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Risperidone (Risperdal) is an atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A, dopamine D2 and alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors. Risperidone is now approved in the UK and the US for use in bipolar mania. Risperidone < or =6 mg/day, as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with first-line mood stabilisers, significantly improves moderate and severe bipolar mania and improves global functioning over 3 weeks. Improvements in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores in double-blind trials were greater with risperidone than with placebo over 3 weeks, and similar to those with haloperidol over 3 and 12 weeks. Risperidone was reasonably well tolerated. Limited data are available on the combination of risperidone and carbamazepine. Risperidone, as monotherapy or combined therapy with lithium or valproate semisodium, is an effective treatment option in bipolar mania.
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The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron) was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal) in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19 +/- 1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis.
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The 90% confidence intervals for Test/Reference ratios of the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of both risperidone and its active metabolite (9-hydroxyrisperidone) fell within the acceptable bioequivalence range (80 - 125%) according to ASEAN guideline.
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Delirium occurs in up to 30% of hospitalised patients and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Recently published reports have suggested that the standard drug for delirium, haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic that may cause adverse extrapyramidal symptoms among patients, may be replaced by atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, olanzapine or quetiapine, that are as effective as haloperidol in controlling delirium, but that have a lower incidence of extrapyramidal adverse effects.
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From our study, it was concluded that these optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™ and, therefore, could further improve patient compliance.
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The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
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Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies.
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To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone orodispersible tablet products, Risperidone 1 mg Mouth dissolving tablet, Ranbaxy (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia, as a test product and Risperdal 1 mg Quicklet, Janssen Ortho LLC, Gurabo, Puerto Rico, as a reference product, in healthy male volunteers under fasting condition.
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There is no evidence that haloperidol in low dosage has different efficacy in comparison with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone in the management of delirium or has a greater frequency of adverse drug effects than these drugs. High dose haloperidol was associated with a greater incidence of side effects, mainly parkinsonism, than the atypical antipsychotics. Low dose haloperidol may be effective in decreasing the degree and duration of delirium in post-operative patients, compared with placebo. These conclusions must be tempered by the observation that they are based on small studies of limited scope, and therefore will require further corroborating evidence before they can be translated into specific recommendation for the treatment of delirium.
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To conduct a systematic review of the benefits and risks of pharmacological, behavioural and physical interventions for tics in children and young people with TS (part 1) and to explore the experience of treatment and services from the perspective of young people with TS and their parents (part 2).
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The primary objective was to determine clinicians' approaches to the use of RLAI in patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia by examining the prescribing patterns of antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications. Other objectives were to evaluate the overall safety of switching patients to RLAI from previous antipsychotic therapy and to determine patients', caregivers' and relatives' attitudes towards RLAI treatment.
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Bioequivalence between the generic 1 mg/ml risperidone solution and the originator tablet formulation was not proven in this study.
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This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics and determine bioequivalence of two risperidone immediate release oral tablets, a test formulation (Risperidone GPO® or "Test") and a reference formulation (Risperdal® or "Reference").
Randomised controlled trials comparing risperidone with placebo or other drugs in acute manic or mixed episodes.
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The efficacy and safety of risperidone have previously been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials in hospitalized chronic schizophrenia patients who met strict research criteria. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in a heterogeneous patient population. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had a diagnosis of schizophrenia (DSM-III-R) with or without acute exacerbation. Of the 945 patients from 158 psychiatric centers who entered this phase IV study, 558 completed the 10-week trial. During week 1, the dose of risperidone was titrated to 6 mg/day, maintained there for 1 week, and then adjusted over a 4-week period as clinically necessary; the dose was then fixed for the final 4-week period. The mean dose of risperidone at endpoint was 5.9 mg/day. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, and 10, using Clinical Global Impression scale, Psychotic Symptoms Assessment scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Significant improvement in mean scores was found on each of these measures at endpoint. Comparable results were obtained at week 10 in treatment-resistant and non-treatment-resistant patients. Risperidone was generally well tolerated and the severity of extrapyramidal symptoms was significantly reduced at endpoint.
Aggression is a common symptom of many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, Tourette's disorder, mood disorders (including bipolar disorder), substance-related disorders, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, intermittent explosive disorder and personality disorders (particularly antisocial personality disorder). Many forms of organic brain disorders may present with aggressive behavior. Aggression is common in some epileptic patients and some endocrinological diseases (e.g., diabetes and hyperthyroidism) may be associated with aggressive behavior. Physicians need to rule out many medical and psychiatric disorders before diagnosing aggressive behavior. A thorough diagnostic work up is the most important step in determining the nature of comorbid disorders associated with the behavioral problem. Structured interviews and rating scales completed by patients, parents, teachers and clinicians may aid the diagnosis and provide quantification for the change process related to treatment. The integration of medication, individual and family counseling, educational and psychosocial interventions including the school and community, may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Due to the common association of aggression and disruptive behaviors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychostimulants including new generation long-acting medications and other nonstimulant medications are considered the drug of choice for managing aggressive behavior and disruptive behavior disorders. Severe aggressive behavior not responding to these medications may require the single or combined use of mood regulators including lithium and/or antispychotic medications. Drugs such as risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen-Cilag) have documented effectiveness and safety in children and adolescents, and can be used in treatment.
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A total of 1232 patients (70% men; mean age 37 years; median of 8 months since most recent admission) were included in the analyses; 79% had been receiving antipsychotic therapy prior to admission. All patients received RLAI post-stabilization. The main reasons for initiating RLAI were the need for long-term treatment (76%) and a low adherence to previous treatment (71%). RLAI doses administered during hospitalization were: 25 (26%), 37.5 (29%), 50 (42%) and 75-100 mg (3%). The mean number of injections per patient (2 +/- 1) and mean hospitalization time (25 +/- 16 days) indicated that RLAI was administered every 2 weeks as per the manufacturer's recommendations. All patients were discharged on RLAI treatment; 62% were prescribed concomitant therapy, mainly oral risperidone (39%), anxiolytics (25%), antiparkinsonians (15%), hypnotics (11%) and anticonvulsants (11%). Only 5.7% of patients reported adverse events, most commonly extrapyramidal symptoms (1.1%) and somnolence (0.9%).
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Long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) is a novel, intramuscular formulation of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, which has shown efficacy in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Long-acting risperidone is pharmacokinetically equivalent to and causes less plasma drug concentration fluctuation than the oral formulation. This novel formulation is an aqueous suspension of microspheres comprising risperidone and a biodegradable copolymer. Significant release of risperidone from the microspheres begins 3 weeks after the first injection: thus, administration of another antipsychotic is necessary during this period only. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached after the fourth injection. Elimination is complete 7-8 weeks after the last injection.Long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg every 2 weeks demonstrated significantly greater antipsychotic efficacy than placebo and equivalent efficacy to oral risperidone 2-6 mg/day in two randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week trials of patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, in one of these trials, improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were superior with long-acting risperidone than placebo. Compared with baseline, improvements in the symptoms of schizophrenia in stable patients were significant with long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg (12-month trial) and 25, 37.5 or 50mg (12-week trial) every 2 weeks, in two noncomparative, multicentre trials. Patient satisfaction with their medication and patient HRQOL mental health scores improved significantly in the 12-month trial.Long-acting risperidone is generally well tolerated, with a low incidence of injection site pain and an otherwise similar profile of adverse effects to the oral formulation. The overall incidence of extrapyramidal disorders in clinical trials was low (< or= 10%) with similar, yet minimal, changes in extrapyramidal symptom severity between patients treated with long-acting risperidone, oral risperidone or placebo. Tardive dyskinesia was reported in the 12-month trial, in 0.7% of patients.
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The ODT manufacturing method was associated with time to disintegrate; the fastest were freeze dried tablets, followed by soft compressed tablets and then hard/dense tablets. Olanzapine Zydis(®) was the only ODT that completely disintegrated in less than 4 s for all strengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), followed by 5-mg Prolanz FAST(®) (12 s) and then risperidone ODT 4 mg (40 s). Reasons for slow dissolution of the olanzapine generics may include low product potency, excipient binding, excipient solubility, active ingredient particle size and incomplete disintegration.
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Types of studies included unconfounded, randomised trials with concealed allocation of subjects. For inclusion trials had to have assessed patients pre- and post-treatment. Where cross-over studies are included, only data from the first part of the study were examined. Interrupted time series were excluded. Length of trial and number of measurements did not influence the selection of trials for study. Where indicated, individual patient data were requested for further examination.
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Risperidone (Risperdal) is a recently released novel antipsychotic medication. It is different from the conventional neuroleptics, such as haloperidol, as it has both serotinergic and dopaminergic activity. It has a more tolerable side-effect profile compared with other antipsychotic medications. We review the literature regarding the side effects of risperidone use, describe a case of overdose with risperidone, and discuss the clinical sequelae and management of such an overdose.
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Atypical antipsychotic agents are widely used psychopharmacological interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among the atypical antipsychotic agents, risperidone has demonstrated considerable benefits in reducing several behavioral symptoms associated with ASDs. This meta-analysis examined research regarding the effectiveness of risperidone use among children with ASD using articles published since the year 2000.
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Risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is the first long-acting formulation of an atypical antipsychotic introduced into clinical practice. RLAI combines the benefits of atypical antipsychotic agents with an extended duration of activity and is intended for long-term management of schizophrenia. This study evaluated the use of RLAI as part of a long-term management strategy in patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia.
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The patient was referred for further medical investigation, as he was demonstrating signs suggestive of a psychiatric disorder. The patient was diagnosed with schizophrenia by a psychiatrist and was prescribed Risperdal.
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The current manuscript addresses the need for a validated in vitro release testing method for controlled release parenteral microspheres. A USP apparatus 4 method was validated with the objective of possible compendial adaptation for microsphere in vitro release testing. Commercial microspheres (Risperdal Consta) were used for method validation. Accelerated and real-time release tests were conducted. The accelerated method had significantly reduced test duration and showed a good correlation with the real-time release profile (with limited number of sample analysis). Accelerated conditions were used for method validation (robustness and reproducibility). The robustness testing results revealed that release from the microspheres was not flow rate dependent and was not affected by minor variations in the method (such as cell preparation technique, amount of microspheres, flow-through cell size and size of glass beads). The significant difference in the release profile with small variations (± 0.5°C) in temperature was shown to be due to a change in risperidone catalyzed PLGA degradation in response to temperature. The accelerated method was reproducible as changing the system/equipment or the analyst did not affect the release profile. This work establishes the suitability of the modified USP apparatus 4 for possible compendial adaptation for drug release testing of microspheres.
The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) were evaluated in a multicenter, prospective, open-label, 15-week study of 86 patients with schizophrenia. Subjects stabilized on 2, 4 or 6 mg of oral risperidone once daily for at least 4 weeks were assigned to receive i.m. injections of 25, 50 or 75 mg of risperidone, respectively, every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The 90% confidence intervals for the i.m./oral ratios of the mean steady-state plasma-AUC, corrected for dosing interval, and of the average plasma concentration of the active moiety (risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were within the range of 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence of the i.m. and oral formulations. However, mean steady-state peak concentrations of the active moiety were 25-32% lower with i.m. than oral dosing (P < 0.05) and fluctuations in plasma active-moiety levels were 32-42% lower with the i.m. than oral regimen. Symptoms of schizophrenia continued to improve after switching from oral to i.m. dosing. Long-acting risperidone was well tolerated locally and systematically. Although overall bioequivalence of the two formulations was established, the differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between the two formulations indicate potential benefits for long-acting risperidone.