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Neem is a unique herb with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and blood purifying properties which is used in skin disorders and keeps the skin healthy. Neem is effective to most epidermal dysfunctions such as acne, psoriasis, eczema, antifungal.

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Neem is a high-quality herbal medication which is used in skin problems like mild acne, itchy skin, flakey scalp and many other mild dermatological problems. Neem inhibits the growth of microbes and protect the skin.

Neem also fights minor skin eruptions, reduces oiliness and inflammation, stimulates the skin’s circulation and cell renewal. It gently cleanses the skin and maintains moisture balance.

The growth of acne-causing bacteria such as propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and staphylococcus epidermidis is also inhibited by Neem. The role of Neem in acne is further supported by studies which have shown that it exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing P. acnes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-8.

Neem's main ingredient are: Neem components and Turmeric.


Neem is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Neem capsule twice a day after meals.


If you overdose Neem and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Neem are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Neem if you are allergic to Neem components.

Do not take Neem if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Neem in children under 12 years of age. It may cause serious side effects such as seizures, coma.

Neem should never be used in place of insulin.

Avoid dehydration.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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The effect of azadirachtin (AZA), a tetranortriterpene from neem, on the mortality, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the development of the ovaries of female brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) was tested in laboratory experiments. The lethal concentrations were determined and applied topically to the adult female BPH (LC(50)=0.47 ppm and LC(90)=0.96 ppm). The treated insects exhibited toxic symptoms with a dose-dependent mortality. The LC(50) concentrations were tested against AChE activity of the BPH. The results indicate that AZA significantly inhibits the activity of AChE only at the high dose (P<.0001) compared with control. Adult females that were exposed to AZA showed a significant reduction in weight (23%, 40%, and 64% for 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ppm, respectively). Fecundity was also significantly reduced in AZA treatments compared to the control. Histological study of ovary sections revealed abnormalities in follicular epithelial cells due to AZA treatment.

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Literature search was accomplished using electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) and manual searching, up to February 2015, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) presenting clinical data for efficacy of neem mouthrinses when used alone or as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene as compared to chlorhexidine mouthrinses for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis.

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Six Indian plants, commonly used as culinary plants, herbs or spices (kikar; jamun; neem; harad; fenugreek; bitter gourd), were screened and compared for their antidiabetic potential in vitro. Aqueous plant extracts were prepared and assessed for their effect on the insulin secretion activity of rat pancreatic INS-1 β-cells and glucose consumption in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes in order to study their specific mechanisms of action. The effect of the plant extract concentration (25-1000μg/ml) on insulin release and glucose consumption was also studied. All the extracts had a significant stimulatory effect on the insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. In the presence of kikar extract (100μg/ml), an increase of 228% in insulin release was recorded compared to the control (5.6mM glucose) whereas that was 270% and 367% in the presence of kikar and jamun extracts (500μg/ml), respectively. 3T3-L1 cells treated with jamun extract (100μg/ml) exhibited the highest increase in glucose consumption by the cells (94%, compared with the control) followed by harad (53%) and fenugreek (50%) extracts. A significant inhibitory effect of the fenugreek, kikar and jamun extracts on glucose diffusion across a dialysis membrane suggested that these extracts could partly act by decreasing glucose absorption in the small intestine. The results showed that a combination of these plants in diet could help in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

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Among the Hausa-Fulani women of Zaria, Nigeria, "cold" or "sanyi" is thought to be a common cause of illnesses, and especially edema (swelling) during pregnancy. The traditional treatment for these illnesses is a hot bath. The new mother or mother-to-be sleeps in an overheated room and must take baths in very hot water, called "wankan- jego," to keep out the cold. The birth attendant uses a bundle of leafy twigs from tamarind or neem trees to splash hot water over the women's body. This splashing hides the real temperature of the hot water over the women's body. This splashing hides the real temperature of the hot water so that she does not feel it, but it may actually be 82 degrees centigrade. Severe scalds often result from, such baths. Women confined during childbirth in the hospital and then discharged are still often subjected to the "wakan-jego" after they return home. Their thighs, buttocks and breasts are the most susceptible areas where these hot-water scald burns are the worst, sometimes even resulting in their nipples being sloughed off, thus making the mother unable to lactate. Since most deliveries in the Zaria region still take place at home and most patients with childbirth complications come to the hospital only as a last resort, it is possible that scald injuries are underreported and the total morbidity and mortality rate may be much higher, both of mothers and babies. Understanding this cultural ritual is necessary to devise effective countermeasures, like encouraging hand testing the bath water for its safety before commencing the baths. Better still, since all the scalded patients in the groups studied were illiterate housewives, formal education could disprove the need for these traditional and harmful hot baths to chase away the "cold" that has been falsely believed to be the cause of childbirth illnesses. [full text]

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The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs.

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There are various plants, which are used as chewing sticks in different parts of the world. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of traditionally used neem and babool chewing sticks (datun) extracts on Streptococcus mutans.

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Despite advances in the development of anticaries chemotherapy, the newer agents are unable to control the initiation of dental caries. Research and development of natural antibacterial agents that are safe for the host as well as specific for oral pathogens is awaited. Neem tree extracts have been used for thousands of years for maintaining overall well-being. Chewing neem sticks in the morning is the most common indigenous method of cleaning the mouth in rural population. This has generated the interest of the dentists for the use of neem for controlling dental diseases.

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To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL), Azadiracta indica (AI), Aloe barbadensis (AV), Myristica fragrans (MF) and Terminalia chebula (TC) as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).

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In the present study 60 Adult Earthworms (H. euryaulos) of weight and length range 1.7-3.0 g (mean-2.34 +/- 0.91 g) and 13.0-28.0 cm (mean-21.5 +/- 5.8 cm), respectively were cultured for 12 weeks. The productivity potential and nutrient composition of earthworm (H. euryaulos) cultured in two rearing substrata (Cellulose Substrate (Control)--Coded Hs1 and Dry Neem and leaves and soil Substrate--Coded Hs2) were assessed using six wooden boxes stocked in triplicates at the rate of 92.7 g earthworms per box. The higher total final weight, weekly weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and survival of 400.6 g kg(-1) of substrate, 25.7 g/week/substrate, 332.5, 0.76/day and 99.0% while the lower of 367.5 g kg(-1) of substrate, 22.9 g/week, 296.4, 0.71/day and 98.0% were recorded in earthworm cultured in cellulose substrate and the soil substrate respectively. The proximate analyses, mineral compositions and amino acids indices were comparable to those of conventional fish meal. Based on the results of this study, the utilization of cellulose substrate is recommended for the culture of earthworm and the inclusion of the earthworm meal is guarantee as a reliable and nutritional dependable fish meal supplement.

neem 950 mg

Eight different strains of Salmonella typhimurium were, used to study the genotoxicity of neem oil both in the presence and absence of Aroclor-1254 induced rat liver homogenate (S9). Two-dose treatment protocol was, employed to study the cytogenetic activity in micronucleus assay. Similarly, the antimutagenic activity of neem oil and NDE was studied against mitomycin (MMC) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in the above two test systems.

neem 475 mg

Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides.

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Since 2005, mango has been damaged by a group of new pests, the gall midges, in all mango-growing areas of Pakistan. Little is known about these pests in Pakistan. In this report, we present information on the occurrence, damage patterns, methods for monitoring, and management of Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt), a mango gall midge found in the country. At the study site (Rahim Yar Khan, a district of the province Punjab, Pakistan), the pest was active from January/February to April as eggs, larvae, and adults on mango inflorescence buds, branches (axillaries), and immature fruits. Females of P. mangiferae oviposited in inflorescence tissues, and larvae, after feeding on plant tissues, dropped to the soil under the mango trees for pupation from February to April. Mango trees in commercial orchards were more heavily damaged by P. mangiferae than were isolated trees in farmer fields (66.7%). The adults of P. mangiferae were captured on sticky traps of all tested colors, and were in flight from January to May. Captures per trap were highest on yellow traps, followed by green, blue, and clear traps. Control of mango gall midge was effectively provided by the synthetic insecticide bifenthrin (Talstar 10 EC) and also by application of neem seed kernel extract on the tree canopy if integrated with raking the soil under the mango tree canopy.

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Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

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Dopaminergic neurons loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and dopamine (DA) content loss in the striatum correlate well with disease severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of neurotrophin family and is necessary for the survival and development of DA neurons in the SN. Deficits in BDNF/TrkB receptors signaling contribute to the dysfunction of PD. Deoxygedunin, a derivative of gedunin produced from Indian neem tree, binds TrkB receptor and activates TrkB and its downstream signaling cascades in a BDNF-independent manner, and possesses neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested the neuroprotective effects of deoxygedunin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease. Rats were treated with deoxygedunin 5 mg/kg (i.p.) for one month started two weeks before 6-OHDA lesion (pre-treatment), or for two weeks right after lesion (post-treatment), with isovolumetric vehicle as control and normal. Mice were given deoxygedunin 5 mg/kg (i.p.) for 2 weeks and administrated with MPTP twice at the dose of 20 mg/kg (i.p.) on day 7. The results revealed that pretreatment with deoxygedunin improved PD models' behavioral performance and reduced dopaminergic neurons loss in SN, associated with the activation of TrkB receptors and its two major signaling cascades involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Thus, our current study indicates that deoxygedunin, as a small molecule TrkB agonist, displays prominent neuroprotective properties, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

neem reviews

The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

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Of five commercial plant extracts (citronella, garlic oil, neem extract, pine oil, and pyrethrum), citronella was found to be effective in deterring the infestation of cartons containing muesli and wheat germ by red flour beetles. The chemical components were applied as part of a coating on the carton board. In an experimental set up that accelerates infestation over a 2 week period, citronella-treated cartons (0.2 g/m2 of carton board) reduced beetle infestation to approximately 50% of the level observed in control cartons. Evidence was provided to indicate that an insect repellent effect persists for at least 16 weeks. Additional work on the controlled release of the insect repellent would be required to prolong the effect.

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Kerosene lamps containing one per cent neem oil were used for mosquito repellent action in a village near Delhi. The safety aspects of this personal protection method developed by Malaria Research Centre were evaluated by animal studies and clinical examination of population before and after exposure. Single application of neem oil (1%) did not produce skin irritation in rabbits and adverse effect on guinea pigs after exposure to aerosol. Clinical examination of 156 adults and 110 children did not reveal any major adverse effects after one year of exposure to 1% neem oil.

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Recent studies of the neem seed product MiteStop showed that it has a good acaricidal effect against all developmental stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In vitro tests proved an efficacy at direct contact, as well as by fumigant toxicity. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations showed no clear, morphologically visible signs of an effect caused by fumigant toxicity. Direct contact with the neem product, however, seemed to be of great impact. Chicken mites turned dark brown or even black after being treated with the neem product. SEM analysis showed damages along the body surface of the mites.

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Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely developed and dead larvae; however, it cause hatching failure at DPT 15. Neem Azal F induced a significant increased in mortality rates of newly hatched larvae, unfed larvae, and unfed adults reaching 100% on 15th, 3rd, and 15th DPT, respectively. The mortality rates increased with the extract concentrations. Although, it had no significant effect on the moulting rates of fed nymphs, it caused malformation or deformities in 4% of adults moulted. It was concluded that the concentration of Neem Azal F which may be used for commercial control of this tick species were 1.6 and 3.2%.

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Extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, negatively affected feeding and development of Clavigralla scutellaris (Westwood), a coreid pest of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh. Labial dabbing, pod wall penetration, and seed damage by fifth instars were significantly reduced on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), that had been dipped in aqueous, methanolic, or hexane extracts of neem seed kernel. When fourth instars were dipped directly into aqueous extract, developmental abnormalities of the wings occurred at all levels tested and fecundity dropped to zero at concentrations above 0.3125%. The LC50 value was 3.14% (220 ppm azadirachtin) at 8 d. The scelionid wasp Gryon fulviventre (Crawford) is an important natural enemy of Clavigralla spp.; egg mortality from this parasitoid ranged from 37 to 85% during the fall cropping season. Feeding by newly emerged wasps was dramatically reduced when honey was mixed with aqueous neem suspension, but 6-d survivorship of adults did not differ significantly from that of the control. Wasp oviposition behavior was altered slightly when coreid eggs were treated with neem: the period of antennation was significantly extended, but time for drilling, oviposition, and marking was unaffected. Neem-dipped eggs were accepted for oviposition and progeny emerged successfully from these treated eggs. Exposure of already parasitized eggs to neem did not interfere with progeny emergence, longevity, or sex ratio. Thus, neem extract and egg parasitoids seem to be compatible and promising control strategies for C. scutellaris. Our results suggest that use of neem against pod-sucking bugs will not interfere with natural control provided by G. fulviventre.

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The mechanism of the antiulcer effect of Neem leaf aqueous extract to block gastric lesions in rat has been studied with emphasis on acid secretion, oxidative damage and apoptosis. The extract dose-dependently inhibits gastric lesions induced by restraint-cold stress, indomethacin and ethanol. In stress ulcer model, it is more effective than ranitidine but less effective than omeprazole. It also dose-dependently blocks pylorus ligation and mercaptomethylimidazole-induced acid secretion. In the pylorus-ligation model, it is less effective than omeprazole but as effective as ranitidine. It inhibits H+-K+-ATPase activity in vitro in concentration-dependent manner to inhibit acid secretion. Oxidative membrane damage by hydroxyl radical (*OH) as measured by lipid peroxidation in stress ulcer is significantly blocked by leaf extract. Stress-induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation is also protected. The extract also prevents *OH-mediated mucosal DNA damage in vitro by scavenging the *OH. Neem leaf extract, thus, offers antiulcer activity by blocking acid secretion through inhibition of H+-K+-ATPase and by preventing oxidative damage and apoptosis.

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Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary pools and swamps were found in Nyabondo. Early anopheline instars were mainly recovered from temporary pools, artificial ponds and abandoned fish ponds. The mosquitoes collected were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (35%), An. coustani (46%) and Culex spp (19%). Both early and late instar larvae of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were more abundant in the controls than in the Bti and neem treated habitats. Within treated habitats, early instar anopheline mosquitoes were recovered more from habitats provided with neem and fish compared to Bti treated habitats. All treated habitats recorded higher numbers of early instar larvae than late instars or pupae, indicating that gravid female mosquitoes still oviposited within treated habitats.

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Azadirachtin A enriched concentrate containing 60% active ingredient (a.i.) was prepared from the methanolic extract of the de-fatted neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernels. Azadirachtins A, B, and H, the three major bioactive constituents of neem seed kernel, were purified from this methanolic concentrate by employing reverse phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), using methanol-water solvent system as an eluant. The three pure azadirachtin congeners thus obtained were characterized by their unique mass spectral fragmentation, using electrospray probe in positive ion mode (ESI). All three azadirachtins exhibited nematicidal and antifungal activities. Azadirachtin B was the most effective against the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis (EC(50) 96.6 ppm), followed by Azadirachtin A (119.1 ppm) and H (141.2 ppm). At 200-ppm concentration, the test compounds caused 50-65% mortality of Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. Azadirachtin H showed the highest activity against the phytophagous fungi Rhizoctonia solani (EC(50) 63.7 ppm) and Sclerotium rolfsii (EC(50) 43.9 ppm), followed by B and A. The isolation of pure azadirachtins A, B, and H directly by MPLC purification from its concentrate and their characterization by ESIMS are unique and less time-consuming.

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The present study was designed to assess the effect of toothpaste containing neem on plaque and gingivitis.

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neem gel 2017-10-26

The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL) on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the plant extract added to culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem leaf was inhibited by approximately 80% in three isolates of P. citrinum. High-performance buy neem liquid chromatography was performed to confirm the spectrophotometric results. Vegetative growth was assessed, but neem extract failed to inhibit it. Neem leaf extract showed inhibition of toxin production without retardation in fungal mycelia growth.

neem 950 mg 2015-03-30

Phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been identified in some new plant sources i.e. Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds, Zingibar officinale (ginger) rhizomes and Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves with the aim of identifying PLDs that possess high catalytic activity and stability. PLD from mustard seeds (PLD(ms)) exhibited the highest PLD specific activity, which was highly pH and temperature tolerant. PLD(ms) unlike many plant PLDs exhibited high thermal stability. The activity of PLD(ms) is optimum in the millimolar concentration of calcium ions buy neem and is independent of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). An active and stable enzyme like PLD(ms) may be utilized in the lipid industry.

neem dosage 2017-08-17

In vitro acute toxicities of azadirachtin-containing pesticides (Neemix and Bioneem), formulated with neem tree extracts, and pure azadirachtin (AZA), the believed active ingredient, were studied using hybridoma and oyster cells and were compared to results obtained using the standard in vivo Daphnia pulex toxicity assay. Neem-based pesticides showed relatively high toxicity to both hybridoma and oyster cells at concentrations of 1 microg AZA/mL and higher. The IC50 values for hybridoma cells were 2.15 microg AZA/mL for Neemix and 1.67 pg AZA/mL for Bioneem. Oyster cells had IC50 values of 2.18 microg AZA/mL for Neemix and 9.46 pg AZA/mL for Bioneem. Purified AZA, however, did not appear to be as toxic as the formulations. D. pulex was also more sensitive to neem- buy neem based pesticide exposure than that of pure AZA. The applications and limits of these two in vitro models for testing the acute toxicity of AZA-based pesticides are discussed in comparison with the in vivo D. pulex test.

neem leaf capsules 2016-07-22

The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an buy neem alternative for malaria control.

neem reviews 2015-07-25

Panc-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2 cells exposed to 10 Gy (single high dose [SDR]) or 2 buy neem Gy/d for 5 days (fractionated radiation [FIR]) with or without curcumin (CUR), neem leaf extract (NLE), or black raspberry extract (RSE) were analyzed.

dabur neem tablet 2016-05-07

Aspirin, Neem oil, valproic, adipic, benzoic, isovaleric, 3-mercaptopropionic and 4-pentenoic acids are implicated in the pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome, Jamaican vomiting sickness, and related chemical toxicities. These disorders are characterized by hyperammonemia, hypoglycemia, microvesicular steatosis and encephalopathy. The goal of this study was to determine whether chemicals implicated in Reye's-related disorders induce the mitochondrial permeability translation (MPT). The MPT is induced by opening of a high-conductance, cyclosporin-sensitive pore in the mitochondrial inner membrane, causing swelling, depolarization and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. In freshly isolated rat liver mitochondria, unhydrolyzed aspirin (300 microM) did not induce the MPT in the presence of 50 microM CaCl2. Salicylate, the hydrolysis product of aspirin and its active metabolite, was much more potent causing dose-dependent onset of the MPT in a therapeutic range of concentrations (37.5-300 microM). Similarly, Neem oil buy neem and valproic, adipic, benzoic, isovaleric, 3-mercaptopropionic and 4-pentenoic acids induced onset of the MPT. In all cases, cyclosporin A (200 nM), a specific inhibitor of the permeability transition pore, blocked the MPT caused by these inducers. Induction of the MPT by these agents was not caused by mitochondrial depolarization because concentrations of valproic acid and salicylate inducing the MPT had little effect on mitochondrial delta psi. Moreover, equivalent uncoupling caused by 5 nM carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone did not induce an MPT. These data suggest that induction of the MPT is a common pathophysiological mechanism causing mitochondrial injury in Reye's syndrome and Reye's-related drug toxicities.

neem capsule benefits 2015-01-30

The oral administration of a soxhlated buy neem crude ethanolic extract of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica Ajuss; family Meliaceae) to adult male mice for 6 weeks (one spermatogenic duration) at the rate of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg body weight per day increased the incidences of structural changes and synaptic-disturbances in meiotic chromosomes and also caused more disruptions of meiosis. The extract reduced the sperm count and increased the frequency of spermatozoa with abnormal head morphology. It is suggested that at least one of the constituents of the extract may have interfered with the DNA. The result was chromosome strand breakages, or spindle disturbances, and the regulation of genes responsible for sperm shaping was affected.

dabur neem capsules 2017-09-21

The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly buy neem bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly.

neem toothpaste review 2016-10-27

Studies were carried out to evaluate the repellent action of neem oil against Culex quinquefasciatus. Application of 2 and 5 per cent neem oil @ 5 ml/person/night gave 50 and 40.9 per cent protection in indoor collections and 17.4 and 5.6 per cent in outdoor collections as compared with that of untreated buy neem control respectively. The protection time ranged from 0100 to 0300 hrs and 0100 to 0600 hrs in indoor and outdoor collections respectively. Results of repellent action of Autan, a synthetic mosquito repellent studied concurrently showed a relatively higher protection rate from the bites of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

neem capsules 2017-08-31

This study evaluates the disinfection of dentinal tubules using Propolis, Azadirachta indica (alcoholic and aqueous extracts), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans biofilm formed on buy neem tooth substrate.

neem 475 mg 2015-07-19

Radiosensitization by neem oil was studied using Balbc/3T3 cells and SCID cells. Neem oil enhanced the radiosensitivity of the cells when applied both during and after x-irradiation under aerobic conditions. Neem oil completely inhibited the repair of sublethal damage and potentially lethal damage repair in Balbc/3T3 cells. The cytofluorimeter data show that neem oil treatment before and after x-irradiation reduced the G(2) + M phase, thus inhibiting the expression of the radiation induced arrest of cells in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle. However, SCIK cells (derived from the SCID mouse), deficient in DSB repair, treated with neem oil did not show any enhancement in the radiosensitivity. There was no effect of neem oil on SLD repair or its inhibition in SCIK cells. These results suggest that neem oil enhanced the radiosensitivity of cells by interacting with residual damage after x-irradiation, thereby converting the sublethal damage or potentially lethal damage into lethal damage, inhibiting the double-strand break repair or reducing the G(2) phase of the buy neem cell cycle.

neem juice buy 2016-07-22

An adsorbent was developed from mature leaves and stem bark of the Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree for removing zinc from water. Adsorption was carried out in a batch process with several different concentrations of zinc by varying pH. The uptake of metal was very fast initially, but gradually slowed down indicating penetration into the interior of the adsorbent particles. The data showed that optimum pH for efficient biosorption buy neem of zinc by Neem leaves and stem bark was 4 and 5, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity showed that the Neem biomass had a mass capacity for zinc (147.08 mg Zn/g for Neem leaves and 137.67 mg Zn/g Neem bark). The experimental results were analyzed in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic assessment of the metal ion-Neem tree biomass system indicated the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process and DeltaG degrees values were evaluated as ranging from -26.84 to -32.75 (Neem leaves) kJ/mol and -26.04 to -29.50 (Neem bark) kJ/mol for zinc biosorption. Due to its outstanding zinc uptake capacity, the Neem tree was proved to be an excellent biomaterial for accumulating zinc from aqueous solutions.

neem with alcohol 2015-06-05

A controlled prospective study. buy neem

dabur neem tablets 2016-04-06

Plant latex is an endogenous fluid secreted from highly specialized laticifer cells and has been suggested to act as a plant defense system. The chemical profile of the latex of Euphorbia peplus was buy neem investigated. A total of 13 terpenoids including two previously unknown diterpenoids, (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,6R*,8R*,l1R*,13S*,14S*,15R*, 16R*)-5,8,15-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-11,16-dihydroxy-9-oxopepluane and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,8,9,14-pentaacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15-hydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene), ten known diterpenoids, and a known acyclic triterpene alcohol peplusol, were identified, using HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS analyses and through comparison with the authentic compounds isolated from the whole plant. The diterpenoids exhibited significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), with EC50 values ranging from 0.36 to 4.60 μg/cm(2). In particular, (2R*,3R*,4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,9,14-tetraacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-8,15-dihydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,14-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-8,15-dihydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxy-9-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene had EC50 values of 0.36 and 0.43 μg/cm(2), respectively, which were approximately 7-fold more potent than commercial neem oil (EC50 = 2.62 μg/cm(2)). In addition, the major peplusol showed obvious antifungal activity against three strains of agricultural phytopathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum litchi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The results indicated that terpenoids in the latex of E. peplus are rich and highly diversified, and might function as constitutive defense metabolites against insect herbivores and pathogens for the plant.

neem pills 2016-10-16

Margosa oil (MO), a fatty acid-rich extract of the seeds of the neem tree and a reported cause of Reye's syndrome, has been used in the induction of an experimental model of Reye's syndrome in rats. It has been reported that MO causes a decrease in in vivo mitochondrial enzyme activity similar to that seen in Reye's syndrome. We have attempted to uncover some of the biochemical mechanisms of MO's toxicity by examining its effect in vitro on isolated rat liver mitochondria. Male rat liver mitochondria were isolated by centrifugation; oxygen uptake, reduced forms of cytochrome b, c + c1, a + a3, and flavoprotein, intramitochondrial Bactrim Dosing Infants concentrations of acetyl coA, acid-soluble coA, acid-insoluble coA, and ATP content were measured after incubation with and without MO. Our results reveal that MO is a mitochondrial uncoupler. State 4 respiration was increased while the respiratory control ratio was decreased. The intramitochondrial content of ATP was also decreased. There were substantial changes in the reduction of the respiratory chain components after incubation of mitochondria with MO. This decelerative effect on mitochondrial electron transport was alleviated by the addition of coenzyme Q and/or carnitine. These effects of MO on mitochondrial respiration may be due to changes in fatty acid metabolism caused by MO as MO caused a shift in the proportion of acid-soluble or acid-insoluble coA esters. Supplementary therapy with L-carnitine and coenzyme Q may be useful in the management of MO-induced Reye's syndrome.

neem tab 2017-10-03

Fifty-four sexually immature female rats that were Tegretol Generic Substitution 24-25 days of age.

neem tablets 2016-09-08

Surface application of CNO and copper synergistically prevents fungal growth on bindered anthracite briquettes and increases Abilify 400 Mg their room temperature strength.

neem gel 2016-12-15

The novel composite dressing may be a potential alternative to ACC dressings, and has the added advantages of having antimicrobial properties as well as the ability to promote a moist wound environment. However, more research is Flagyl Pediatric Dose needed.

neem 950 mg 2017-12-11

Head lice infections are a growing problem in the light of increasing migration of large population as well as the increasing current refugee flows and concomitant poor hygienic conditions. These infections are associated with a significantly reduced quality of life and frequent medical consultations. The approved drugs for the treatment of head lice infections have some disadvantages in the treatment despite their good efficacy. In addition to irritant-toxic substances that can cause adverse reactions in patients, a partial development of resistance has occurred and a double application is necessary to achieve adequate efficacy. For this reason, we have decided to test a product without the aforementioned treatment drawbacks. We examined the effect of Licener® on the head lice treatment through individual therapy trials. We identified 65 patients with head lice infections for the treatment with Licener®. All Imdur Mg patients were treated with Licener® and visited for a period of 2 weeks. Successfully treated patients had no relapses. Against the background of this study and based on the observations of our applications, we expect that Licener® could enhance considerably the therapeutic options for the treatment of head lice infections, as an alternative to classical products.

neem dosage 2016-11-30

Chlorhexidine (mean Levitra Generic Online plaque score=1.65) inhibited plaque growth significantly more than the herbal mouthrinse (mean plaque score=1.43, P<0.001). The results of the questionnaire showed that Herboral was preferred by patients for its taste, its convenience of use and taste duration (aftertaste). However, Chlorhexidine was considered to be more effective in reducing plaque as compared to Herboral.

neem leaf capsules 2017-08-05

Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition Imitrex Brand Name zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10-1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

neem reviews 2015-12-10

Androgenic haploids of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) were produced by anther culture at the early- to late-uninucleate stage of pollen. Haploid formation occurred via callusing. The best medium for inducing callusing in the anther cultures was Murashige and Skoog's basal medium (MS) (9% sucrose) supplemented with 1 microM 2,4-D, 1 microM NAA and 5 microM Astelin Generic BAP, while anther callus multiplied best on MS medium supplemented with 1 microM 2,4-D and 10 microM Kn. These calli differentiated shoots when transferred to a medium containing BAP; 5 microM BAP was optimum for young calli (75% cultures differentiated shoots), but older calli showed the best regeneration with 7.5 microM BAP. Shoots elongated at a lower concentration of BAP-0.5 microM. These shoots were multiplied by forced axillary branching and rooted in vitro. The plants were subsequently established in soil. Of the plants that regenerated from anther callus 60% were haploid, 20% were diploid and 20% were aneuploid.

dabur neem tablet 2015-01-28

The search for a relatively cheap, widely available, widely accepted and effective contraceptive of plant origin; that is equally non-invasive in administration, non-hormonal in action, non-toxic and that is relatively long-acting, generated our interest in this study (in order to meet the increasing need for population control). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alcoholic extract of Neem flowers on the estrous cycle, ovulation, fertility and foetal morphology of cyclic adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

neem capsule benefits 2015-08-28

Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem seed product Mite-Stop against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract was diluted 1:40 and 1:50 with tap water just prior to use. Application of the two dilutions of the provided product was performed to soil, cracks and crevices of the examined area as well as to mite-infested birds on day 0 and day 7. Two hours after treatment soil dust was collected from sprayed regions of the stable and from unsprayed control regions of the same stable. The treated chickens were also checked for mites 2 h after each treatment. The examination of the chickens 2 h after spraying showed that they were free of mites. The examination of treated soil with the Tullgren funnel apparatus 2 h after the first spraying on day 0 already showed a considerable reduction of living mites compared to controls. Seven days after the first treatment of the soil the number of living mites was reduced for 80% in the treated soil and decreased even more after the second spraying, since those larvae that had hatched from eggs in the meantime were killed. The 1:40 dilution of the neem seed extract with tap water was superior to the 1:50 dilution. These results clearly show a very high killing rate of the extract, if the mites come in direct contact with the compound. However, in order to obtain extinction also of hidden and freshly hatched stages repeated spraying should be done three times within 8-10 days.

dabur neem capsules 2016-03-20

Extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, negatively affected feeding and development of Clavigralla scutellaris (Westwood), a coreid pest of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh. Labial dabbing, pod wall penetration, and seed damage by fifth instars were significantly reduced on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), that had been dipped in aqueous, methanolic, or hexane extracts of neem seed kernel. When fourth instars were dipped directly into aqueous extract, developmental abnormalities of the wings occurred at all levels tested and fecundity dropped to zero at concentrations above 0.3125%. The LC50 value was 3.14% (220 ppm azadirachtin) at 8 d. The scelionid wasp Gryon fulviventre (Crawford) is an important natural enemy of Clavigralla spp.; egg mortality from this parasitoid ranged from 37 to 85% during the fall cropping season. Feeding by newly emerged wasps was dramatically reduced when honey was mixed with aqueous neem suspension, but 6-d survivorship of adults did not differ significantly from that of the control. Wasp oviposition behavior was altered slightly when coreid eggs were treated with neem: the period of antennation was significantly extended, but time for drilling, oviposition, and marking was unaffected. Neem-dipped eggs were accepted for oviposition and progeny emerged successfully from these treated eggs. Exposure of already parasitized eggs to neem did not interfere with progeny emergence, longevity, or sex ratio. Thus, neem extract and egg parasitoids seem to be compatible and promising control strategies for C. scutellaris. Our results suggest that use of neem against pod-sucking bugs will not interfere with natural control provided by G. fulviventre.

neem toothpaste review 2016-09-14

This study analyzed the antimicrobial effect of five irrigants formulated from different parts of the tree Azadirachta indica (Neem) and compared with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate through an agar diffusion test.

neem capsules 2015-10-22

Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the relative performance of medicinal and aromatic plant materials and dicyandiamide (DCD) as nitrification inhibitors to regulate transformation of N from urea. Their effect on the efficiencies of use of N by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis cv. Hy 77) was tested. Urea was coated with these materials viz., Mentha spicata, Artemisia annua or DCD at the rate of 5% (w/w) of fertilizer urea using an appropriate coating technique. Nimin (tetranortriterpenoids, an ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) coating was done at the rate of 1% w/w of urea. Fertilizer nitrogen was applied at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) soil. These natural coating materials significantly increased the herb and essential oil yields of the crop at both rates of fertilizer nitrogen compared to urea alone and were found to be as effective as DCD in retarding NO3- formation in soil. Herb yield increased by 6-81% when compared to uncoated urea. The increase in essential oil yield ranged between 3% and 68% due to coating. The effectiveness of the nitrification-inhibitor--coated urea, however, varied with the soils used and the rate of fertilizer nitrogen applied. The results suggest that the natural products could be potential nitrification inhibitors for increasing fertilizer N use efficiency.

neem 475 mg 2015-01-14

Herbal mouthrinse was found to be a potent plaque inhibitor, though less effective than Chlorhexidine Gluconate. However, it can serve as a good alternative for the patients with special needs as in case of diabetics, xerostomics, and so on.

neem juice buy 2015-06-06

Standardized aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves (AIE) has been reported to show both ulcer protective and ulcer healing effects in normal as well as in diabetic rats. To study the mechanism of its ulcer protective/healing actions, effects of AIE (500 mg/ kg) was studied on various parameters of offensive acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligation, pentagastrin (PENTA, 5 microg/kg/hr)-stimulated acid secretion and gastric mucosal proton pump activity and defensive mucin secretion including life span of gastric mucosal cells in rats. AIE was found to inhibit acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligated rats. Continuous infusion of PENTA significantly increased the acid secretion after 30 to 180 min or in the total 3 hr acid secretion in rat stomach perfusate while, AIE pretreatment significantly decreased them. AIE inhibited the rat gastric mucosal proton pump activity and the effect was comparable with that of omeprazole (OMZ). Further, AIE did not show any effect on mucin secretion though it enhanced life span of mucosal cells as evidenced by a decrease in cell shedding in the gastric juice. Thus, our present data suggest that the ulcer protective activity of AIE may be due to its anti-secretary and proton pump inhibitory activity rather than on defensive mucin secretion. Further, acute as well as sub acute toxicity studies have indicated no mortality with 2.5 g/kg dose of AIE in mice and no significant alterations in body or tissues weight, food and water intake, haematological profile and various liver and kidney function tests in rats when treated for 28 days with 1 g/kg dose of AIE.

neem with alcohol 2015-02-07

Immunomodulatory effects of neem oil were studied in mice. The animals were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with neem oil; control animals received the emulsifying agent with or without peanut oil. Peritoneal lavage, collected on subsequent days, showed a maximum number of leukocytic cells on day 3 following treatment with neem oil; peritoneal macrophages exhibited enhanced phagocytic activity and expression of MHC class-II antigens. Neem oil treatment also induced the production of gamma interferon. Spleen cells of neem oil-treated animals showed a significantly higher lymphocyte proliferative response to in vitro challenge with Con A or tetanus toxoid (TT) than that of the controls. Pre-treatment with neem oil, however, did not augment the anti-TT antibody response. The results of this study indicate that neem oil acts as a non-specific immunostimulant and that it selectively activates the cell-mediated immune (CMI) mechanisms to elicit an enhanced response to subsequent mitogenic or antigenic challenge.