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Successful therapy with valproate and carbamazepine in patients with psychiatric disorders led to investigation of other anticonvulsants for similar indications. Gabapentin is a relatively new anticonvulsant being investigated for potential use in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), anxiety disorders, behavioral dyscontrol, and substance use disorders. Its favorable side effect profile, absence of the need for therapeutic drug monitoring, and minimal drug interactions give gabapentin a potential role in these indications. Computer searches of the biomedical literature were undertaken to identify all pertinent case reports, case series, and studies of the drug as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for BD; 10 reports were retrieved. In the treatment of various anxiety disorders, one study, one case report, and one case series were identified. At least one case series described gabapentin therapy for alcohol withdrawal and one case report of the drug for agitation associated with dementia. Published, well-designed studies evaluating the agent's effectiveness as monotherapy for BD are lacking. Its benefit as an adjunctive treatment with other mood stabilizers is also unestablished. Data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders or manifestations of substance abuse are limited. These areas may deserve further investigation.
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Contrast sensitivity with the Pelli-Robson letter chart showed no difference between these groups and normal subjects (ANOVA: p= 0.534 in the right eye, p= 0.692 in the left eye) but the VGB therapy patients showed a positive correlation between the contrast sensitivity values and the extents of the visual fields in linear regression (R = 0.498, p = 0.05 in the right eye, R = 0.476, p = 0. 06 in the left eye). Macular photostress and glare tests were equal in both groups and did not differ from normal values.
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To improve the definition of the various clinical patterns of patients with drug-induced cutaneous side-effects with systemic symptoms, and their possible relationships with the triggering medication, with the ultimate goal of helping in the identification of the causal drug in difficult situations when the patient is taking several drugs.
These practice guidelines for the biological treatment of alcohol use disorders are an update of the first edition, published in 2008, which was developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). For this 2016 revision, we performed a systematic review (MEDLINE/PUBMED database, Cochrane Library) of all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of alcoholism and extracted data from national guidelines. The Task Force evaluated the identified literature with respect to the strength of evidence for the efficacy of each medication and subsequently categorised it into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5). Thus, the current guidelines provide a clinically and scientifically relevant, evidence-based update of our earlier recommendations. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and practitioners who evaluate and treat people with alcohol use disorders and are primarily concerned with the biological treatment of adults with such disorders.
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Despite limitations, the results of retrospective analysis of claims data suggest that the care of patients with treatment-refractory partial seizure disorder is costly and may vary significantly based on the pattern of care.
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Laboratory test reimbursement volumes per 10,000 enrollees in Medicare Part B were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (Baltimore, Maryland). The ratio of the most recent (2010) reimbursed test volume per 10,000 Medicare enrollees, divided by the oldest data (usually 2000) during this decade, called the volume ratio, was used to measure trends in test reimbursement. Laboratory tests with a reimbursement claim frequency of at least 10 per 10,000 Medicare enrollees in 2010 were selected, provided there was more than a 50% change in test reimbursement volume during the 2000-2010 decade. We combined the reimbursed test volumes for the few tests that were listed under more than one code in the Current Procedural Terminology (American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois). A 2-sided Poisson regression, adjusted for potential overdispersion, was used to determine P values for the trend; trends were considered significant at P < .05.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate hyperhomocysteinemia in Tunisian bipolar I patients according to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism.
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More patients receiving LTG were successfully maintained on monotherapy compared with patients receiving VPA (56% versus 20%; p < 0.001). The time to meet the escape criteria was also significantly longer in LTG-treated patients (median = 168 days) than in VPA-treated patients (median = 57 days; p = 0.001). The incidence of adverse events during the monotherapy period was lower than during the transition period. Four LTG patients and five VPA patients reported serious adverse events. Two of those patients experienced a rash that led to withdrawal soon after adding LTG to carbamazepine.
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Of 100 patients allocated to PHT, 13 experienced seizures during the 7-day observation period, compared with 11 of 100 patients in the placebo group (p > 0.05). Most seizures occurred in the first day after surgery in both groups. There were no differences between groups in the proportion of patients experiencing more than one seizure, but there was a trend for generalized seizures to be more common in PHT-treated patients than in controls (11 vs. five patients, respectively). Status epilepticus occurred in one patient in the PHT group and in two patients in the control group. Of the 13 PHT-treated seizure patients, 11 had serum PHT concentrations within the target range, and only two had concentrations below range on the days their seizures occurred.
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We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (June 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1988 to June 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to June 2014), Web of Science (1991 to June 2014) and the reference lists of eligible articles.
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The search strategy generated 45 different trials. Most studied drugs were ADs (20 studies), DAs and CBZ. Data were very heterogeneous, with dropout rates within the studies between 0 and 84%. A non-significant trend favoring CBZ was found in terms of dropouts (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.75-1.03) and results from one trial suggest that fluoxetine patients are less likely to drop out. The main efficacy outcome reported in the studies was the presence of cocaine metabolites in the urine. No significant results were found, regardless the type of drug or dose used for all relevant outcomes assessed.
Drug-induced hepatitis is uncommon and generally unpredictable. Hepatotoxicity may be related to the drug itself, or to chemically reactive metabolites which can bind covalently to hepatic macromolecules and may lead to either idiosyncratic, toxic hepatitis or to immunoallergic hepatitis. There is now evidence indicating that genetic variations in systems of biotransformation or detoxication may modulate either the toxic or sensitizing effects of some drugs. Thus, the genetic deficiency in a particular hepatic cytochrome P 450 isozyme (CYP 2D6) is involved in per-hexiline liver injury. The deficiency in CYP 2C19 might also contribute to Atrium hepatotoxicity. Slow acetylation related to N-acetyltransferase 2 deficiency contributes to sulfonamide hepatitis. The genetic deficiency in glutathione synthetase may increase the susceptibility to several drugs including acetaminophen. A constitutional deficiency in another cell defense mechanism, still not characterized, seems to increase significantly the risk of hepatotoxicity with halothane, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, sulfamides and amineptine.
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Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. Both are rare, with TEN and SJS affecting approximately 1or 2/1,000,000 annually, and are considered medical emergencies as they are potentially fatal. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Currently, TEN and SJS are considered to be two ends of a spectrum of severe epidermolytic adverse cutaneous drug reactions, differing only by their extent of skin detachment. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the aetiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Genetic susceptibility to SJS and TEN is likely as exemplified by the strong association observed in Han Chinese between a genetic marker, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502, and SJS induced by carbamazepine. Diagnosis relies mainly on clinical signs together with the histological analysis of a skin biopsy showing typical full-thickness epidermal necrolysis due to extensive keratinocyte apoptosis. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, evaluation of the prognosis using SCORTEN, identification and interruption of the culprit drug, specialized supportive care ideally in an intensive care unit, and consideration of immunomodulating agents such as high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. SJS and TEN are severe and life-threatening. The average reported mortality rate of SJS is 1-5%, and of TEN is 25-35%; it can be even higher in elderly patients and those with a large surface area of epidermal detachment. More than 50% of patients surviving TEN suffer from long-term sequelae of the disease.
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This is a retrospective, long-term observational study. Patients with partial epilepsy who received monotherapy with one of six AEDs, namely, CBZ, VPA, topiramate (TPM), oxcarbazepine (OXC), lamotrigine (LTG), or levetiracetam (LEV), were identified and followed up from May 2007 to October 2014, and time to first seizure after treatment, 12-month remission rate, retention rate, reasons for treatment discontinuation, and adverse effects were evaluated.
Recent development and success in the field of new antiepileptic drug treatment, has resulted in the commercialization of many new drugs. The efficacy of these drugs has been assessed in many countries. Despite the progress in USA and European countries, a time lag of approximately 10 years concerning these new drugs exists in Japan. Since 2000, the above mentioned new drugs have been commercially available and are used to treat many patients with refractory epileptic seizures and verify their efficacy as well in Japan. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which were invented in Japan are expected to accelerate the invention of more effective antiepileptic drugs in the near future.
The anticonvulsant activity of 2-[N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methylamino]-4H-pyrido[3.2-e]-1,3-thiazin-4-one (YM928), a novel alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, was studied in animal models of generalized seizure. YM928 exerted significant anticonvulsant effects in the maximal electroshock (MES) seizure test (ED50 = 7.4 mg/kg p.o.), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure test (ED50 = 9.6 mg/kg p.o.), AMPA-induced seizure test (ED50 = 5.5 mg/kg p.o.), and strychnine-induced seizure test (ED50 = 14.0 mg/kg p.o.) in mice. Effects in rats were detected in the MES seizure test (ED50 = 4.0 mg/kg p.o.) and PTZ-induced seizure test (ED50 = 6.2 mg/kg p.o.). The profile of YM928 was compared with that of established antiepileptics. Valproate showed beneficial effects in all tests used. In contrast, carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, diazepam, ethosuximide, and gabapentin were not active against seizures induced by at least one stimulant. In the rotarod test, YM928 impaired motor coordination (TD50 = 22.5 mg/kg p.o.). The protective index (TD50 value of the rotarod test/ED50 value of MES seizure) was 3.0, suggesting that YM928 can exert antiepileptic effects with only minor motor disturbances. YM928 at doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg p.o. did not significantly affect the threshold of electroshock seizure in rats after 16 days of repeated administration. These data indicate that YM928 does not induce tolerance after subchronic administration. These results indicate that YM928 is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that would prove useful for the treatment of generalized seizure in human epileptic patients.
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Six patients (4 males and 2 females) who presented episodes of inverted metamorphopsia were studied: 4 referred right-left inversion (axial plane), 1 upwards-downwards (saggital plane) and 1 inclination of environment (clockwise movement). None had any alteration in the perception of their own bodies during the episodes which lasted from 3 minutes to 1 hour, reporting from 1 to 40 episodes. The most notable antecedents were: traumatism and forced cervical posture (2), arterial hypertension (3), migraine (2), hyperlipemia (2) and protuberantial ischemia (1).
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The efficacy and tolerability of vigabatrin were compared with those of the standard treatment (carbamazepine) for this patient group.
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AHS is a severe complication of aromatic ACD that can compromise the future choice of therapy. Because of the high incidence of clinical cross-reaction between these two drugs, non-aromatic ACD alternatives, must be considered.
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In AED monotherapy (1,111 pregnancies), use of levetiracetam in pregnancies in the Australian Register was associated with levels of seizure control similar to those that applied for the major older AEDs carbamazepine and valproate, but with levels of seizure control superior to those associated with use of lamotrigine and topiramate.
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A significant reduction of mean bw-adj-HC was seen after both carbamazepine (CBZ) (standard deviation scores (SDS)=0.15, p<0.001) and valproic acid (VPA) (SDS=0.10, p=0.04) in monotherapy. No effect on mean bw-adj-HC was seen for phenytoin, clonazepam, lamotrigine and gabapentin. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of microcephaly (bw-adj-HC smaller than 2 SD below the mean) after any AED polytherapy (OR=2.85, 95% CI: 1.74-4.78) but not after AED monotherapy or monotherapy with CBZ or VPA. CBZ or VPA was taken by 71% of the pregnant mothers on AED, and the usage increased over time.
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Twenty-four healthy male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (n=6) for daily intragastric administration of high-, medium- or low-dose carbamazepine or distilled water (control) for 7 days. Blood samples were collected from the abdominal aortic under anesthesia after the treatment to determine serum carbamazepine concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography. ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) spectra were acquired for pattern recognition analysis. Histopathological changes of the renal and liver tissues of the rats were also examined.
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Proton spectra were acquired from a 4.8-ml voxel placed in the anterior cingulate cortex of 30 subjects who were 6 to 13 years old. Fifteen subjects had ADHD and no comorbid disorder, eight had ADHD plus bipolar disorder, and seven were healthy comparison subjects.
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The Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom (DRESS) is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. Diagnosing DRESS is challenging due to the diversity of cutaneous eruption and organs involved. We used the RegiSCAR scoring system that grades DRESS cases as "no," "possible," "probable," or "definite" to classify cases reported in the literature. We also analyzed the clinical course and treatments of the cases. A total of 44 drugs were associated with the 172 cases reported between January 1997 and May 2009 in PubMed and MEDLINE. The most frequently reported drug was carbamazepine, and the vast majority of cases were classified as "probable/definite" DRESS cases. Hypereosinophilia, liver involvement, fever, and lymphadenopathy were significantly associated with "probable/definite" DRESS cases, whereas skin rash was described in almost all of the cases, including "possible cases." Culprit drug withdrawal and corticosteroids constituted the mainstay of DRESS treatment. The outcome was death in 9 cases. However, no predictive factors for serious cases were found. This better knowledge of DRESS may contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of this syndrome in clinical practice.
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In developing countries, availability and quality of drugs are critical factors for effective management and control of epilepsy. This study investigated the availability and costs of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and the quality of phenobarbital in Vientiane Municipality, Lao PDR.
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Intravenously injectable o/w emulsions of drugs being poorly soluble in water and simultaneously in oils need to be produced by locating the drug in the interfacial lecithin layer, e.g. amphotericin B. For achieving this, up to now organic solvents were required. The objective was to develop a solvent-free production method for such emulsions. Drug and the pre-formed parenteral emulsion Lipofundin were mixed and subjected to high pressure homogenisation. Drug powder and emulsions were characterised regarding size and physical stability by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffractometry (LD) and zeta potential measurements. Drug incorporation was studied using light microscopy, electron microscopy (EM) and a centrifugation test to separate non-dissolved drug. Amphotericin B and carbamazepine were used as model drugs. The high streaming velocities lead to accelerated drug dissolution and partitioning into the interfacial layer (so-called "solubilisation by emulsification", SolEmuls Technology). The interfacial layer could incorporate (solubilise) a certain amount of drug, revealed by EM pictures. Exceeding this concentration, hybrid dispersions were formed consisting of drug-loaded oil droplets and drug nanocrystals of similar size (approximately 200 nm). Both dispersion types are i.v. injectable opening the opportunity to deliver the drug in a concentrated form at desired low injection volume, e.g. 10 mg/ml.