Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ropinirole.
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication.
Generic Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, poor muscle control.
Requip is also known as Ropinirole, Ropidon, Adartrel, Ropark.
Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Generic Requip has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease.
Generic name of Generic Requip is Ropinirole.
Brand names of Generic Requip are Requip, Requip XL.
Take Generic Requip orally.
Take Generic Requip with or without food.
The dose and timing of Generic Requip in treating Parkinson's disease is different from the dose and timing in treating RLS.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Requip suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Requip and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Requip overdosage: nausea, vomiting, weakness, fainting, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, muscle twitching, tingly feeling, chest pain.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Requip are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Requip if you are allergic to Generic Requip components.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you have heart disease, high or low blood pressure, mental illness or compulsive behaviors, kidney or liver disease.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are taking levodopa, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), metoclopramide (Reglan), omeprazole (Prilosec); medication used to treat nausea and vomiting or mental illness, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), mesoridazine (Serentil), perphenazine (Trilafon), thioridazine (Mellaril), promazine (Sparine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thiothixene (Navane), or haloperidol (Haldol); estrogen such as Premarin, Prempro, Estratest, Ogen, Estraderm, Climara, Vivelle, estradiol and others.
Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.
Avoid alcohol and smoking.
Avoid machine driving.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Requip taking suddenly.
Parkinson's disease is a common condition, usually treated by dopaminergic agents, both ergot and non-ergot. Many behavioural abnormalities are associated with such usage, including impulse control disorders (ICDs), dopamine dysregulation syndrome and 'punding'. Pathological gambling, a form of ICD, comprises persistent and maladaptive gambling of various types that disrupts personal, family or occupational activity. Pathological gambling may be associated with other abnormal actions such as pathological shopping, hoarding and hypersexuality. The incidence varies widely from study to study but may be up to 7% of users of dopaminergic agents. Recognition of this problem has led drug regulatory agencies to add precautions concerning pathological gambling to official drug information for the entire class of antiparkinsonian medications. The literature is not entirely consistent and opinions differ greatly, but pramipexole (a dopamine D2 and D3 agonist), and perhaps ropinirole (also a D2/D3 agonist), may be especially likely to be associated with pathological gambling, although the precise nature of the relationship is unclear. Treatment involves reducing the dose of the medication or switching to another medication; unfortunately, the Parkinson's disease may worsen. The mechanism of this adverse effect is believed to be excessive dopaminergic stimulation but probably not specifically involving D3 receptors. A parallel to addictive behaviour with stimulant drugs has been noted.
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The results of our study indicate a high likelihood of ropinirole PR being cost saving or at least being considered cost effective for use in the Netherlands. However, claims included in our model regarding dyskinesia and improved medication adherence should be further supported by data from daily practice.
This was a cohort study that employed the UK General Practice Research Database. Two cohorts were assembled, one consisting of patients with an initial diagnosis of RLS between 1990 and 2004 and the other consisting of patients without RLS matched to cases in a 10:1 ratio by general practice, year of birth, sex, and registration with the practice on the case index date (date of the RLS diagnosis). The frequency of RLS-specific symptoms was estimated based on records of prescriptions for sleep medications and antidepressants, and reported cramps and leg problems other than RLS. Rates of resource use in the 2 years before and after the index date were estimated for both cohorts based on the numbers of total prescriptions, referrals to secondary care, and laboratory tests.
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Pharmacodynamical differences between dopamine agonists (DAs) suggest differences in their adverse drug reactions (ADRs) profile. In this study, frequencies of ADR to DAs or levodopa reports in the French Pharmacovigilance Database were explored. Reports occurring between January 1, 1984 and December 31, 2008 were selected (2,189 for DAs and 1,315 for levodopa). The numbers of ADRs by system organ class were compared using ropinirole as a reference. Diurnal somnolence was less frequently reported with all DAs when compared with ropinirole (P < 0.001). Impulse control disorders (ICDs) were more frequently reported with pramipexole (P < 0.001). Significant difference was found among DAs in the frequency of confusion or disorientation (P < 0.001), nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05), or edemas (P < 0.001). No difference among DAs was observed in the frequency of hallucination or arterial hypotension ADR reports (P = 0.3 and P = 0.1). Pleural effusions were more frequently reported with pergolide or bromocriptine (P < 0.001). Somnolence or ICD reports were less frequent with levodopa, whereas confusion was more frequently reported. In summary, our data show significant differences in the kind of ADRs reported for each DA.
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Current Health Canada instructions for use of the dopamine agonists (DA), pramipexole and ropinirole, state that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients should be told not to drive. The objective was to assess neurologists' actual clinical practice concerning driving advice they give to PD patients starting a DA.
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Depression occurs in approximately 45% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), reduces quality of life independent of motor symptoms and seems to be underrated and undertreated. Characteristics of symptoms differ from major depression. Because of overlapping clinical symptoms, diagnosis is based on subjectively experienced anhedonia and feeling of emptiness. Available rating scales for major depression may not be adequate to correctly measure severity of depression in PD. Anxiety and depression may manifest as first symptoms of PD many years before motor symptoms. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms play key roles in the etiology of depression in PD. Tricyclic and newer, selective antidepressants including serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, SNRI) appear to be effective in treating depression in PD. Selective reuptake inhibitors seem to have a favorable side effect profile. Recent controlled studies show antidepressant effects of pramipexole in bipolar II depression. New dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropinirole appear to ameliorate depressive symptoms in PD in addition to effects on motor symptoms. There is a lack of appropriate rating scales and controlled studies regarding depression in PD.
Inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. Recently, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is identified as an important component controlling innate immunity and inflammatory response in central nervous system, and αB-crystallin (CRYAB) is a potent negative regulator on inflammatory pathways. Here, we sought to investigate the role of DRD2 on neuroinflammation after experimental ICH and the potential mechanism mediated by CRYAB.
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A retrospective drug utilization evaluation was conducted in patients who received levodopa or dopamine agonist for RLS from July 1, 2006, to July 31, 2007. Patients' medical records were reviewed and data were collected on demographics; comorbidities; laboratory values; doses of levodopa or dopamine agonists; prescribing physician's specialty; and use of alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine.
Impulse control disorders (ICD) are reported to occur at variable frequencies in different ethnic groups. Genetic vulnerability is suspected to underlie the individual risk for ICD. We investigated whether the allelic variants of dopamine (DRD3), glutamate (GRIN2B) and serotonin (HTR2A) receptors are linked to ICD in Indian Parkinson's disease (PD) patients.
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1. Ropinirole, SK&F 101468 has been characterized preclinically as a specific dopamine D2-receptor agonist. Nine male healthy subjects were investigated for the effects on supine and erect heart rate and blood pressure, catecholamines and prolactin, of a single dose of 800 micrograms ropinirole preceded by a single dose of 20 mg domperidone or domperidone-placebo, and those of a single dose of domperidone followed by ropinirole-placebo. 2. Single doses of 800 micrograms ropinirole did not cause clinically significant changes in supine resting heart rate and blood pressure. However, they caused postural faintness on 3 min immobile upright standing on 10/26 occasions. 3. Pretreatment with 20 mg domperidone 1 h before administration of ropinirole prevented the postural symptoms in all but one subject. It did not alter ropinirole's plasma pharmacokinetics. 4. Ropinirole did not alter supine or standing catecholamine concentrations. 5. Domperidone increased the plasma concentrations of prolactin whereas ropinirole administered alone reduced them. A single dose of 800 micrograms ropinirole did not attenuate the prolactin increase induced by a single dose of 20 mg domperidone administered 1 h earlier.
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Eleven subjects (11.7%) were classified as having definitive or highly suggestive clinical indication of augmentation. In comparing the augmentation group with the non-augmentation group, there were no significant differences of baseline clinical characteristics. Four (13.3%) of the dopamine agonists monotherapy group and seven (10.9%) of the combination therapy group were categorized as augmentation. There was no significant difference in the augmentation rate between these two groups.
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A retrospective chart review was used to examine our experience with dopamine agonist use in the very elderly by identifying patients in our Parkinson's disease database who were over the age of 80 years and who had received agonists. Sixty-nine patients were identified who had 120 separate trials of agonist therapy. Successful treatment with the agonist was defined as maintenance of the agonist for a minimum of 6 months.
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To review the use of newer dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropinirole, in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS).
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The novel naphtoxazine derivative and preferential D(3) vs D(2) receptor agonist, S32504, restores perturbed motor function in rodent and primate models of antiparkinsonian activity with a potency superior to those of two further, preferential D(3) receptor agonists, pramipexole and ropinirole. However, potential neuroprotective properties of S32054 have not, to date, been evaluated. Herein, employing several measures of cellular integrity, we demonstrate that S32504 robustly, concentration-dependently and completely protects terminally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cell death in vitro. Further, S32504 was substantially more potent than pramipexole and ropinirole, the latter of which was neurotoxic at high concentrations. In vivo, subchronic treatment with low (0.25 mg/kg) and high (2.5 mg/kg) doses of S32504 prior to and during treatment of mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, MPTP, provided complete protection against MPTP-induced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. A high dose of ropinirole (2.5 mg/kg) provided some protection but statistical significance was not attained, and a low dose (0.25 mg/kg) was ineffective. Neither drug afforded protection against the MPTP-induced loss of DA fibers in the striatum, as measured by TH-IR and dopamine transporter immunoreactive fiber counts. In conclusion, the novel naphotoxazine and dopaminergic agonist, S32504, robustly protects dopaminergic neurones against the neurotoxic effects of MPP(+) and MPTP in in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. The underlying mechanisms and therapeutic pertinence of these actions will be of interest to further evaluate in view of its potent actions in behavioral models of antiparkinson activity.
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Biomedical literature was accessed through MEDLINE (1990-June 2000); key terms included restless legs syndrome, pramipexole, ropinirole, and dopamine agonists. References cited in those articles were also evaluated.
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We have previously reported that specific dopamine agonists mediate protection against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress by activating the D2 receptor-coupled phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway. In the present study we examined the downstream effectors of PI-3K/Akt signaling and their role in cell death after oxidative stress and protection provided by ropinirole, a D2 receptor agonist in PC12 cells and primary cultures of dopamine neurons. Ropinirole treatment was associated with rapid translocation and phosphorylation of the PI-3K substrate Akt and phosphorylation of Akt substrates. One of these Akt downstream substrates was identified as the pro-apoptotic factor glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Ropinirole-induced protection was associated with phosphorylation of GSK-3beta (inactivation). In contrast, inhibition of PI-3K blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta (activation) and prevented the protection mediated by ropinirole. Suppression of Akt with specific short hairpin RNA in normal PC12 cells caused cell death, which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of GSK-3beta and reduced levels of beta-catenin, a transcriptional activator that is regulated by GSK-3beta. Knock-out of GSK-3beta expression with a short hairpin RNA alone was itself sufficient to cause cell death. We further demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dephosphorylates Akt and GSK-3beta, increases GSK-3beta activity, and promotes an interaction with beta-catenin and its degradation. Inhibition of GSK-3beta activity by inhibitor VIII protects cells from H2O2 similar to ropinirole. These results indicate that GSK-3beta downstream of Akt plays a critical role in cell death and survival in these models.
This is an update to an article published in this journal in 2006, which covered the initial treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this update, we review new research into symptomatic treatments, potential disease modifying ("neuroprotective") agents, and evidence-based reviews of current treatment. We discuss the usage of the MAO-B inhibitors, including the controversy surrounding the possible neuroprotective effects of rasagiline. Usage of extended release formulations of pramipexole and ropinirole, as well as the transdermal dopamine agonist rotigotine, are reviewed. Side effects of the dopamine agonists are discussed, including the cardiac side effects of ergot-derived dopamine agonists, and the impulse control disorders associated with the dopamine agonists. The use of zonisamide as an agent for PD tremor is reviewed. We touch on the clinical research into the benefits of exercise in PD, and briefly review some of the current studies for new formulations of levodopa and other medications and treatments with novel mechanisms of action.
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Review of scientific literature on RLS, particularly focusing on treatment with ropinirole.
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The first effective drugs for Parkinson's disease (PD) were anticholinergics, introduced at the end of 19.th century by Charcot. Since the introduction of levodopa in the sixties of the previous century, many new drugs have emerged for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: dopamine agonists (ergot as well as non-ergot, bromocriptine, pergolide, mirapexine, ropinirole), MAO B inhibitors (selegiline, rasagiline), amantadine, COMT inhibitors (entacapone, tolcapone). In all stages of the disease, levodopa remains the most effective drug for improving motor symptoms in PD. However, long term treatment with levodopa is accompanied by the development of motor fluctuations, dyskinesia, cognitive and neuropsychiatric adverse effects and increasingly diverse spectrum of drugs is needed to alleviate motor and nonmotor symptoms. Some of these drugs have caused considerable concern and controversies and were regarded at certain points as the 'bad guys' of Parkinson's disease pharmacological armamentarium. In the article, a short review of 'bad guys' including anticholinergics, selegiline, tolcapone and dopamine agonists, is given.
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Our meta-analysis showed long-acting NEDAs were noninferior to standard NEDAs in efficacy, tolerability, and safety in the treatment of PD.
Two patients with Parkinson's disease received treatment with ropinirole and/or pramipexole, during which both experienced sleep attacks. These attacks may be a class effect of non-ergot dopamine agonists. Health care professionals should be aware of the potential of these agents to cause sleep attacks and caution patients about this potentially life-threatening adverse effect.
In addition to the classical motor symptoms, motivational and affective deficits are core impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently demonstrated, by lesional approaches in rats, that degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons is likely to have a crucial role in the development of these neuropsychiatry symptoms. We have also shown that, as in clinical investigations, chronic treatment with levodopa or the DA D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) agonist ropinirole specifically reverses these PD-related motivational deficits. The roles of specific DA receptor subtypes in such reversal effects remain, however, unknown. We therefore investigated here the precise involvement of D1, D2 and D3R in the reversal of the motivational and affective deficits related to SNc DA neuronal loss. Three weeks after bilateral and partial 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) SNc lesions, rats received 14 daily intraperitoneal administrations of the selective D1R agonist SKF-38393 (2.5 or 3.5 mg kg(-1)), the selective D2R agonist sumanirole (0.1 or 0.15 mg kg(-1)), or the preferring D3R gonist PD-128907 (0.1 or 0.15 mg kg(-1)). Anxiety-, depressive-like and motivated behaviors were assessed in an elevated-plus maze, a forced-swim test, and an operant sucrose self-administration procedure, respectively. All DA agonists attenuated anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. However, only PD-128907 reversed the motivational deficits induced by 6-OHDA SNc lesions. This effect was blocked by a selective D3R (SB-277011A, 10 mg kg(-1)), but not D2R (L-741,626, 1.5 mg kg(-1)), antagonist. These data provide strong evidence for the role of D3R in motivational processes and identify this receptor as a potentially valuable target for the treatment of PD-related neuropsychiatric symptoms.
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