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To test the hypothesis that a variable dosage of the oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil (25, 50, 100 mg) or vardenafil (5, 10, 25 mg) determined according to results obtained from nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR, RigiScan), given nightly for 1 year, can improve spontaneous erectile function (EF) in men with mild-to-moderate arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED); this regimen was compared with a fixed daily dosage of sildenafil 25 mg or vardenafil 5 mg.
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This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group, placebo-controlled prospective study in men with ED and metabolic syndrome (assessed by the International Diabetes Federation criteria). Vardenafil was administered at a starting dose of 10 mg, which could be titrated to 5 mg or 20 mg after 4 weeks, depending on efficacy and tolerability.
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The relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vagina and clitoris and the increase of blood flow into these organs is thought to be essential in the female sexual response. Vardenafil is a type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitor that potentiates the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway facilitating penile smooth muscle relaxation and improving penile erection in men. Although the potentiation of the NO/cGMP pathway through PDE5 inhibitors can clearly enhance blood flow into the penis and is used in the therapy of male sexual dysfunction, there is controversy about the efficacy of these agents in improving female sexual function. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of vardenafil on the increase of blood flow into the vagina and clitoris induced by pelvic nerve electrical stimulation (PNES) in a female dog model. Application of PNES produced consistent and frequency-related increased blood flow into the vagina and clitoris of anesthetized female dogs. The magnitude and duration of the blood flow responses to PNES were variable among the different animals but remained stable over time within the same animal. The intravenous administration of vardenafil (1 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the increases in blood flow produced by PNES into the vagina (381.4 and 206.2% of control response at 5 and 10 Hz, respectively, P<0.01, n=6) and clitoris (379.4 and 238.5% of control response at 5 and 10 Hz, respectively, P<0.01, n=6) 20 min after administration. The significant enhancement of PNES-induced responses was maintained 50 min (224.5 and 181.0%, P<0.01 in vagina; 294.8 and 258.9%, P<0.05 in clitoris) and 80 min after vardenafil administration (209.5 and 156.9%, P<0.05 in vagina; 268.9 and 194.9%, P<0.05 in clitoris). Here we present a feasible model for research into female sexual function. Our results show that vardenafil effectively potentiates the blood flow responses to PNES in the genitalia of female dogs. These results emphasize the role of the NO/cGMP pathway in the local vasodilatory response in female sexual organs and provide a rationale for testing PDE5 inhibitors, such as vardenafil, as a treatment for certain forms of female sexual dysfunction.
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In this retrospective analysis, the percentage of patients "returning to normal" erectile function at week 12 (as defined by scores > or =26 on erectile function domain of International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]) was determined, with further stratification by baseline ED severity, etiology, age, and duration of ED.
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The aims of this article were to determine whether PDE5i facilitate penile erection and male sexual behavior by acting also on the central nervous system and to investigate their mechanism of action at central level.
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Sexual Encounter Profile diary questions 2 and 3, concerning success rates of vaginal insertion and maintenance of erection to allow successful intercourse, respectively.
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Vardenafil provides reliable efficacy for key erectile function parameters important to patients when continuing oral treatment for ED.
Sociopsychological factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). An optimal therapeutic regimen is supposed to bring sociopsychological benefits to both the patients and their partners. Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS) is an effective measure for evaluating the impact of ED on the psychological aspects and interpersonal relationship of the patients and their partners, as well as for predicting the satisfaction of ED patients with the treatment. PAIRS scores on the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on ED show a significant decrease in sexual activity-related time concerns of the patients treated with tadalafil, as compared with those medicated with sildenafil or vardenafil. This also underlies the preference of the patients and their partners for tadalafil in clinical practice. The drug attribute associated with the decreased time concerns is the long and outstanding efficacy of tadalafil for up to 36 hours.
Evidences have been suggested that phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition promotes vasculoprotective benefits in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
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Nasal patency was assessed using a visual analog score and by measuring the minimum cross-sectional areas (MCAs) and nasal cavity volumes with acoustic rhinometry in 14 subjects before and after administration of vardenafil. Measurements were repeated after administration of a local decongestant spray.
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This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013005289.
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All available studies were utilized to obtain information regarding pharmacology. Only human studies were used to gather pharmacokinetic, drug interaction, efficacy, and safety data.
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The aim of the trial was assessment of efficacy of combined therapy with testosterone drug (androgel) and wardenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and metabolic syndrome (MS). The trial included 16 males with organic ED, laboratory and clinical symptoms of hypogonadism and MS (mean age 63.8 +/- 8.4) who had failed monotherapy with phosphodiesterase of type 5 (FDE-5). Both routine methods and special methods of ED and MS diagnosis with application of International Index of Erectile Function were used in examination. MS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Educational Program. Wardenafil was given in a dose 20 mg 1 hour before coitus, but not less than 4 tablets a month. Androgel applications were given in a daily dose 50 mg. The treatment lasted for 3 months. The combined treatment significantly reduced body mass index, waist circumference, improved erectile function and libido. Erectile function normalized in 3 (18.75%) patients. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism improved, the levels of total and free testosterone normalized. Elevation of sexual hormones concentration eliminated clinical hypogonadism symptoms in 68.75% patients. Thus, combined treatment with FDE-5 inhibitor wardenafil and testosterone drug androgel is effective, safe, improves erectile function, hormonal, lipid and carbohydrate blood profile and can be used in patients with MS, ED and hypogonadism.
Among 601,063 tadalafil patients, 3.31% were dispensed a nitrate during the study period, compared to 6.18% in control patients (n = 601,063). When co-possessed prescriptions were defined by overlapping exposure periods, the proportion of PDE5-I patients with co-possessed nitrates ranged from 1.44% (tadalafil) to 1.72% (vardenafil) and 2.13% (sildenafil). Co-possession percentages of PDE5-I prescriptions were 0.83% for tadalafil and 1.07% for sildenafil and vardenafil. The majority (54.29%) of co-possessed PDE5-I and nitrate prescriptions had the nitrate dispensed prior to the PDE5-I prescription identified in the study cohort.
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HO enzyme activity assay and cGMP tissue levels in dissected rat cavernous tissues.
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The most important issue in flap surgery is flap viability. This study aimed to compare the effects of most commonly used phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors on flap survival.
Extensive PubMed literature search reviewing relevant data on effects and mechanisms of PDE5 inhibitors on the cardiovascular system.
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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of vardenafil ODT 10 mg on-demand over 12 weeks in 127 patients with ED was carried out.
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PDE5 inhibitors may represent a simple, effective treatment for chronic prostatitis.
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[3H]Vardenafil (Levitra) or [3H]tadalafil (Cialis) binding was used to quantify PDE5 in rat lung and heart tissue. Each radioligand bound to purified recombinant phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) or to PDE5 in crude extracts with strong affinity, high specificity, slow dissociation, and good stoichiometry. PDE5, the only 3H inhibitor-binding protein detected in extracts, was 15 times higher in lung than in heart extracts, and the level measured by PDE5 catalytic activity agreed with that determined by 3H inhibitor binding. High level of PDE5 in lung approximated that in penile corpus cavernosum, the tissue targeted by PDE5 inhibitors. PDE5 was the predominant cGMP-PDE in lung, and on a molar basis was five times higher than cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), which phosphorylates PDE5 in vivo. The PDE5 level was one-half that of PKG in heart. Thus, abundance of PDE5 in lung vascular smooth muscle provides a strong molecular basis for PDE5 inhibitor treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
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Coding sequences of the human phosphodiesterase-5 isoforms A1, A2 and A3 were cloned into pBlueBac4.5/V5-His (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California), which allows the tagging of histidines at the carboxyl terminal of the expressed protein. Isoforms were expressed with the Bac-N-Blue baculoviral system and purified with the ProBond system. Expression clones were identified by polymerase chain reaction using vector and phosphodiesterase-5 specific primers. Purified proteins were verified by Western blotting. Purified proteins were analyzed for cyclic guanyl monophosphate catalytic and cyclic guanyl monophosphate binding activity, and used to determine the differential potencies of the phosphodiesterase-5 selective inhibitors sildenafil and vardenafil.
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Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have showed significant improvements in both lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in men affected by one or both conditions, without a significant increase in adverse events. However, the results are inconsistent.
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The study is conducted to show and compare efficacy and safety of the three PDE-5 inhibitors and to assess patient's preference in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. It's still unknown which of the three PDE-5 inhibitors is used the most.
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Mean IPSS showed a significant decrease with time following initiation of testosterone treatment (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in either IPSS between L and NL groups or in mean IPSS between vardenafil users and non-users.
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To elucidate whether CCSMCs can synthesize NO and whether NO synthesis enhances VEGF synthesis via the NO/cGMP pathway.
Rabbit cavernosal strips were precontracted with 10 microM phenylephrine. Dose-response relaxation curves to cumulative dosings of vardenafil (1 nM-10 microM) were constructed alone and in the presence of 10 mM L-NAME. Relaxation responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) (2 Hz, 2 ms, 10 V) were compared in control preparations and in the presence of vardenafil (1-10 nM). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized with urethane and prepared for measurement of blood pressure and intracavernous pressure. Erectile responses (ICPmax/dBP x 100) to cavernous nerve submaximal stimulation (10 Hz, 1 ms, 0.45-1.6 V) were determined before, and 3, 10 and 23 min after i.v. administration of saline, vardenafil or sildenafil (0.1, 1 mg/kg).
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Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil are first line treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). These PDE5 inhibitors are known to increase cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations in the smooth muscle cells of the corpora cavernosa penis by inhibiting PDE5, leading to smooth muscle relaxation. This mode of action is also believed to result in prostatic smooth muscle relaxation and to improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Randomized controlled trials have shown beneficial effects on LUTS and on objective parameters such as maximum urinary flow rate (tadalafil). Based on these data tadalafil was recently approved for treatment of patients with male LUTS; however, the mechanisms leading to improvement of symptoms are still under debate.
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Overall per patient ejaculation success rates were significantly greater with vardenafil than placebo over 12 weeks of treatment (19% vs. 10%; P < 0.001). At last observation carried forward, the IIEF "orgasmic function" score increased from 2.9 at baseline to 4.0 for vardenafil and from 3.0 at baseline to 3.4 for placebo. Sixteen percent of men receiving vardenafil and 8% receiving placebo felt orgasm "almost always" or "always" at weeks 8-12, compared with 4% and 6%, respectively, at baseline. Significant improvements in confidence scores were observed with vardenafil compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). There were no clinically significant differences between vardenafil and placebo in the quality-of-life measures at the study endpoint, but these had been in the normal range at baseline.
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CRFs and patient questionnaires containing questions on overall improvement of erection, satisfaction with efficacy, and desire to continue vardenafil use.
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Relative to placebo, vardenafil 10 mg did not alter exercise treadmill time (427 +/- 105 s vs. 433 +/- 109 s, p = 0.39), or time to first awareness of angina (292 +/- 110 s vs. 291 +/- 123 s, p = 0.59), but significantly prolonged time to ischemic threshold (334 +/- 108 s vs. 381 +/- 108, p = 0.0004). At peak exercise, vardenafil 10 mg did not alter blood pressure, heart rate, or rate-pressure product relative to placebo. The most common adverse events (facial flushing and headache) were of mild or moderate intensity, and short-lived.