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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dificid, Zmax, Biaxin XL, Zithromax

 

Also known as:  Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Rulide are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

rulide drug information

Ofloxacin is highly active against Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, but moderately active against Gram-positive cocci. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae range between 1 and 2 mg/L. MICs of roxithromycin (RU 28965) against S. pneumoniae range between 0.004 and 0.03 mg/L, but Gram-negative bacilli are resistant. The bactericidal activities of ofloxacin and roxithromycin were evaluated against 15 strains of S. pneumoniae, which were isolated recently from clinical specimens. Killing activity was evaluated under conditions simulating serum pharmacokinetic parameters. Initial concentrations were 10 mg/L for roxithromycin and 2 mg/L for ofloxacin, and the half-life was 6 hours for both compounds. Under these conditions, roxithromycin was rapidly bactericidal. The speed at which pneumococci were killed was faster with roxithromycin than with ofloxacin. No regrowth was seen with roxithromycin, but regrowth occurred in 8 of 15 strains with ofloxacin.

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We describe the obstetric consequences of Q fever diagnosed during pregnancy from a series of cases. When an antenatal diagnosis was made, antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin (Rulid(®)) was started until delivery.

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The study involved 412 strains of Gram-positive cocci isolated from throat, sputum, urine and stool of patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation at Department of Hematology. Determination of drug susceptibility was performed by disc diffusion method applying discs with roxithromycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, clindamycin and augmentin. Among strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Micrococcus susceptible strains comprised respectively 48, 48 and 45%; among group A, B, C and G streptococci respectively 92 and 52%. Among 108 strains of group D Streptococci only 24% were susceptible to roxithromycin. Comparison of susceptibility of tested strains to roxithromycin and other antibiotics revealed similar susceptibility of staphylococci and streptococci to roxithromycin and erythromycin, while among staphylococci higher percentage of strains and among streptococci lower percentage was susceptible to lincomycin than to roxithromycin.

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A two-compartment model with saturable absorption described the data (n = 63); changes in free drug exposure were simulated using a saturable protein binding model. Simulations indicated that a 300 mg daily regimen achieves a 37% and 53% lower total or free AUC (fAUC), respectively, compared with 150 mg twice daily. These pharmacokinetic differences translated to significantly lower target attainment (fAUC/MIC ratio >20) with a 300 mg daily regimen at MICs of 0.5 and 1 mg/L (51% and 7%) compared with patients receiving 150 mg twice daily (82% and 54%).

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The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 1385 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from 25 laboratories across Austria between December 1994 and January 1996 were tested. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined in tests with penicillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, cefodizime, cefpirome, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, cefadroxile, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin and roxithromycin by the agar-dilution method. A total of 40 isolates (2.9%) demonstrated intermediate resistance (MIC 0.125-1 microg/ml) and 28 isolates (2.0%) had high-level resistance (MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) to penicillin. Excepting cefadroxil, with an MIC90 of 2 microg/ml, all other tested beta-lactams had MIC90s of 0.03-0.06 microg/ml. Penicillin-resistant strains were much more likely to be also resistant to the other beta-lactams. The macrolides proved to be very active compounds against pneumococci with MIC90s of 0.06 microg/ml (clarithromycin) and 0.25 microg/ml (all other macrolides). Regional differences within Austria with regard to antimicrobial resistance were not observed.

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Our study probed the effects of the beta-2 adrenergic agonist, formoterol and the macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, on muscle wasting in a well-characterized animal model of cancer cachexia. Female Wistar rats were inoculated with Yoshida AH130 ascites hepatoma (AH) cells to induce rapid and severe cachexia as demonstrated by wet weight determinations of the hearts, gastrocnemius muscles and carcasses. The control animals received saline (vehicle) inoculations. The AH-inoculated rats were treated once daily for four days by i.p. injection with a vehicle control, 1 mg/kg formoterol, 5 and 50 mg/kg roxithromycin or 1 mg/kg formoterol plus 5, 25, 40 and 50 mg/kg roxithromycin. The saline-inoculated animals were treated by i.p. injection with vehicle control, 1 mg/kg formoterol, 5 and 40 mg/kg roxithromycin. As a result, formoterol alone reduced the loss of muscle mass in the AH-inoculated rats by approximately one-half, consistent with literature reports. Roxithromycin alone at 5 mg/kg did not affect muscle mass in the AH-inoculated rats. Roxithromycin given alone at 50 mg/kg reduced the loss of muscle mass in AH-inoculated animals by approximately one-half. With respect to the antagonizing muscle loss, formoterol combined with either 5 or 25 mg/kg roxithromycin did not reach statistical significance versus formoterol alone, while formoterol plus either 40 or 50 mg/kg roxithromycin enhanced protection against muscle loss versus formoterol alone. The gastrocnemius weights in the AH-inoculated rats treated with formoterol combined with 40 mg/kg roxithromycin were not significantly different from the muscle weights in the saline-inoculated controls. To sum up, formoterol and roxithromycin apparently exert anti-cachectic effects in an additive fashion and may offer the potential for combination therapy in cachexia.

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For H. pylori eradication, the combination of lansoprazole, roxithromycin and metronidazole proved to be as safe as other current triple therapy regimens, while a comparison of efficacy rates yet remains to be assessed in prospective controlled trials. The metronidazole-resistant H. pylori is not rare in Germany and, in the present study, has strongly influenced treatment success.

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464 physicians treated 904 patients with moxifloxacin and 846 patients with one of the macrolides. Age, sex and body mass index were well matched between the two treatment groups. However, more moxifloxacin than macrolide patients presented with a generally bad condition (62.8% vs 48.6%). About 42% of patients in both groups had had chronic bronchitis for 1-5 years, and about 27% for 5-10 years. The mean number of AECBs in the previous 12 months was 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Moxifloxacin was administered to most patients for 5 (43.8%) or 7 days (42.4%). Patients in the macrolide group were treated in most cases with clarithromycin 500 mg for 4-7 days, roxithromycin 300 mg for 6-7 days or azithromycin 500 mg for 3 days. Physicians assessed overall efficacy and tolerability as 'very good' or 'good' in 96.1% and 98.1%, respectively, of moxifloxacin-treated patients and in 67.5% and 91.7%, respectively, of macrolide-treated patients. The mean duration until improvement and cure of AECB was 3.2 days (+/- SD 1.5) and 6.2 days (+/- 2.6) in moxifloxacin-treated patients compared with 4.5 days (+/- 1.8) and 7.5 days (+/- 3.0) in macrolide-treated patients (p < 0.0001).

rulide paediatric dose

RP 59,500 (Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) is the first semisynthetic injectable streptogramin antimicrobial agent, which is a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin in a 30:70 ratio. The components of RP 59,500 act synergically to provide bactericidal activity through action at different sites on bacterial ribosomes. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of RP 59,500 was compared with those of four macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin). Susceptibility testing was carried out by microdilution method on 303 strains of 10 species, especially antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive cocci. RP 59,500 was active against a wide range of Gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The MICs90 of RP 59,500 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis were both 0.25 microgram/ml, although those of four macrolides were higher than 32 micrograms/ml. The MICs90 of RP 59,500 against penicillin-sensitive, -intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were all 0.5 microgram/ml, although those of four macrolides against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae were higher than 32 micrograms/ml. RP 59,500 also exhibited equivalent activities to the four macrolides against strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus agalactiae and Moraxella catarrhalis. RP 59,500 exhibited the highest activities against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus avium strains which are intrinsically resistant to most antimicrobial agents. No cross-resistance was observed between RP 59,500 and the four macrolides, which will merit attention in future clinical trials of the agent. The effect of human serum on the MIC of RP 59,500 was studied with strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. faecalis. The presence of 20% (V/V) serum had little or no effect on the MIC, although 50% (V/V) serum increased MICs by 4-8 folds. Laboratory-induced resistance to RP 59,500 occurred in a stepwise fashion in broth cultures of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. facalis strains and the induction rate was slow and no more than four fold increases were observed. Population analysis was performed on RP 59,500 and the reference macrolides against S. aureus ATCC 25,923 strain. Although low frequencies (less than 0.01%) of resistant sub-population were detected with EM, CAM, AZM and RXM, no RP 59,500-resistant sub-population was detected in this study.

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Prescribing patterns were similar for the control and active groups in the predetailing period. For both groups, there were significant (P<0.03) increases (45% for control and 40% for active) in total number of antibiotic prescriptions in the post compared with the predetailing period. This trend was anticipated on the basis of the winter seasonal increase in respiratory infections. In line with the chart recommendations for first-line treatment, doctors in the active group prescribed significantly more amoxycillin (P<0.02) and doxycycline (P<0.001) in the post vs predetailing periods. By contrast, doctors in the control group prescribed significantly more cefaclor (P<0.03) and roxithromycin (P<0.03), drugs that were not recommended. The total cost of antibiotics prescribed by doctors in the control group increased by 48% ($37 150) from the preto postdetailing periods. In the same time period, the costs for the active group increased by only 35% ($21 020).

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We report four cases of rhabdomyolysis and severe, disabling myopathy associated with HMG CoA reductase-inhibitor therapy. Patient developed symptoms following the addition of roxithromycin to combination lipid-lowering therapy with simvastatin and gemfibrozil. Patients 2 and 3 became symptomatic after developing acute on chronic renal impairment while taking simvastatin. The muscle biopsy of patient 3 revealed a necrotizing myopathy and the presence of inclusion bodies. Patient 4 developed symptoms within 4 weeks of starting cerivastatin monotherapy. The four cases illustrate the importance of considering the potential for drug interactions and making appropriate dosage adjustments for renal insufficiency in patients receiving HMG CoA reductase therapy.

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The objective of the present study was to investigate the uptake, depuration, and bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals, roxithromycin (ROX) and propranolol (PRP), in Daphnia magna via aqueous exposure. Additionally, dietary and pH effects on the bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals in daphnia were studied. During the 24-h uptake phase followed by the 24-h depuration phase, the uptake rate constants (k(u)) of ROX for daphnia were 9.21 and 2.77 L kg(-1) h(-1), corresponding to the exposure concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), respectively; For PRP at the nominal concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), k(u) were 2.29 and 0.99 L kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constants (k(d)) of ROX in daphnia, at the exposure concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), were 0.0985 and 0.207 h(-1), respectively; while those of PRP were 0.0276 and 0.0539 h(-1) for the nominal concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), respectively. With the decreasing exposure concentrations, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in daphnia ranged from 13.4 to 93.5 L kg(-1) for ROX, and 18.4 to 83.0 L kg(-1) for PRP, revealing the considerable accumulation potential of these two pharmaceuticals. Moreover, after 6h exposure, the body burdens of ROX and PRP in dead daphnia were 4.98-6.14 and 7.42-12.9 times higher than those in living daphnia, respectively, implying that body surface sorption dominates the bioconcentration of the two pharmaceuticals in daphnia. In addition, the presence of algal food in the media could significantly elevate the kd values for both ROX and PRP, thereby restraining their bioconcentration in daphnia. A pH-dependent bioconcentration study revealed that the bioconcentration of the two pharmaceuticals in daphnia increased with increasing pH levels, which ranged from 7 to 9. Finally, a model was developed to estimate the relationships between pH and the BCFs of the two pharmaceuticals in zooplankton. The predicted values based on this model were highly consistent with wildlife monitoring data, implying that this model will be useful in identifying the bioaccumulation risks that pharmaceuticals pose to zooplankton.

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New, clean water wells were drilled under local supervision for each of 26 identified villages. All people living in villages near the wells were screened for trachoma and then treated with antibiotic if required. Education on personal and environmental hygiene was provided by trained volunteers. Patients affected by trichiasis and corneal scarring received surgery, locally if possible. Attempts to control fly populations by cleaning villages, penning livestock, and digging latrines were undertaken. This was performed under advisement and consultation with local villagers and government officials. Data was collected on variables normally associated with trachoma and others relating to demographics, water quality, environment and hygiene.

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To assess the impact of two interventions on computer-generated prescriptions for antibiotics--(i) an educational intervention to reduce automatic computerised ordering of repeat antibiotic prescriptions, and (ii) a legislative change prohibiting the "no brand substitution" box being checked as a default setting in prescribing software--and to compare these findings with those of a similar survey we conducted in 2000.

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We report the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with coughing fits followed by sinus pauses and syncope. Cardiac and neurological diagnostic work-up was negative and the patient was considered to have cough syncope. As this occurred within the context of febrile pneumonia, an infectious disease was suspected but diagnostic work-up only revealed an increase of antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae. The responsibility of this agent is discussed. Clinical recovery was obtained with the prescription of antitussive medication.

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Recently we found that certain antibiotics which are markedly concentrated by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) failed to kill susceptible, intraphagocytic Staphylococcus aureus, even though cellular drug levels were quite high. The possibility that specific antibiotics might adversely affect phagocyte antibacterial function was considered. Thus, we studied the effects of multiple antibiotics and adenosine, a known modulator of the PMN respiratory burst response, on neutrophil antibacterial function. At nontoxic concentrations, these drugs had no effect on degranulation in stimulated PMN. Adenosine was a potent inhibitor of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMPL)-stimulated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation in PMN but produced less inhibition of microbial particle-induced respiratory burst activity. Three of the tested antibiotics, all of which reach high concentrations in phagocytic cells, had a marked modulatory effect on the PMN respiratory burst. Clindamycin, which enters phagocytes by the cell membrane adenosine (nucleoside) transport system, had only a modest effect on FMLP-mediated superoxide production but inhibited the microbial particle-induced response by approximately 50%. Roxithromycin and trimethoprim were efficient inhibitors of PMN superoxide generation stimulated by FMLP and concanavalin A (also inhibited by erythromycin) but had less effect on zymosan-mediated respiratory burst activity. Antibiotics which entered phagocytes less readily had no effect on the respiratory burst response in PMN. These results, as well as those of experiments with inhibitors of cell membrane nucleoside receptors, indicated that the antibiotic effect is mediated through intraphagocytic pathways. The possibility that antibiotic-associated inhibition of the PMN respiratory burst response might alter leukocyte antimicrobial and inflammatory function deserves further evaluation.

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Measurement of killing kinetics of azithromycin against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae in vitro showed that it had a limited bactericidal activity (greater than 90% kill) for the first eight hours of incubation, but developed complete bactericidal activity (greater than 99.9% kill) by 24 h incubation. Since high and sustained tissue levels of azithromycin occur in animals and humans, it was proposed that it might produce a bactericidal effect in vivo. This was demonstrated in a lung infection model in mice, designed to mimic the in-vitro killing studies. A 25 mg/kg dose of azithromycin given 24 h before intranasal challenge reduced the recoverable Str. pneumoniae population by greater than 99.9%, in comparison with untreated controls. Erythromycin did not produce a bactericidal effect at 100 mg/kg, and roxithromycin only reduced the viable count by 96%, at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Against a K. pneumoniae lung infection, a 50 mg/kg dose of azithromycin reduced the bacterial count by 99%. The bactericidal effect was correlated with lung tissue concentrations of azithromycin. In a proliferating Escherichia coli paper disc infection model, extravascular fluid concentrations of azithromycin were correlated with a 99.9% reduction in bacterial count, while corresponding serum concentrations were always less than the MIC. Dosing with azithromycin eradicated Haemophilus influenzae from the bulla (middle ear) of gerbils, as was not the case with erythromycin and roxithromycin. This effect was correlated with the antibiotic concentration in bulla lavage.

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This study performed a meta-analysis to examine the link between macrolides and risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA), cardiovascular death, and death from any cause.

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Multicenter, double-blind, randomized study.

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Treatment of prurigo nodularis (PN) is often very difficult even with strong corticosteroid dressing and other available means. Macrolide roxithromycin (RXM) is used in consideration of its immunosuppressive effects in treating several skin disorders. Tranilast (N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) is useful for treating atopic disorders and hypertrophic scars as well, suggesting its capacity to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. More adequate and effective therapy for this disorder has been requested. We report 3 cases of uncontrollable PN treated with 300 mg/day roxithromycin and 200 mg/day tranilast. Complete and/or remarkable regression of PN was observed on treatment with roxithromycin and tranilast in combination within 4 to 6 months. The 2 agents in combination can be used effectively for the treatment of uncontrollable PN.

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rulide az syrup 2016-09-27

The rates of resistance to cefaclor, cefuroxime, tetracycline and SXT are now increasing in Taiwan. Molecular typing showed that at least buy rulide two closely related BRO-1 clones are circulating. Although amoxicillin + clavulanate remains the antimicrobial therapy of choice for M. catarrhalis infections, continued surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility and application of control measures against further transmission are required to inhibit the emergence of the resistant strains.

rulide generic name 2016-07-21

A new macrolide, roxithromycin, appears to have some interesting pharmacokinetic characteristics dissimilar to those of erythromycin, e.g. it has the unusual property of a long serum half-life and the possibility of once daily dosing. Moreover tissue levels are higher than those obtained with other macrolides, and the drug is still present in the tissues up to 24 h. after dosing. The pharmacokinetics of roxithromycin were studied in 36 women undergoing gynecological surgery, and divided by means of the time of sampling into six different groups. Each group received an initial 300 mg dose followed by 8 successive doses of 150 mg at 12 h intervals. Blood and tissues samples were taken during surgery at 2, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h after the last dose of roxithromycin and the patients were then allocated to one of the six groups by means of the sampling time. Tissue fragments were obtained from ovary, fallopian tubes, endometrium, myometrium, cervix and vagina immediately after the surgical resection of the organs. Tissue and serum concentrations were determined by the microbiological method using Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341; the lowest limit of detection was 0.01 microg/ml or 0.01 microg/g. Roxithromycin reached the highest concentration at the 9th hour after last administration and its tissue levels would encourage a wide use of this drug as a buy rulide satisfactory alternative to tetracyclines for the therapy of some gynecological infections.

rulide with alcohol 2015-04-11

NCCLS-recommended agar dilution methods were used. beta-lactamase activity buy rulide was determined with nitrocefin discs.

rulide medication dosage 2016-07-11

Recovery of viable Chlamydia pneumoniae from atheromas of coronary heart diseases patients has initiated pilot studies to eradicate C. pneumoniae from vascular tissue by antibiotic treatment. To provide data for the selection of effective antibiotics, we investigated the in vitro activity of anti-chlamydial antibiotics to eliminate vascular strains of buy rulide C. pneumoniae from coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells, celltypes that are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

rulide dosage 2016-12-08

Roxithromycin is a derivative of the macrolide antibacterial erythromycin with in vitro antibacterial activity resembling that of the parent compound. The drug has activity against some Staphylococcus spp., many Streptococcus spp., Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia trachomatis as well as many buy rulide less common organisms. Measured using recently proposed guidelines, roxithromycin has in vitro activity against Haemophilus influenzae. In comparison with that of its parent compound, the pharmacokinetic profile of roxithromycin is characterised by high plasma, tissue and body fluid concentrations and a long half-life permitting an extended dosage interval. Roxithromycin has proven clinical efficacy in upper and lower respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urogenital infections and orodental infections, and appears to be as effective as more established treatments including erythromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaclor. The drug has also shown promise in a variety of more specialised indications including opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and as part of a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen. Roxithromycin is very well tolerated with an overall incidence of adverse events of approximately 4%. Thus, roxithromycin is an attractive therapeutic alternative in its established indications, especially when the option of once-daily administration is considered.

rulide pediatric dose 2015-03-16

Pefloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, accumulates in macrophages and several other types of nucleated cells (but not in erythrocytes). Upon fractionation of macrophage homogenates by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose gradients, fluoroquinolones are not found associated with any specific cellular structure. We have compared the activities of pefloxacin and roxithromycin against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in mouse J774 macrophages. Pefloxacin was significantly more active for equivalent intracellular drug concentrations (i.e. expressed by reference to the respective MICs of the drugs as determined in broth), suggesting differences in intracellular availability and/or capacity of the drugs to express their activity in the intracellular environment. The difference was enhanced by incubating the cells in acidic medium. We have also examined the cellular pharmacokinetics and intracellular distribution of pefloxacin in uninfected and Legionella pneumophila infected guinea pig macrophages. In contrast to uninfected cells from which pefloxacin was quickly released, macrophages infected with legionella retained approximately 20-30% of the accumulated pefloxacin after a 60-min wash-out. Cell fractionation studies indicated that the drug remaining in cells was associated with components of high buoyant density. These fractions also contained [3H] if cells had been incubated with [3H] labelled legionella (by in buy rulide -vitro exposure to [3H]-thymidine, before phagocytosis). These results suggest that part of the intracellular pefloxacin becomes associated with legionella, or with legionella-containing cytoplasmic structures.

generic rulide tablet 2015-11-05

Our study shows buy rulide that the patients with MS do not profit from a long-term antibiotic treatment with roxithromycin compared to placebo treatment. A causative connection between bacterial infections with C. pneumonia and MS therefore does seem very unlikely.

rulide buy 2016-05-23

Infection with Campylobacter species is a predominant cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the industrialized world. Bacteremia is detected in <1% of patients with diarrhea, mainly in immunocompromised hosts or those in the extremes of age. Reported here is the case of a 78-year-old, immunocompromised male patient with Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni bacteremia complicated by cellulitis. The infection was characterized by a protracted course with several recurrences and refractoriness to multiple antibiotic regimens, responding only to a prolonged course of meropenem buy rulide treatment. The frequency of cellulitis as reflected in previously reported series of Campylobacter bacteremia and the clinical characteristics of this difficult-to-treat infection are reviewed.

rulide 300mg tablets 2016-05-02

We present a new experimental model for the simultaneous evaluation of the activities of drugs against Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium complex infections. Rats latently infected with P. carinii were challenged with the MO-1 strain of M. avium and then immunosuppressed with corticosteroids for 7 weeks. At week 5 the RH strain of T. gondii was intraperitoneally injected. Organs were examined for the three pathogens after death or killing of the animals at week 7 buy rulide . Without treatment, rats challenged with T. gondii died with pulmonary P. carinii infection and disseminated T. gondii and M. avium infections. In order to assess the value of the model for evaluation of the activities of drugs, we administered by oral gavage for 7 weeks drugs or combinations of drugs selected for their individual efficacies against at least one pathogen. We found that clarithromycin with sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin with atovaquone, roxithromycin with sulfamethoxazole or dapsone, and rifabutin with atovaquone were effective against the three infections, whereas PS-15 with dapsone and trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole were active against Toxoplasma and Pneumocystis infections only. This triple-infection rat model offers a new tool for the simultaneous evaluation of the activities of drugs against three of the major opportunistic infections occurring in immunosuppressed individuals.

rulide paediatric dose 2017-11-07

The study group included 42 adults (23 woman and 19 men; mean age 64 +/- 3.5 yr). In 39 cases (93%), the bacterial dermohypodermitis was localized on the lower limb. The inflammatory lesion was well delimited, a characteristic feature of erysipelas, in 32 cases (76%). Sample culture, direct immunofluorescence or serology findings demonstrated presence of streptococci in 33 cases (79%). A single treatment with pristinamycin was successful in 36 patients, giving an overall rate buy rulide of 86%. Drainage of a localized abscess was successful in 5 of 6 patients after initial failure of antibiotic treatment.

rulide drug information 2017-05-06

A new semisynthetic macrolide roxithromycin was evaluated for its potential use in the treatment of Lyme borreliosis. Using a macro-dilution buy rulide broth technique, Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to be susceptible to roxithromycin with a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.06-0.25 microgram/ml. A systemic B. burgdorferi infection was established in gerbils; a dosage of greater than or equal to 25 mg/kg/day roxithromycin for 10 days eliminated the infection. A single blind, randomized multicenter study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of roxithromycin 150 mg b.i.d. versus phenoxymethyl-penicillin 1 g b.i.d. for 10 days in patients with uncomplicated erythema migrans. The study was interrupted when 19 patients had enrolled because of five treatment failures. All 5 patients had received roxithromycin; three patients had persisting or recurrent erythema migrans, one developed a secondary erythema migrans-like lesion and severe arthralgia and one developed neuroborreliosis. B. burgdorferi was isolated from skin biopsies after roxithromycin therapy from two patients with persistent erythema migrans and both isolates were still highly susceptible to roxithromycin (MBC = 0.03 microgram/ml). No treatment failures were seen in 10 patients treated with phenoxymethyl-penicillin. Roxithromycin is thus not recommended for treatment of Lyme borreliosis.

rulide medicine 2017-09-17

O-Demethylation of RXM was one of the main metabolic buy rulide routes of RXM in humans, whereas N-demethylation metabolism was more predominant in rats. O-Demethyl-RXM appeared to be equally effective with RXM.

rulide and alcohol 2017-09-27

Mice infected with Brucella melitensis were treated with azithromycin or roxithromycin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day i.p. alone and in combination with streptomycin 75 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Streptomycin at this dose was previously documented to be ineffective against murine brucellosis. Azithromycin- and azithromycin/streptomycin-treated animals demonstrated a significantly better cure rate than controls. Therapy failure was observed in all mice treated with roxithromycin 50 mg/kg/day i.p. alone or in combination with streptomycin 75 mg/kg/day. Our findings demonstrate that azithromycin cures experimental murine brucellosis and may buy rulide be an effective alternative in the therapy of human brucellosis.

dose of rulide 2016-10-18

All articles involving CP and CAD were considered for possible inclusion in this review. Other selected articles involved possible links between infection and the atherosclerotic process, inflammation and inflammatory mediators buy rulide in the atherosclerotic process, and isolation of CP from human tissue.

syrup rulide az 2017-12-22

The photochemical transformation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents is an emerging concern for environmental scientists. In the current study, the photodegradation of 29 PPCPs was examined in effluents under simulated solar irradiation. Direct photodegradation, triplet state effluent organic matter ((3)EfOM*)-mediated and hydroxyl radical (HO(•))-mediated degradation are three major pathways in the removal process. With the photodegradation of trace levels of PPCPs, the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence intensities of the effluents were also gradually reduced. Therefore, fluorescence peaks have been identified, for the first time, as appropriate surrogates to assess the photodegradation of PPCPs. The humic-like fluorescence peak is linked to direct photolysis-labile PPCPs, such as naproxen, ronidazole, diclofenac, ornidazole, tinidazole, chloramphenicol, flumequine, ciprofloxacin, methadone, and dimetridazole. The tyrosine-like EEM peak is associated with HO(•)/CO3(•-)-labile PPCPs, such buy rulide as trimethoprim, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, atenolol, carbamazepine, and cephalexin. The tryptophan-like peak is associated with (3)EfOM*-labile PPCPs, such as clenbuterol, metoprolol, venlafaxine, bisphenol A, propranolol, ractopamine, salbutamol, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, famotidine, terbutaline, and erythromycin. The reduction in EEM fluorescence correlates well with the removal of PPCPs, allowing a model to be constructed. The solar-driven removal of EEM fluorescence was applied to predict the attenuation of 11 PPCPs in five field samples. A close correlation between the predicted results and the experimental results suggests that fluorescence may be a suitable surrogate for monitoring the solar-driven photodegradation of PPCPs in effluents.

rulide tablets 150mg 2015-03-27

All 16-membered macrolides showed very low MICs (MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s, < or =0.06-0.5 mg/L) for the erythromycin-susceptible isolates and for those with the M phenotype, but the telithromycin MICs for the M-type isolates were at least four times higher (MIC(90)s, 0.5 mg/L). In S. pyogenes, the MIC(50)s of 16-membered macrolides for the cMLS(B) isolates were > or = 256 mg/L, whereas that for telithromycin was 4 mg/L; the MIC(50)s of 16-membered macrolides and telithromycin ranged from < or = 0.06 to 0.5 mg/L for the iMLS(B) isolates with erm(A) and from 0.12 to > or = 256 mg/L for those with erm(B). In S. pneumoniae, the MIC(50)s of the 16-membered macrolides for the cMLS( Child Zantac Dose B) isolates ranged from 0.5 to 128 mg/L, whereas for the iMLS(B) isolates their values ranged from < or = 0.06 to 4 mg/L; the MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s of telithromycin for both the cMLS(B) and the iMLS(B) isolates ranged from < or = 0.06 to 0.12 mg/L.

rulide tablet price 2016-02-19

Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes apoptosis and death of airway epithelial cells as well as inflammation in the airway. Efficient clearance of the cell debris by alveolar macrophages is necessitated to reduce the inflammation. Macrolide antibiotics have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the Stromectol Online Bestellen production of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators, and by improving macrophage functions. The present study investigated the effects of four commonly used macrolide antibiotics, namely azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin, on chemotactic and phagocytotic function and on inflammatory cytokines/mediators production in vitro in SM-exposed monocyte THP-1 cells.

rulide child dose 2016-06-13

The biotransformation of roxithromycin in simulated gastrointestinal fluids at 37 degrees C and in rats was investigated by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Roxithromycin degraded to its Z-isomer and decladinose derivative in simulated gastrointestinal fluids in vitro at pH Astelin Reviews constant (+/-SD, standard derivation) of 0.1066 min(-1) (+/-0.0014) at pH 1.0, 0.0994 min(-1) (+/-0.0031) at pH 1.2, 0.0400 min(-1) (+/-0.0003) at pH 1.3, 0.0136 min(-1) (+/-0.0008) at pH 1.8, and 0.0022 min(-1) (+/-0.0002) at pH 3.0, respectively. The ratio of Z-roxithromycin to roxithromycin (+/-SD) was 0.21 (+/-0.01) at pH 1.0, 0.19 (+/-0.03) at pH 1.2, 0.18 (+/-0.01) at pH 1.3, 0.15 (+/-0.01) at pH 1.8, and 0.08 (+/-0.02) at pH 3.0, respectively. Pepsin and NaCl added to gastric fluid had no effect on the transformation of roxithromycin. Roxithromycin underwent four metabolic routes such as geometric isomerization, demethylation, dealkylation, and hydrolysis of cladinose in rats after oral administration. The geometric isomerization in rats was neither observed after an intravenous dose, nor after an oral dose with Na(2)CO(3) alkalization. The geometric isomerization between roxithromycin and its Z-isomer took place in gastric fluid both in vitro and in vivo. It was interconvertible and pH-dependent. The isomerization of roxithromycin to its Z-isomer was less than that of Z- to E-configuration both in vitro and in vivo.

rulide medication 2017-08-11

Drugs were implicated in hepatic injury in 14 patients (8 females) in whom causal relationship between drug and liver disease was definite or highly probable. The drugs responsible were amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (3 cases), fluvastatin and pravastatin (3 cases), antituberculous drugs (2 cases), estrogens, roxithromycin, asacol, satolol, enalapril and thiamazol. A total of 78.6% (11 cases) were classified as hepatocellular or mixed hepatitis, while Lopressor Dosing Iv cholestatic injury was found in 21.4% (3 cases). There were no lethal or severe (prothrombin < 50%) hepatic drug reactions. In 13 patients the course of liver disease after withdrawal of the offensive drug was either acute or protracted, while in one patient there was chronic cholestasis (>3 years) resulting from injury to interlobular bile ducts by amoxicllin with clavulanic acid.

rulide alcohol 2015-10-25

In two multicentre, non-comparative studies, a total of 477 children, aged 2 months to 15 years, suffering from respiratory tract infections or skin and soft tissue infections were treated with roxithromycin (50 mg sachets). The mean duration of treatment was 9 days and the mean daily dose was 6 mg/kg/day administered b.i.d. The overall safety of roxithromycin was assessed by analysing the adverse events reported by the patients or investigators, the discontinuation of treatment because of adverse events, and the laboratory data. Adverse events reported by 20 (4%) children were considered to be possibly drug related. These adverse events were mainly digestive in nature and mild or moderate in severity. Treatment was discontinued because of adverse events in six ( Glucophage 700 Mg 1%) children. Analysis of laboratory data revealed a few variations without any clinical significance.

rulide suspension 2016-01-04

Our data suggest that oral administration of roxithromycin suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and AHR by regulating the inflammatory cytokines via MAP kinases/NF-κB pathway in inflammatory cells. Based on these results, we suggest that Lamictal Dosage Pediatric roxithromycin may be used as a therapeutic agent for allergy-induced asthma.

buy rulide online 2017-09-28

The results of this study conducted under real-life treatment conditions in patients with AECBs who were previously treated with a macrolide showed faster symptom relief and higher recovery rates with moxifloxacin compared with macrolides. The two treatment groups had comparably good safety and tolerability profiles.

rulide 150 mg 2017-05-30

The macrolide antibiotics include natural members, prodrugs and semisynthetic derivatives. These drugs are indicated in a variety of infections and are often combined with other drug therapies, thus creating the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions. Macrolides can both inhibit drug metabolism in the liver by complex formation and inactivation of microsomal drug oxidising enzymes and also interfere with microorganisms of the enteric flora through their antibiotic effects. Over the past 20 years, a number of reports have incriminated macrolides as a potential source of clinically severe drug interactions. However, differences have been found between the various macrolides in this regard and not all macrolides are responsible for drug interactions. With the recent advent of many semisynthetic macrolide antibiotics it is now evident that they may be classified into 3 different groups in causing drug interactions. The first group (e.g. troleandomycin, erythromycins) are those prone to forming nitrosoalkanes and the consequent formation of inactive cytochrome P450-metabolite complexes. The second group (e.g. josamycin, flurithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, miocamycin and midecamycin) form complexes to a lesser extent and rarely produce drug interactions. The last group (e.g. spiramycin, rokitamycin, dirithromycin and azithromycin) do not inactivate cytochrome P450 and are unable to modify the pharmacokinetics of other compounds. It appears that 2 structural factors are important for a macrolide antibiotic to lead to the induction of cytochrome P450 and the formation in vivo or in vitro of an inhibitory cytochrome P450-iron-nitrosoalkane metabolite complex: the presence in the macrolide molecules of a non-hindered readily accessible N-dimethylamino group and the hydrophobic character of the drug. Troleandomycin ranks first as a potent inhibitor of microsomal liver enzymes, causing a significant decrease of the metabolism of methylprednisolone, theophylline, carbamazepine, phenazone (antipyrine) and triazolam. Troleandomycin can cause ergotism in patients receiving ergot alkaloids and cholestatic jaundice in those taking oral contraceptives. Erythromycin and its different prodrugs appear to be less potent inhibitors of drug metabolism. Case reports and controlled studies have, however, shown that erythromycins may interact with theophylline, carbamazepine, methylprednisolone, warfarin, cyclosporin, triazolam, midazolam, alfentanil, disopyramide and bromocriptine, decreasing drug clearance. The bioavailability of digoxin appears also to be increased by erythromycin in patients excreting high amounts of reduced digoxin metabolites, probably due to destruction of enteric flora responsible for the formation of these compounds. These incriminated macrolide antibiotics should not be administered concomitantly with other drugs known to be affected metabolically by them, or at the very least, combined administration should be carried out only with careful patient monitoring.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

rulide tablets 300mg 2016-10-02

The co-administration of BCQB with paroxetine showed a moderate increase in BCQB exposure, but was not clinically relevant. Also, no drug interaction was found between BCQB and roxithromycin.

rulide drug interactions 2015-07-16

The distribution and occurrence of 15 antibiotics in surface water of the Pearl River System (Liuxi River, Shijing River and Zhujiang River) and effluents of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated in two sampling events representing wet season and dry season by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in positive ionization mode. Only eight antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, roxithromycin, erythromycin-H₂O and norfloxacin) were detected in the water samples of the three rivers and the effluents. The detection frequencies and levels of antibiotics in the dry season were higher than those in the wet season. This could be attributed to the dilution effects in the wet season and relatively lower temperature in the dry season under which antibiotics could persist for a longer period. The levels of the detected antibiotics in different sites are generally in a decreasing order as follows: Shijing River ≥WWTP effluent ≥Zhujiang River ≥ Liuxi River. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients showed that only erythromycin-H₂O and roxithromycin detected in the Pearl Rivers might have adverse effects on aquatic organisms.

rulide 500 mg 2016-10-20

Emphasis was placed on comparative clinical trials involving the new macrolide antibiotics.

rulide cost 2017-05-07

A 38-year-old man with AIDS and intractable large-volume diarrhea due to a cryptosporidial infection was successfully treated with intravenous octreotide, a somatostatin analogue. The volume of diarrhea, 10-12 liters with 8-13 movements per day, was reduced to three to four semi-formed to formed stools per day when the patient was treated with 400 micrograms intravenous octreotide daily. The patient's intravenous hyperalimentation was discontinued and he returned to oral feeding. He quickly regained his normal weight and has now resumed his normal activities. For those patients who cannot tolerate subcutaneous administration, intravenous octreotide therapy may not only be life-saving but may also markedly increase the quality of life. Roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, was also administered to this patient with cryptosporidiosis but efficacy was not demonstrated.