omnicef 600 mg
There is an increasing spread and incidence of penicillin-resistant bacteria that are becoming less susceptible to commonly prescribed oral antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Against this background, we undertook this study to determine the prevalence of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the in-vitro activity of oral antimitrobials. Between April 1996 and December 1997, in 245 children with respiratory tract infections (bronchitis in 61, pharyngitis in 115, and tonsillitis in 69), 119 strains of Haemophilus influenzae, 89 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 61 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 36 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and 34 strains of Moraxella catarrhalis were isolated from the pharynx. The antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was assessed by a broth microdilution method. The isolation incidence of penicillin-intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) and penicillin-highly resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) was 59.0% and 13.1%, respectively. Most strains of PISP and PRSP were highly resistant to cefaclor, cefpodoxime, cefteram, cefdinir, clarithromycin, ampicillin, and minocycline, but susceptibile to ofloxacin and cefditoren (CDTR). The in-vitro activity of CDTR was superior to that of other cephalosporins, such as cefaclor, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime, when tested against both the beta-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae isolated. CDTR was also active against all the other strains, including methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, S. pyogenes, and M. catarrhalis. This study suggested that CDTR was a useful oral antibiotic for pediatric respiratory tract infections.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir, or placebo for 7 days in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. The primary outcomes were the rate of nutritional recovery and the mortality rate.
omnicef brand name
Variables related to compliance for families filling antibiotic prescriptions and children taking these products are important in the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Because final assessment is likely to vary considerably among health care personnel, decisions must be made on an individual basis.
omnicef peds dosing
The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for determining cefdinir in beagle dog plasma. After simple pretreatment for plasma with 6% perchloric acid, a volume of 100 μL upper layer of the plasma sample was injected into the self-made on-line SPE column. The analytes were retained on the trap column (Lichrospher C(18), 4.6 mm × 37 mm, 25 μm), and the biological matrix was washed out with the solvent (20mM KH(2)PO(4) adjusted pH 3.0) at flow rate of 2 mL/min. By rotation of the switching valve, the target analytes could be eluted from trap column to analytical column in the back-flush mode by the mobile phase (methanol-acetonitrile-20mM KH(2)PO(4) adjusted pH 3.0, 11.25:6.75:82, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, and then separated on the analytical column (Ultimate XB-C(18), 4.6 mm × 50 mm, 5 μm). The complete cycle of the on-line SPE preconcentration, purification and HPLC separation of the analytes was 4 min. The UV detection was performed at 286 nm. The calibration curves showed excellent linear relationship (R(2)=0.9995) over the concentration range of 0.05-50 μg/mL. The optimized method showed good performance in terms of specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. This method was successfully applied to quantify cefdinir in beagle dog plasma to support the pre-clinical pharmacokinetic trial.
omnicef o tablet
We tested abilities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefdinir to select resistant mutants in 5 beta-lactamase positive and 5 beta-lactamase negative Haemophilus influenzae strains by single and multistep methodology. In multistep tests, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefpodoxime exposure did not cause >4-fold minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase after 50 days. One mutant selected by cefdinir had one amino acid substitution (Gly490Glu) in PBP3 and became resistant to cefdinir. Cefixime exposure caused 8-fold MIC-increase in 1 strain with TEM but the mutant remained cefixime susceptible and had no alteration in PBP3 or TEM. Among 10 strains tested, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin caused >4-fold MIC increase in 6, 6, 5, and 2 strain, respectively. Despite the increases in quinolone MICs, none of the mutants became resistant to quinolones by established criteria. Quinolone selected mutants had quindone resistance-determining region (QRDR) alterations in GyrA, GyrB, ParC, ParE. Four quinolone mutants had no QRDR alterations. Among beta-lactams cefdinir and cefixime selected one mutant each with higher MICs however amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cefpodoxime exposure did not select resistant mutants.
omnicef dose form
Cefdinir (Omnicef; Abbott Laboratories) is a cephalosporin antibiotic primarily eliminated by the kidney. Nonlinear renal elimination of cefdinir has been previously reported. Cefdinir renal transport mechanisms were studied in the erythrocyte-free isolated perfused rat kidney. Studies were performed with drug-free perfusate and perfusate containing cefdinir alone to establish the baseline physiology and investigate cefdinir renal elimination characteristics. To investigate cefdinir renal transport mechanisms, inhibition studies were conducted by coperfusing cefdinir with inhibitors of the renal organic anion (probenecid), organic cation (tetraethylammonium), or dipeptide (glycylsarcosine) transport system. Cefdinir concentrations in biological samples were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Differences between treatments and controls were evaluated using analysis of variance and Dunnett's test. The excretion ratio (ER; the renal clearance corrected for the fraction unbound and glomerular filtration rate) for cefdinir was 5.94, a value indicating net renal tubular secretion. Anionic, cationic, and dipeptide transport inhibitors all significantly affected the cefdinir ER. With probenecid, the ER was reduced to 0.59, clearly demonstrating a significant reabsorptive component to cefdinir renal disposition. This finding was confirmed by glycylsarcosine studies, in which the ER was elevated to 7.95, indicating that reabsorption was mediated, at least in part, by the dipeptide transporter system. The effects of the organic cation tetraethylammonium, in which the ER was elevated to 7.53, were likely secondary in nature. The anionic secretory pathway was found to be the predominant mechanism for cefdinir renal excretion.
omnicef liquid dosing
These data demonstrate the continued evolution of and geographical variation in bacterial resistance and highlight the need for appropriate prescribing of antimicrobials in CARTI, using agents with adequate activity, based on local susceptibility profiles and PK/PD parameters.
omnicef antibiotic cost
Pediatric emergency medicine fellows report little formal teaching on cost issues, and their ability to estimate costs is poor. However, they are receptive to more education on this important issue.
omnicef 250 mg
Bacterial skin and skin structure infections commonly encountered in children include impetigo, folliculitis, furunculosis, carbuncles, wound infections, abscesses, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, acute paronychia, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. If diagnosed early and treated appropriately, these infections are almost always curable, but some have the potential to cause serious complications such as septicemia, nephritis, carditis and arthritis if diagnosis is delayed and/or treatment is inadequate. During the initial evaluation, it is important to determine whether the infection is superficial or deep, and whether it is localized or spreading. Prompt treatment is essential if the infection appears to be spreading, as the sequelae can be life threatening. Once the proper diagnosis is made, the next important step is selecting the most appropriate therapy. In children presenting with mild or moderately severe bacterial skin and skin structure infections and not requiring inpatient management or urgent operative débridement, prompt provision of oral antimicrobial therapy avoids the risk of worsening infection or hospitalization. Empiric antimicrobial therapy should be directed at the most likely pathogens, (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes), although some infections (e.g. subcutaneous abscesses and cellulitis following animal or human bites) may have a polymicrobial origin. In choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy, one must take into account the resistance profile of the target pathogen, the agent's antibacterial profile and intrinsic activity against the target pathogen, and its pharmacokinetic properties (including absorption, elimination, and extent of tissue penetration). Other factors to consider include tolerability of the drug, convenience of the dosing regimen, and acceptability and palatability of the oral formulation administered. Any treatment plan for bacterial skin and skin structure infections should aim to minimize the emergence of resistant organisms so that the risk of their dissemination to others in the community is reduced. Oral antimicrobial agents currently available that may be considered include: beta-lactamase-stable penicillins (e.g. cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium), the macrolides (e.g. erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin), and the cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are now the most commonly used class, particularly because of increasing resistance among strains of S. pyogenes to erythromycin (and by implication, the other macrolides). The second- and third-generation cephalosporins have many advantages, with their extended spectra of antimicrobial activity, favorable pharmacokinetic and tolerability profiles, and convenient dosage schedules. The third-generation agent, cefdinir, has good activity against a broad range of likely pathogens, including staphylococci, a twice-daily administration schedule, a favorable efficacy and tolerability profile, is well accepted by young children when administered as an oral suspension, and may be an attractive alternative in the pediatric setting.
omnicef 80ml dosage
Cefdinir, a broad spectrum third-generation cephalosporin for oral administration, was prepared by the following synthetic pathway: synthesis of diphenylmethyl 7beta-amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate hydrochloride from 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), preparation of sodium 2-(2-tritylaminothiazol-4-yl)-(Z)-2-(tritylhydroxyimino) acetate from ethyl acetoacetate, coupling of both intermediaries to obtain diphenylmethyl 7beta-[2-(2-tritylaminothiazol-4-yl)-(Z)-2-tritylhydroxyimino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate and final cleavage of trityl and diphenylmethyl protective groups. This procedure allows to obtain better yields of cefdinir and to avoid the use of diketene during the synthesis of this antibiotic by the previously reported method.
omnicef peds dosage
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cefdinir in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate bacterial community acquired pneumonia (CAP).
omnicef dosage calculator
To compare the safety and efficacy of a 5-day regimen of cefdinir with those a conventional 10-day regimen of penicillin V for the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis in children.
omnicef 250 dosage
We have previously reported that the Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical failure cases treated with cefdinir and aztreonam, beta-lactams exhibited high MICs. These resistant isolates were clearly separated from the isolates exhibiting a low level of resistance to beta-lactams as shown by the MIC distribution of cefozopran. Restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA typing revealed that the outbreak of cefozopran-resistant isolates in Kitakyushu, Japan, occurred as a result of clonal spread.
omnicef drug class
Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is a common reason for healthcare visits, and one of the more common reasons for the use of antibiotics. In an effort to improve the diagnosis and appropriate therapy of ABRS, several guidelines have been developed. Current guidelines recommend extended-spectrum cephalosporins as one of the first-line options for the treatment of this condition. In addition, most cephalosporins recommended by recent guidelines (e.g. cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefdinir) are unlikely to be associated with cross-reactivity with penicillins, and may be considered effective alternatives to amoxicillin in adults who are allergic to penicillin.
Nasopharyngeal cultures for aerobic and facultative bacteria were obtained before therapy and 2 to 4 days after completion of therapy.
omnicef infant dosage
Cefdinir (FK482), a new oral cephalosporin with enhanced beta-lactamase stability, was tested by microbroth dilution against respiratory, urogenital, and skin and skin-structure bacterial pathogens. Included were beta-lactamase (beta LAC)-producing and -nonproducing isolates. Activity was compared with that of other orally administered beta-lactams. Cefdinir minimum inhibitory concentrations for 90% of isolates MIC90s (microgram/ml) were < or = 0.5 versus beta LAC+/oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus, aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus; < or = 0.06 versus Streptococcus groups A and B, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae beta LAC+; 0.125 versus S. pneumoniae penicillin-susceptible and Proteus mirabilis beta LAC+; 0.25 versus beta LAC+ versus strains of Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and K. oxytoca; 0.5 versus Haemophilus influenzae beta LAC-; 1 versus H. influenzae beta LAC+; 4 versus Legionella pneumophila beta LAC+; and 8 versus Enterococcus faecalis beta LAC-strains. Cefdinir was equally effective against both standard and high inocula of S. aureus strains producing A, B, C, or D beta LAC types. MICs were also generated versus quality-control reference strains.
Of 367 parents/guardians who completed the questionnaire, better ease of use (p = 0.009) and taste (p < 0.0001) were associated with cefdinir versus amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment, and children were significantly more likely to experience vomiting with amoxicillin/clavulanate (16% vs 8%; p = 0.016). Parents also reported that their children were much more likely to take all of their medication if receiving cefdinir (68% vs 53% for amoxicillin/clavulanate; p = 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in work/daycare missed.
omnicef 300mg capsules
This analysis of the results of 7 trials compared the taste and smell acceptability scores of cefdinir oral suspension and 4 other pediatric antibiotic oral suspensions--amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, cefprozil, azithromycin, or generic amoxicillin--using a visual smile-face scale.
Open label noncomparative trial.
omnicef 125 mg
In this retrospective study (2003-2004), the authors compared the susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens to cefdinir and selected antibiotics in children who were evaluated for urinary tract infections in an urban tertiary academic pediatric emergency department. Pathogens (community acquired vs. opportunistic or nosocomial) were categorized as susceptible, indeterminate, or resistant on the basis of antibiotic susceptibility breakpoints. The frequency of these categorizations for individual drugs was determined.
In order to investigate penicillin resistance (Pcr) in Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical sources in Japan, a total 1,127 strains of S. pneumoniae was collected at random from 36 institutions participating to "Working group for Pcr S. pneumoniae" around the country in 1993-1994. These strains were isolated more frequently from sputum (38.2%), throat (31.4%), nasal discharge (16.4%), and otorrhea (5.7%). A small number of isolates from blood (19 strains; 1.8%), cerebrospinal fluid (11 strains; 1.0%), and pleural fluid (2 strains; 0.2%) were included respectively. Patients from whom S. pneumoniae was isolated have mostly been associated with children < or = 12 years of age and adults 60 < or = years olds. These isolates were tested for susceptibility to penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, cefixime, cefdinir, imipenem, panipenem, erythromycin, clindamycin, minocycline, and vancomycin by an agar dilution method using Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 10% sheep blood. Strains with the MICs > or = 0.125 micrograms/ml for penicillin G were defined as a Pc resistance. Of the 1,127 strains, 471 strains (41.8%) were identified as a Pc resistance. Pcr S. pneumoniae were almost resistant to other beta-lactams, including ampicillin, oxacillin, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefdinir. Although, the MICs of imipenem and panipenem ragned from 0.004-2.0 micrograms/ml with 2 peaks distributions, these antibiotics inhibited the growth of most of Pcr S. pneumoniae at the lowest concentrations of < or = 0.5 microgram/ml. Only vancomycin resistant strain was not detected in these isolates. Most of the Pcr strains were simultaneously resistant to macrolides and minocycline. Further more, isolation frequencies of Pcr S. pneumoniae in west Japan, were relatively high compared with those of east Japan.
omnicef 100 mg
The application of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data in conjunction with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibacterial agents has been shown to allow for improved selection and appropriate dosing of antimicrobial agents for specific infections, increasing the likelihood of bacteriologic cure and, through this, reducing the risk for the development of resistant organisms.
Impetigo can result from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Wolf's isotopic response is the occurrence of a new cutaneous disorder at the site of a previously healed disease. A cutaneous immunocompromised district is an area of skin that is more vulnerable than the rest of the individual's body.
omnicef 200 mg
The aim of the present study was to develop nonionic surfactant based vesicles (niosomes) to improve poor and variable oral bioavailability of cefdinir.