. However, the potential protective effects of MCP on stroke damage and its relative mechanisms remain unclear. Our present study demonstrated that MCP could scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intra-cerebral hemorrhage damage, significantly attenuating the neuronal death induced by thrombin in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that MCP prevented the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3), c-Jun and caspase-3, which was caused by the intra-cerebral hemorrhage injury. Taken together, our study demonstrated that MCP had a neuroprotective effect in response to intra-cerebral hemorrhage and its mechanisms involved the inhibition of JNK3 signaling pathway.

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Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seed oil (BGO) is a unique oil which contains 9cis, 11trans, 13trans-conjugated linolenic acid (9c,11t,13t-CLN) at a high level of more than 60%. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of free fatty acids prepared from BGO (BGO-FFA) using colon cancer Caco-2 cells. BGO-FFA and purified 9c,11t,13t-CLN remarkably reduced the cell viability of Caco-2. In Caco-2 cells treated with BGO-FFA, DNA fragmentation of apoptosis indicators was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of apoptosis suppressor Bcl-2 protein was also decreased by BGO-FFA treatment. The GADD45 and p53, which play an important role in apoptosis-inducing pathways, were remarkably up-regulated by BGO-FFA treatment in Caco-2 cells. Up-regulation of PPARgamma mRNA and protein were also observed during apoptosis induced by BGO-FFA. These results suggest that BGO-FFA rich in 9c,11t,13t-CLN may induce apoptosis in Caco-2 cells through up-regulation of GADD45, p53 and PPARgamma.

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Chemical modification studies implicated tryptophan (Trp) residues in the sugar binding activity of Momordica charantia lectin (MCL) [Mazumdar, T., Gaur, N. & Surolia, A. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 113, 463-470]. In the present study, the accessibility and environment of Trp residues in MCL were investigated by intrinsic fluorescence quenching and time-resolved fluorescence. The emission lamda max of native MCL in the absence as well as in the presence of 0.1 M lactose was around 335 nm, which shifted to 365 nm in the presence of 8 M urea, suggesting that the Trp residues which are predominantly buried in the hydrophobic core of the native lectin get exposed to the aqueous environment upon denaturation. At a quencher concentration of 0.5 M, the extent of quenching observed for the native MCL with acrylamide, I- and Cs+ was 46%, 17% and 12%, respectively. In the presence of 0.1 M lactose this quenching was smaller, suggesting that the sugar ligand provides a partial protection to the Trp residues. In time-resolved fluorescence measurements, the decay curves could be fitted well to a biexponential function with the estimated life times 0.92 ns and 4.64 ns for the native protein and 1.15 ns and 5.1 ns in the presence of 0.1 M lactose. All these results are consistent with the involvement of Trp residues in the sugar-binding activity of MCL.

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Bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on the surface of concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Effluent was recalcitrant to the action of bitter gourd peroxidase; however, in the presence of some redox mediators, it was successfully decolorized. Effluent decolorization was maximum (70%) in the presence of 1.0mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole within 1h of incubation. However, immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase showed maximum decolorization at pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C. Immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase decolorized more than 90% effluent after 3h of incubation in a batch process. The two-reactor system, one reactor containing immobilized peroxidase and the other had activated silica, was quite effective in the decolorization of textile effluent. The system was capable of decolorizing 40% effluent even after 2 months of continuous operation. The absorption spectra of the untreated and treated effluent exhibited a marked difference in absorbance at various wavelengths. Immobilized peroxidase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system could be employed for the treatment of a large volume of effluent in a continuous reactor.

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We have previously reported that a crude extract from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia) killed human leukemic lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner while not affecting the viability of normal human lymphocyte cells at these same doses (Takemoto et al., 1980). We now report that the crude preparation has both cytostatic and cytotoxic activities which are heat stable and trypsin-sensitive. Time and dose-response curves suggest that the factors act quickly, perhaps by entry into the cell. The effects of the crude extract are complete after only 2 hr of exposure. These activities are not due to the presence of the lectins from bitter melon seeds, as these purified proteins had no activity against human lymphocytic cells.

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Three new cucurbitane triterpenoids 1-3 and one new steroidal glycoside 4, were isolated together with ten known compounds from Momordica charantia. The structures of new compounds were determined to be 19(R)-n-butanoxy-5 beta,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3beta,25-diol 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), 23-O-beta-allopyranosylecucurbita-5,24-dien-7 alpha,3beta,22(R),23(S)-tetraol 3-O-beta-allopyranoside. (2), 23(R),24(S),25-trihydroxycucurbit-5-ene 3-O-{[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->6)]-O-beta-glucopyranosyl}-25-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), and 24(R)-stigmastan-3beta,5 alpha,6 beta-triol-25-ene 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Their structures were elucidated by the combination of mass spectrometry (MS), one and two-dimensional NMR experiments and chemical reactions.

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karela capsule 2015-11-21

This study was conducted to assess the buy karela efficacy and safety of three doses of bitter melon compared with metformin.

karela herbal capsules 2015-03-31

Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the buy karela beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress.

karela powder dosage 2017-10-10

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous fruit extract of Momordica charantia (MC), a traditional medicinal plant, on the transport of fluid in vitro. Everted intestinal sacs from rats were mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs solution. We compared the effect of MC extract on water transport with increasing inorganic phosphate concentration with or without D-glucose in the buffer. In the control experiments, fluid uptake was enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) at high inorganic phosphate concentration (8-10 mM) in the presence of 5.5 mM D-glucose. Addition of 3.0 mg/mL MC extract to buy karela the serosal side inhibits the uptake of fluid significantly (P < 0.05). At high inorganic phosphate concentration (8-10 mM), fluid uptake was not inhibited (P > 0.05) when incubated with 3.0 mg/mL MC fruit extract. It is hypothesized that an increase in inorganic phosphate enhances oxidative phosphorylation thereby increasing the fluid uptake across everted intestinal sacs of rat. These findings seem to indicate that the MC-induced reduction on intestinal fluid absorption capacity could be mainly the result of an interference with the carrier-mediated coupled entrance of glucose and Na(+) across the brush-border membrane.

karela capsules 2017-05-24

Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in Aegle marmelos [leaf methanol extract (ME) (IC(50)=7 μg/mL] and good activities were found in Lantana camara [leaf ethyl acetate extract (EAE) IC(50)=19 μg/mL], Leucas aspera (flower EAE IC(50)=12.5 μg/mL), Momordica buy karela charantia (leaf EAE IC(50)=17.5 μg/mL), Phyllanthus amarus (leaf ME IC(50)=15 μg/mL) and Piper nigrum (seed EAE IC(50)=12.5 μg/mL). The leaf ME of Aegle marmelos which showed the highest activity against Plasmodium falciparum elicited low cytotoxicity (therapeutic index>13).

karela capsule benefits 2017-05-12

The present study compares water-soluble phenolic content (WPC buy karela ) and antioxidant activities in Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea) prior to and after subjecting to boiling, microwaving and pressure cooking. The total antioxidant activity was increased in cooked water convolvulus, broccoli and bitter gourd, estimated based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Pressure cooking did not cause any significant decline in the antioxidant property. Boiling generally improved the overall antioxidant activity in all the vegetables. Correlation analysis suggests that WPC contributed to significant antioxidant activities in these vegetables. Thus, prudence in selecting an appropriate cooking method for different vegetables may improve or preserve their nutritional value.

karela capsules uk 2017-12-25

The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different buy karela fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

karela 1250 mg 2016-12-20

Microscopic examination of the cross sections and powers of the seeds of H. pedunculosum, Momordica charantia, Thladiantha setispina and M. cohinchinensis were made buy karela to characterize the drug materials.

karela tablets himalaya 2017-04-26

Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have buy karela a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

karela tablets 2016-10-11

The objective of this study was to evaluate buy karela the antistress activity of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on stress-induced changes in albino rats and also to explore attenuating effects of MC on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

karela medicine 2017-10-21

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes buy karela activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3 ~ 12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9 ~ 2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production.

karela powder online 2015-08-09

Momordica charantia (MC) fruit was subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological interaction studies with oral hypoglycemis in NIDDM patients. Phytochemical, chromatographical analysis and extraction of methanolic MC fruit soft (semi-solid form) in CCl4 + C6H6 solvent system yielded 15 diverse chemical constituents--alkaloids, glycosides, aglycone, tannin, sterol, phenol and protein. The CCl4 + C6H6 MC soft extract was used orally in a dose of 200 mg twice daily (BD) for pharmacological interactions with two diversely acting oral hypoglycemic agents--1) metformin BD and 2) glibenclamide BD in 15 patients of buy karela either sex (52-65 years of age) of NIDDM. It was observed that with CCl4 + C6H6 MC soft extract plus half doses of metformin or glibenclamide or both in combination caused hypoglycemia greater than that caused by full doses used in the study with 7 days treatment. Conclusively the extract acts in synergism with oral hypoglycemics and potentiates their hypoglycemia in NIDDM.

karela pills 2015-05-07

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in wound healing. Delayed wound healing is a consequence of diabetes, leading to high morbidity and poor quality of life. Momordica charantia (MC buy karela ) fruit possesses anti-diabetic and wound healing properties. This study aimed to explore the changes in TGF-β expression in diabetic wounds treated with topical MC fruit extract.

karela capsule 2017-08-02

This is a 4-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-control trial. Patients were randomized into 4 groups to receive bitter melon 500 mg/day, 1,000 mg/day, and 2,000 mg/day or metformin Neurontin Brand Name 1,000 mg/day. All patients were followed for 4 weeks.

karela herbal capsules 2017-08-24

In vitro antiplasmodial activities of extracts from Albizia saman, Fabaceae, Calea tenuifolia (C. zacatechichi), Asteraceae, Hymenaea courbaril, Fabaceae, Jatropha curcas, Euphorbiaceae, Momordica charantia, Cucurbitaceae, and Moringa oleifera, Moringaceae were evaluated. From the lipophilic extract of C tenuifolia five active flavones were obtained. 4',5-Dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone [genkwanin] and 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone [apigenin 4',7-dimethylether] exhibited the strongest antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine-sensitive strain (poW) and a chloroquine-resistant strain (Dd2) of Plasmodium falciparum [IC50 values: 17.1-28.5 microM). Furthermore octadeca-9,12 Is Prandin Generic -dienoic acid [linoleic acid] [IC50] values of 21.8 microM (poW) and 31.1 microM (Dd2)] and octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid (alpha-linolenic acid) were isolated.

karela powder dosage 2017-02-07

Three new cucurbitane triterpenoids 1-3 and one new steroidal glycoside 4, were isolated together with ten known compounds from Momordica charantia. The structures of new compounds were determined to be 19(R)-n-butanoxy-5 beta,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3beta,25-diol 3-O-beta- Allegra Mg Dosage glucopyranoside (1), 23-O-beta-allopyranosylecucurbita-5,24-dien-7 alpha,3beta,22(R),23(S)-tetraol 3-O-beta-allopyranoside. (2), 23(R),24(S),25-trihydroxycucurbit-5-ene 3-O-{[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->6)]-O-beta-glucopyranosyl}-25-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), and 24(R)-stigmastan-3beta,5 alpha,6 beta-triol-25-ene 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Their structures were elucidated by the combination of mass spectrometry (MS), one and two-dimensional NMR experiments and chemical reactions.

karela capsules 2016-12-27

Decorticated Momordica charantia seeds were extracted Cialis Weekend Pill and processed by a method which was developed originally for the purification of insect and annelid insulins. Essentially, the method entailed HCl--ethanol extraction, neutralization with NH4OH, gel filtration on Sephadex G-50, ion exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose CL-6B and desalting on Sephadex G-10. Of the seven fractions collected, three fractions were obtained with antilipolytic and lipogenic activities in isolated adipocytes and one fraction with only lipogenic activity. The data indicate that molecules with insulin-like bioactivity are present in Momordica charantia seeds.

karela capsule benefits 2016-08-23

The solution structure of gurmarin was studied by two-dimensional proton NMR spectroscopy at 600 MHz. Gurmarin, a 35-amino acid residue polypeptide recently discovered in an Indian-originated tree Gymnema sylvestre, selectively suppresses the neural responses of rat to sweet taste stimuli. Sequence-specific resonance assignments were obtained for all backbone protons and for most of the side-chain protons. The three-dimensional solution structure was determined by simulated-annealing calculations on the basis of 135 interproton distance constraints derived from NOEs, six distance constraints for three hydrogen bonds and 16 dihedral angle constraints derived from coupling constants. A total of 10 structures folded into a well-defined structure with a triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. The average rmsd values between any two structures were 1.65 +/- 0. Chloromycetin Brand Name 39 A for the backbone atoms (N, C alpha, C) and 2.95 +/- 0.27 A for all heavy atoms. The positions of the three disulfide bridges, which could not be determined chemically, were estimated to be Cys3-Cys18, Cys10-Cys23 and Cys17-Cys33 on the basis of the NMR distance constraints. This disulfide bridge pattern in gurmarin turned out to be analogous to that in omega-conotoxin and Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor-II, and the topology of folding was the same as that in omega-conotoxin.

karela capsules uk 2016-10-17

Three new cucurbitane-type triterpene called karavilagenins A, B, and C and five new cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides called karavilosides I, II, III, IV, and V were isolated from the dried fruit of Sri Lanka Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) together with two known cucurbitane-type triterpenes, 19(R)-methoxy-5beta,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta,25-diol and 5,19 Ventolin Inhaler Online -epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3,25-diol, and nine known cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides, goyaglycosides-b, -c, and -d, and momordicosides F1, F2, G, I, K, and L. The structures of karavilagenins and karavilosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

karela 1250 mg 2016-06-02

Bitter gourd Dosage Zithromax (Momordica charantia) is used to treat various diseases including inflammation. A wild species of bitter gourd, Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser. (WBG), is considered to be more potent in disease prevention than is bitter gourd; however, little is known about the biological and physiological characteristics of WBG.

karela tablets himalaya 2017-07-18

A new cucurbitane glucoside, 23-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-3-O-malonylcucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al, named momordicine V, has been isolated from Momordica charantia leaves, along with the previously reported compounds, momordicines I, II, IV and 3-O-malonylmomordicine I. The structure of the new compound Aciphex Generic was established on the basis of spectral analysis, as well as by its conversion to momordicine II by alkaline catalyzed hydrolysis. Momordicine V deterred significantly the oviposition by L. trifolii on host plant leaves treated at 26.16 microg/cm2 leaf surface.

karela tablets 2015-07-01

Using five Risperdal 6 Mg experimental models, the blood sugar lowering efficacy of eight plants of Cucurbitaceae family has been assessed. The ethanolic extract of Cucumis sativus Linn, Cucumis melo utilissimum Roxb, Cucumis melo Linn, Benincasa hispida Thunb Cogn and Tricosanthes anguina Nees, when administered in 250 mg/kg dose, orally to rats failed to lower blood sugar or to depress the peak value, after glucose load. However, ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia Linn plant and Coccinia indica Whit and Arn root significantly lowered blood sugar in fasted model and depressed the peak value in glucose loaded model. Ethanolic extract of Tricosanthes dioica Roxb plant caused a significant lowering of blood sugar in fasted rats and depressed the peak value in glucose loaded single and longterm fed groups of rats. The ethanolic extract of the aerial part of T. dioica also induced significant depression in the peak values in the glucose loaded models.

karela medicine 2015-05-03

Present study has been conducted to know the anthelmintic activity of polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized Diamox Review from Momordica charantia fruit extract.

karela powder online 2017-07-17

The current study explores the anticoagulant and fibrin clot-hydrolyzing properties of Momordica charantia seed extract (MCSE). MCSE hydrolyzed casein with the specific activity of 0.780 units/mg per min. Interestingly, it enhanced the clot formation process of citrated human plasma from control 146 to 432 s. In addition, the intravenous injection of MCSE significantly prolonged the bleeding Ilosone Medication time in a dose-dependent manner from control 150 to more than 800 s, and strengthened its anticoagulant activity. Interestingly, MCSE specifically prolonged the clotting time of only activated partial thromboplastin time, but not prothrombin time, and revealed the participation of MCSE in the intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade. Furthermore, MCSE completely hydrolyzed both Aα and Bβ chains of the human fibrinogen and partially hydrolyzed the γ chain. However, it hydrolyzed all the chains (α polymer, α chain, β chain and γ-γ dimmers) of partially cross-linked human fibrin clot. The proteolytic activity followed by the anticoagulant effect of the MCSE was completely abolished by the 1,10-phenanthroline and phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride, but iodoacetic acid, EDTA, and ethylene glycol-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid did not. Curiously, MCSE did not hydrolyze any other plasma proteins except the plasma fibrinogen. Moreover, MCSE was devoid of RBC lysis, edema and hemorrhagic properties, suggesting its nontoxic nature. Taken together, MCSE may be a valuable candidate in the treatment of blood clot/thrombotic disorders.

karela pills 2015-12-31

Pakistan is rich in medicinally important plants and has an ancient herbal treatment methods. Our work is based on the study of some indigenous plants which show inhibitory effect of glucose utilization, and are in use as hypoglycemic agent in traditional system of medicine. Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia and Eugenia jumbolana have been shown to possess hypoglycemic activity of varying degree. The results in three different media revealed that, hypoglycemic activity is more prominent in neutral and basic media as compared to acidic medium.

karela capsule 2017-12-07

The effects on gut microbiota of type 2 diabetic rats fed a bitter melon formulation (BLSP, a lyophilized superfine powder) were investigated. BLSP treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels (p < 0.05) and serum insulin levels (p < 0.05) of the diabetic rats. The gut microbiota of treated and control rats were profiled by PCR amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes (V3-V9 region). BLSP significantly reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in diabetic rats, while the relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroides and Ruminococcus were significantly lowered in BLSP-treated rats compared to diabetic rats. Additionally, BLSP significantly suppressed the activation of MAPK (JNK and p38). The results indicate that BLSP can significantly modify the proportions of particular gut microbiota in diabetic rats without disturbing the normal population diversity. By suppressing the activation of MAPK signaling pathway, a BLSP containing diet may ameliorate type 2 diabetes.

karela herbal capsules 2016-08-12

Plants are an invaluable source of potential new anti-cancer drugs. Momordica charantia is one of these plants with both edible and medical value and reported to exhibit anticancer activity. To explore the potential effectiveness of Momordica charantia, methanol extract of Momordica charantia (MCME) was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity on four human cancer cell lines, Hone-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells, HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells, and CL1-0 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in this study. MCME showed cytotoxic activity towards all cancer cells tested, with the approximate IC(50) ranging from 0.25 to 0.35 mg/mL at 24 h. MCME induced cell death was found to be time-dependent in these cells. Apoptosis was demonstrated by DAPI staining and DNA fragmentation analysis using agarose gel electrophoresis. MCME activated caspase-3 and enhanced the cleavage of downstream DFF45 and PARP, subsequently leading to DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation. The apoptogenic protein, Bax, was increased, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased after treating for 24 h in all cancer cells, indicating the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in MCME-induced cell death. These findings indicate that MCME has cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells and exhibits promising anti-cancer activity by triggering apoptosis through the regulation of caspases and mitochondria.

karela powder dosage 2016-04-10

A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop, but did not enhance beneficial soil mesofauna including free-living nematodes and soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of MG reduced broadleaf weed populations prior to cash crop planting in Season II, but this weed suppression did not last beyond the initial cash crop cycle.

karela capsules 2015-03-07

Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

karela capsule benefits 2016-05-13

C9,t11,t13-CLN is less adipogenic for 3T3-L1 cells than LN and this is partly due to its apoptotic effect on proliferating preadipocytes and to the sustained ERK phosphorylation seen during mitotic clonal expansion.