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From both commercial and Medicare Advantage perspectives, mirabegron was the most clinically effective treatment, while oxybutynin was the least expensive. Tolterodine immediate release (IR) was also on the cost-effectiveness frontier. The analysis estimated costs per QALY of $59,690 and $66,347 for mirabegron from commercial health plan and Medicare Advantage perspectives, respectively, compared to tolterodine IR. Other antimuscarinics were dominated.
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The study included 240 children with day-time urinary incontinence. Of these, 45 had faecal problems and 17% obtained urinary continence when these were successfully treated. In total, 126 (55%) became dry on standard urotherapy. Of the 60 children who had a timer-watch in addition to standard urotherapy, 70% became dry. Of the 62 children who had anticholinergics in addition to standard urotherapy, 81% became continent. Fifteen (6%) did not achieve continence and another 11 patients were lost to follow-up. Children who became dry solely on standard urotherapy had a significantly lower voiding frequency (p<0.05), larger voided volumes as a percentage of those expected for age (p<0.01) and fewer incontinence episodes per week (p<0.05) than children needing anticholinergics.
There is a lack of evidence about the efficacy and safety of anticholinergic drugs and about the optimal anticholinergic drug, if any, for the treatment of adult neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO).
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Data from 293 patients were obtained from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Japan of oxybutynin and tolterodine in patients with symptoms of an overactive bladder. The KHQ has two single-item and six multiple-item domains. To construct the short form of the KHQ one item was selected from the each of multiple-item domains, based on standardized structural coefficients estimated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a previous study. These six items include the domains: 'daily activities from role limitation', 'travel from physical limitation', 'social life from social limitation', 'family life from personal relationship', 'depressed from emotion' and 'tired from sleep and energy'. Based on the six selected items a series of psychometric analyses were conducted.
Children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity 6 to 15 years old and previously receiving oxybutynin were assigned randomly at a 3:1 ratio to treatment with transdermal or oral oxybutynin. Initial dosages (transdermal 1.3, 2.9 or 3.9 mg daily; oral 5, 10 or 15 mg daily), based on pre-study dosages, were adjusted after 2 weeks and then maintained for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline to last observation in average urine volume collected by clean intermittent catheterization.
Vaginal estrogen application may play a useful role as an adjunct in the management of common pelvic floor disorders in postmenopausal women.
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Oxybutynin does not add to the clinical effectiveness of PV in the majority of nursing home residents with urge type urinary incontinence. Selected residents may, however, become more responsive to PV while on oxybutynin. Our data are consistent with other studies of bladder relaxant medications in functionally impaired populations. New drugs and/or other interventions are needed for the large number of incontinent nursing home residents who do not respond well to PV.
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Urinary incontinence has a high prevalence in both men and women. Women suffer predominantly from stress urinary incontinence and men from urge incontinence. Other types of incontinence are less frequent. Stress urinary incontinence is caused by an insufficient urethral closure mechanism and urge incontinence by uninhibited detrusor contractions. Medical treatment is beside other conservative options and operations only one part of the treatment strategy in incontinence. Duloxetine, a serotonine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is used to treat stress urinary incontinence, can increase activity of the external urethral sphincter and is able to reduce incontinence episodes in up to 64%. Antagonists of muscarinic receptors can reduce urgency, frequency and urge incontinence as well as increase bladder capacity significantly. In Germany, trospium chloride, tolterodine, solifenacin, oxybutynin and propiverine are available to treat urge incontinence. Efficacy of these agents are comparable. However, tolerability is different and side effects, especially dry mouth, often limit their use. None of the agents show ideal efficacy or tolerability in all patients and, therefore, new agents and formulations are currently under clinical investigation.
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Between January 1998 and January 2002 symptomatic pelvic floor spasms were diagnosed in 21 children (19 girls/2 boys). Pelvic floor relaxation biofeedback was successful for treatment of this condition in 17 of 21 children. Mean duration of therapy was 3 months (12 weekly sessions) and on long term follow-up relapse was seen in 3 of 17 successfully treated children. 10 of 17 successfully treated children received anticholinergics.
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Muscarinic receptor subtypes of cultured smooth muscle cells from the human bladder body were investigated by the receptor binding assay method. The result was compared with that obtained from the human bladder body tissue to confirm whether the receptor subtypes of the cells are not changed after several passages of cell culture.
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Overactive bladder (OAB) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS) although common, are vaguely defined and difficult to diagnose and manage etiologies of storage-type lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The lack of optimal management options is a direct consequence of deficient understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these conditions. These conditions are especially prevalent in females, and cumulative contemporary epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence implicates ischemia as one of the key players in the pathophysiologic foundation of both these disorders. Taken together they make up "the" diagnostic as well as therapeutic black-hole in urologic practice. Much akin to chronic ischemic heart disease, chronic ischemia-reperfusion has been shown to cause degenerative changes at cellular and subcellular level in the bladder mucosa, smooth muscle fibers, and vesical neural and microvascular structures leading to a hypersensitive, hyperactive bladder initially, which with time invariably progresses into a failed, fibrotic and pressurized bladder. Diagnosis and management of these diseases are currently symptom focused and remains a source of much frustration. Consideration of role of ischemia connotates hope and could lead to a paradigm shift in the management of these patients with a completely new therapeutic armamentarium attacking the pathology itself. The aim of the current review is to provide a clinical thought perspective on the etiology/pathophysiology of chronic pelvic ischemia and its role as a precursor to the aforementioned conditions, and shed some light upon the potential management strategies to consider.
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In urge syndrome detrusor overactivity was present in 33% of cases before and 27% after treatment (of which 65% were de novo). Detrusor overactivity did not correlate with treatment outcome. In dysfunctional voiding increased pelvic floor activity during voiding, which was present in 67% of cases before and 56% after treatment (of which 45% were de novo), did not correlate with treatment outcome. In urge syndrome as well as in dysfunctional voiding neither maximum detrusor pressure during voiding, cystometric bladder capacity, bladder compliance nor free flow patterns correlated with treatment outcome.
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Good and fair outcomes were observed in 35 (71%) patients at 1 year and in 39 (79%) patients 6 years after detrusorectomy. In 30 (60%) patients, there was hardly any difference between the first and second follow-up. In 9 (18%) patients, formal bowel bladder augmentation was necessary: in 6 (12%) because of poor compliance and in 3 because of small bladder volume and incontinence. Seven patients improved during follow-up, 5 of them after resuming oxybutynin. In 11 patients, oxybutynin could be stopped, and in 2 the dosage could be reduced to once daily.
A randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 68 patients with OAB, placing emphasis on urinary urgency. The interventions for the 12-week treatment period, conducted by the physiotherapist, who was unaware of the progress and outcome, included a vaginal ES program using biphasic symmetric, pulsed current with a 10-Hz frequency, 400-micros pulse width, 10/5 duty cycle, and varying intensity; and oxybutynin (2.5 mg) or placebo three times per day. Identical preintervention and postintervention assessments included the measurement of warning time, urodynamics, voiding diaries, and King's Health Questionnaire.
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There were 345 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Apparent predictors of medication satisfaction, in order of magnitude of effect, were: feelings that OAB is just an inconvenience (standardized beta = -0.28; p < 0.001); less impact of OAB on daily life (standardized beta = 0.24; p < 0.001); longer duration of use (standardized beta = 0.10; p = 0.052); overwhelming urges to urinate (standardized beta = 0.10; p = 0.061); younger age (standardized beta = -0.10; p = 0.054); and more frequent medication use (standardized beta = 0.09; p = 0.096).
Overactive bladder negatively affects sexual function. Treatment with transdermal oxybutynin improved sexual function and marital relationships.
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Overactive bladder is commonly treated with oral anticholinergic drugs such as oxybutynin chloride. Although oral anticholinergic agents have been effective in controlling urinary urgency and incontinence, adverse events, particularly dry mouth, often cause patients to discontinue oral therapy and to endure incontinence. Oxybutynin can be delivered transcutaneously, maintaining the efficacy of oral oxybutynin while significantly minimizing side effects (e.g., dry mouth) that may complicate therapy. By avoiding hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of oxybutynin, less N-desethyloxybutynin (N-DEO) is produced and this compound is deemed to be responsible for anticholinergic side effects such as dry mouth. This novel oxybutynin formulation offers patients with OAB and urge urinary incontinence a well-tolerated option for managing the symptoms of overactive bladder.
Prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA).
In this article, the emphasis is on formulating a correct diagnosis when the symptom of nocturnal enuresis is present, so that an effective treatment plan can be initiated. Diagnosis may relate to structural, urodynamic, psychologic, dietary, nephrologic, or neurologic problems. The authors present the format for successful treatment of nocturnal enuresis used at the Center to Assist the Regulation of Enuresis at the Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago.
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Three thousand five hundred thirty-six Medicaid-eligible NH residents aged 65 and older taking a ChI between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004. Residents were excluded if they were taking an anticholinergic other than oxybutynin or tolterodine.
1. The pharmacological properties of an antispasmodic drug, tiropramide, were studied in isolated smooth muscle preparations. 2. Tiropramide at concentrations of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M relaxed various smooth muscles contracted spontaneously and by smooth muscle stimulants or electrical stimulation. Tiropramide did not interact with all drug-receptors examined, suggesting a pure musculotropic smooth muscle relaxant activity. 3. Tiropramide was found to inhibit both Ca uptake and Ca release in the guinea pig urinary bladder. 4. Tiropramide is considered to be useful to inhibit the contractile response of the urinary bladder, as this organ is mainly innervated by noncholinergic excitatory neurons.
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Propantheline caused a decrease of urinary bladder smooth muscle reactivity to acetylcholine. This decrease was statistically significant only at concentration of 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) mol.l(-1) of propantheline.
The oxybutynin solution remained stable up to 24 months. In 13 of the 15 children therapeutic compliance was excellent. Detrusor hyperactivity decreased and systemic side effects were absent or minimal. After 4 and 24 months mean cystometric bladder capacity plus or minus standard error of mean increased from 114+/-15.2 to 161+/-26.6 and 214+/-21.7 ml. (p <0.01), mean ratio of cystometric-to-expected bladder capacity increased from 0.88+/-0.12 to 1.18+/-0.14 and 1.24+/-0.16 (p <0.01), and end filling bladder pressure decreased from 57.0+/-7.1 to 25.6+/-4.4 and 30.8+/-4.4 cm. water (p <0.01), respectively.
Children with urgency or urge incontinence were recruited to take part in a prospective, randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial using long-acting oxybutynin or tolterodine. Patients underwent a baseline test of their memory/recall ability and attention span using a standardized developmental/neuropsychological assessment tool. They were then randomized to either medication or placebo with retesting in 2 weeks, at which time they were crossed. They were retested after the second 2 weeks.
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Nocturnal enuresis is among the most common disorders in children. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available for nocturnal enuresis. Studies for reaching the best pharmacological treatment for this disorder are continuing.
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Detrusor hyperreflexia with elevated storage pressures presents a major risk factor for renal damage in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. If standard anticholinergic treatment is unsuccessful, surgical treatment must be considered. We evaluated the effects of intravesical oxybutynin treatment on detrusor hyperreflexia in patients in whom standard oral treatment had failed.
A total of 425 patients consecutively admitted to seven Finnish nursing homes and two hospitals in 1999-2000 were examined. Details of all medications prescribed and administered were retrieved from medical records and coded according to the Beers 1997 criteria. Mortality data as well as days in acute hospital were obtained from central registers and all area hospitals during 2 years of follow-up.
To evaluate the symptomatic and urodynamic effects of oxybutynin in the control of irritative micturitional symptoms during the first week after transurethral resection of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).