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Growth hormone (GH) has pleiotropic effects on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Pituitary GH is important for the normal regulation of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR), for the enzymatic activity of bile acid regulatory cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (C7alphaOH), and for the maintenance of resistance to dietary cholesterol. The present study aimed to determine whether GH has beneficial effects on plasma lipids and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mice devoid of LDLR. Compared with wild-type controls, LDLR-deficient mice had approximately 250% elevated plasma total cholesterol and approximately 50% increased hepatic cholesterol levels; hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was reduced by 70%, whereas C7alphaOH activity was increased by 40%. In LDLR mice, GH infusion reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides up to 40%, whereas HMG CoA reductase and C7alphaOH activities were stimulated by approximately 50% and 110% respectively. GH also stimulated HMG CoA reductase and C7alphaOH activities in control mice, whereas hepatic LDLR and plasma lipoproteins were unchanged. The effects of cholestyramine and atorvastatin on C7alphaOH in LDLR-deficient mice were potentiated by GH, and this was associated with a further reduction in plasma cholesterol. GH treatment reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides and stimulates C7alphaOH activity in mice devoid of LDLR, particularly in combination with resin or statin treatment. The potential of GH therapy in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia should be evaluated.
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Vascular structural changes of aorta are due to the alteration of the vessel wall in early stage of SHR. Atorvastatin can markedly improve vascular remodeling.
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Amlodipine and Atorvastatin could improve ventricular remodeling in SHR rats through intervention with the imbalance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 system.
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To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin alone or in combination with vitamin E on endothelial function and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and vascular cells adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) in patients with ischemic heart failure.
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Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of atorvastatin 80 mg/day versus simvastatin 20-40 mg/day on the risk of IDEAL study end points in patients with normal baseline ALT (defined as ALT < ULN [upper limit of normal]) versus elevated baseline ALT (ALT ≥ ULN).
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Since inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase lower plasma triglycerides rather than cholesterol in rats, we compared the triglyceride-lowering activity of lovastatin in rats to that of atorvastatin, a more potent synthetic inhibitor, prior to evaluating these drugs in established animal models in which low density lipoproteins (LDL) rather than high density lipoproteins (HDL) are the major transporters of plasma cholesterol. Atorvastatin was more efficacious than lovastatin in normal, chow-fed rats, and more potent in rats with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia (sucrose-fed). In hypertriglyceridemic rats plasma apoB concentrations decreased only with atorvastatin (30 mg/kg), and VLDL-triglyceride secretion (Triton method) was also decreased more by atorvastatin. The inactive enantiomer of atorvastatin did not lower plasma triglycerides. Thus, triglyceride-lowering was dependent upon inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Liver unesterified cholesterol and cholesteryl esters (mg/g) were increased by both drugs in normal rats but remained unchanged in hypertriglyceridemic rats. In normal, chow-fed guinea pigs atorvastatin was a more potent cholesterol-lowering drug, and unlike lovastatin, lowered plasma triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol. In casein-fed rabbits with endogenous hypercholesterolemia and in chow-fed rabbits atorvastatin lowered LDL-cholesterol more potently than lovastatin, but in chow-fed rabbits neither drug had an effect on the in vivo rate of VLDL-lipid secretion, suggesting that efficacy was due to inhibition of direct LDL production and/or enhanced LDL clearance. We conclude that normal rats can be used as a preclinical tool to assess the efficacy of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors since triglyceride-lowering correlates with cholesterol-lowering in LDL animal models. In this regard atorvastatin is a more potent hypolipidemic agent than lovastatin in animals. A common but not sole mechanism for these drugs may be direct inhibition of the hepatic production of the major apoB-containing lipoprotein in a given species, e.g. VLDL in rats and LDL in guinea pigs and rabbits.
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To consider possible reasons why the development of torcetrapib proceeded so far before adverse events became apparent.
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Biomarkers to predict recurrent stroke and targets of therapy to prevent stroke are lacking.
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Using MRI, we investigated the effects of 20-mg versus 5-mg atorvastatin on thoracic and abdominal aortic plaques in 40 hypercholesterolemic patients who were randomized to receive either dose. Treatment effects were evaluated as changes in vessel wall thickness (VWT) and vessel wall area (VWA) of atherosclerotic lesions from baseline to 12 months of treatment.
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Previous clinical trials showed that progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be slower in hemodialysis patients treated with sevelamer than those treated with calcium-based phosphate binders. Because sevelamer decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, we hypothesized that intensive lowering of LDL-C levels with atorvastatin in hemodialysis patients treated with calcium acetate would result in CAC progression rates similar to those in sevelamer-treated patients.
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The major beneficial effect of statins- reducing the risk for coronary events-has primarily been ascribed to reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but may in part be related to a direct antiinflammatory action (ie, decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] concentration).
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Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Atorvastatin (20mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered orally. Rats were divided into vehicle-treated, atorvastatin pre-treatment, atorvastatin post-treatment, and atorvastatin continuous-treatment groups. In the pre-treatment, rats were given atorvastatin or vehicle for 7 days before MCAO. In the post-treatment, rats received atorvastatin or vehicle for 7 days after MCAO. Measurement of infarct volume, as well as neurological and immunohistochemical assessments, were done 24h and 7 days after reperfusion.
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The present study examined the effects of atorvastatin and the in vitro effect of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I/phosphatidylcholine (POPC) discs on charge-based triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) subfractions in a patient with type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) and the apoE2/2 phenotype.
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We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports.
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Twenty of the 25 patients (80%) achieved the goal of LDL <2.58 mmol/L. There was a significant decrease in total cholesterol (5.77 +/- 0.88 to 4.16 +/- 0.96 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and LDL (3.59 +/- 0.77 to 1.94 +/- 0.77 mmol/L, P < 0.001). Haemoglobin increased from 121 +/- 11 to 126 +/- 7 g/L (P < 0.05), while weekly dose of erythropoietin/body weight/haemoglobin decreased significantly from 8.34 +/- 3.70 to 7.87 +/- 3.11 IU/kg per haemoglobin (P < 0.05). CRP decreased not significantly from 7.0 +/- 6.1 to 4.5 +/- 2.2 mg/L.
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After PCI, there were statistically significant decreases in adiponectin levels in the Atorvastatin group at 3 and 6 mo (8.66 +/- 0.69 versus 6.87 +/- 0.55 and 7.12 +/- 0.71 microg/mL at 0, 3, and 6 mo, respectively), despite the anti-inflammation and lipid-lowering effects of Atorvastatin. There were no statistically significant changes in adiponectin levels in the control group. There was significant positive association between baseline plasma adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Changes of adiponectin level were not associated with the changes of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid profiles in the Atorvastatin group.
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The majority of patients with previous ischemic stroke are expected to benefit significantly from long-term statin therapy. However, discontinuation of medication therapy frequently occurs in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of discontinued statin therapy on clinical outcome in patients discharged after an acute ischemic stroke.
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Atorvastatin was administered at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day in 2-week, 13-week or 104-week studies. A 52-week interim sacrifice and a reversal group in which dosing was terminated at week 52 and the dogs sacrificed at week 64, was included in the 104-week study.
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In the every other day treatment group, there was a 36.1% reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels by the end of first month (p<0.01). At the end of three months there was further decrease of 10.2% in LDL-cholesterol levels when compared to 1 month levels (p>0.05). The LDL cholesterol levels of the group receiving 20 mg atorvastatin every day was reduced by %41 by the end of 1 month (p<0.01). At the end of three months, the difference between the changes in the all lipid parameters of the two groups was not found to be of statistical significance. In the group receiving the medication every other day, there was a 21% decrease in hs-CRP levels compared to the basal measurements at the end of first month (p<0.05). In the group, receiving the medication every day the decrease in hs-CRP levels at the end of one month was more striking (37%, p<0.05). However, the effects of both treatment arms on hs-CRP levels, did not differ significantly (p>0.05).
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The statins, at dosages adjusted, had a significant and similar effect in reducing lipid peroxidation in native and oxidized LDL-C and in arterial walls, in decreasing aortic atherosclerosis, and in reverting endothelial dysfunction.
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The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms and biological pathways associated with the anticancer effects of atorvastatin. For this purpose, we conducted cell-based microarray and bioinformatic analyses to determine the effect of atorvastatin exposure on endothelial cell response. The results of bioinformatic analysis performed using the Connectivity Map (cMap) to examine the atorvastatin-induced changes in gene expression in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, indicated that treatment with 10 µM of atorvastatin for 24 h upregulated the expression of 295 genes and downregulated the expression of 354 genes by 2-fold compared to the control treatment. The gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) pathway analysis, and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) and cell cycle-related genes were the genes most significantly affected by atorvastatin treatment. The upregulation of KLFs and the downregulation of the cell cycle-related genes, including cyclin (CCN)A2, CCNE2, CCNB1 and CCNB2, were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A comparison of the gene expression profile of atorvastatin-treated cells with that of the control cells and with that of 6,100 compounds in the cMap database revealed that the profile of atorvastatin-treated cells was highly similar to that of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-treated cells. Therefore, these results suggest that atorvastatin acts as an HDAC, a G1/S (start) and a G2/M (mitosis) cell cycle inhibitor. These findings provide evidence of the feasibility of the use of atorvastatin as an anticancer drug.
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Although previous studies have shown that angioplasty improves exercise performance and reduces symptoms better than standard medical therapy in low risk, stable patients with coronary disease, none of these studies used aggressive cholesterol-lowering medical therapy. In addition, the event rate of death from myocardial infarction and other coronary events was found to be slightly higher in patients who had undergone angioplasty. The Atorvastatin versus Revascularization Treatment (AVERT) trial was the first study designed to compare the efficacy of aggressive cholesterol-lowering therapy versus percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in low risk, stable patients with coronary artery disease. Results favour the use of aggressive lipid lowering over percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with mild to moderate coronary disease. Treatment with atorvastatin significantly reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and was associated with a 36% reduction in ischemic events and a significant delay in time to first ischemic event.
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Although much progress has been made in the clinical care of patients with acute spinal cord injuries, there are no reliably effective treatments, which minimize secondary damage and improve neurologic outcome. The time and expense needed to establish de novo pharmacologic or biologic therapies for acute SCI has encouraged the development of neuroprotective treatments based on drugs that are already in clinical use and, therefore, have the advantage of a well-characterized safety and pharmacokinetic profile in humans. Statins are the most commonly prescribed class of lipid-lowering drugs, and recently, it has been recognized that statins also have powerful immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. This paper describes a series of experiments that were performed to evaluate the comparative neuroprotective effects of simvastatin and atorvastatin. We observed a promising signal of neurologic benefit with simvastatin in our first experiment, but in repeated attempts to replicate that effect in three subsequent experiments, we failed to reveal any behavioral or histologic improvements. We would conclude that simvastatin given orally or subcutaneously at doses previously reported by other investigators to be effective in different neurologic conditions does not confer a significant neurologic benefit in a thoracic contusion injury model (OSU Impactor) when administered with a 1-h delay in intervention. We contend that further preclinical investigation of atorvastatin and simvastatin is warranted before considering their translation into human SCI.
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Statins combined with exercise significantly increased eGFR in CAD patients, and these improvements in renal function were correlated with increases in HMW-adiponectin levels. The statins-exercise combination treatment may have provided clinical benefits for patients with CAD partly through the improvement in renal function.
Calcification occurs in atherosclerotic vascular lesions and In the aortic valve. Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a slow, progressive disorder that ranges from mild valve thickening without obstruction of blood flow, termed aortic sclerosis, to severe calcification with impaired leaflet motion, termed aortic stenosis. In the past, this process was thought to be 'degenerative' because of time-dependent wear and tear of the leaflets, with passive calcium deposition. The presence of osteoblasts in atherosclerotic vascular lesions and in CAVD implies that calcification is an active, regulated process akin to atherosclerosis, with lipoprotein deposition and chronic inflammation. If calcification is active, via pro-osteogenic pathways, one might expect that development and progression of calcification could be inhibited. The overlap in the clinical factors associated with calcific valve disease and atherosclerosis provides further support for a shared disease mechanism. In our recent research we used an in vitro porcine valve interstitial cell model to study spontaneous calcification and potential promoters and inhibitors. Using this model, we found that denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand may, at a working concentration of 50 μg/mL, inhibit induced calcium deposition to basal levels.
In Sweden, the clinical benefits of aggressive short-term atorvastatin treatment administered within a few days after acute coronary syndrome is associated with a substantial hospitalization cost offset secondary to the clinical benefits of atorvastatin.
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With intensive lowering of LDL-C levels for 1 year, hemodialysis patients treated with either calcium acetate or sevelamer experienced similar progression of CAC.
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To gain a better understanding of drug-drug interaction between various medicinal substances and statins, in vitro experiments using human hepatic microsomes were performed. The metabolic clearance of atorvastatin (CAS 134523-00-5) was about 32 microliters/min/mg protein, some 15-fold greater than that of pitavastatin (CAS 147526-32-7). On co-incubation with several medicinal substances, metabolic inhibition of pitavastatin was negligible in human hepatic microsomes. However, a remarkable metabolic inhibition of atorvastatin was noted in the presence of various medicinal substances. The intrinsic clearance of atorvastatin lactone was 20-fold greater than that of its acid form, whereas no marked difference was noted between pitavastatin and its lactone form. Pitavastatin lactone showed no inhibitory effect on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone in contrast to atorvastatin lactone. These results suggest that pitavastatin and its lactone form will be highly unlikely to interact with other drugs in clinical practice.
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Atorvastatin lowered LDL-C, apoB, and atherogenic lipoprotein subparticles in children with T1D and elevated LDL-C without worsening insulin resistance. The drug was well tolerated and safe. Long-term studies would provide better insight on the impact of these interventions in the development of cardiovascular disease in children with diabetes.