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Topamax (Topiramate)

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Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol


Also known as:  Topiramate.


Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.


Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

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The data for the treatment of late-life bipolar disorder are limited, but the available evidence shows efficacy for some commonly used treatments. Lithium, divalproex sodium, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants have all been found to be beneficial in the treatment of elderly patients with bipolar disorder. Although there are no specific guidelines for the treatment of these patients, monotherapy followed by combination therapy of the various classes of drugs may help with the resolution of symptoms. ECT and psychotherapy may be useful in the treatment of refractory disease. There is a need for more controlled studies in this age group before definitive treatment strategies can be enumerated.

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This naturalistic study confirms clinical trial data that 100 mg/day is an effective target dose for patients with migraine and presents the possible beneficial effect in transformed migraine.

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These findings suggest that topiramate reduces HICs during alcohol withdrawal and alcohol-conditioned behaviours during conditioned abstinence in Swiss-Webster mice.

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Several new antiepileptic drugs have become available recently. Since seizures and epilepsy are common, primary care physicians are likely to encounter a patient who is taking one of these new medications. Successful medical management of epilepsy requires a proper understanding of medication half-life, indications, and side effects. Felbamate has a broad spectrum of efficacy but is limited by side effects and idiosyncratic reactions. Fosphenytoin has the efficacy of phenytoin and offers the advantage of intramuscular and intravenous dosing without the significant adverse effects associated with intravenous phenytoin; however, it is expensive. Gabapentin has minimal side effects and drug interactions yet has limited efficacy for seizures. Lamotrigine has broad seizure efficacy but requires a slow adjustment to therapeutic levels. Topiramate has minimal drug interactions, but therapy must be initiated slowly to avoid side effects. All of the new antiepileptics hold great promise in the management of patients with recurrent seizures.

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In this study, prescription of topiramate was associated with greater persistence with prophylactic treatment than the other prophylactic drugs. Furthermore, greater reductions in acute treatment utilization, particularly triptans, were observed among patients prescribed topiramate compared with the other prophylactic cohorts.

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We conclude that the lowering of carbon dioxide serum levels induced by topiramate is mostly asymptomatic, but may facilitate the occurrence of metabolic acidosis. Since patients in use of topiramate have refractory epilepsy, they may need epilepsy surgery, and must be carefully monitored for the risk of metabolic acidosis during surgery.

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To describe the dose-concentration relationship of a continuous intravenous infusion of valproic acid (VPA) in pediatric patients when a dosing protocol is used.

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Topiramate, orally administrated to rabbits, may cause a significant reduction of the retinal function demonstrated by the reduced b-wave amplitude in the full-field ERG, as well as changes in immunohistology characterized by a severe accumulation of GABA in the inner retina. The retinal dysfunction and the morphological changes indicate that topiramat may damage the retina, similarly to vigabatrin (another anti-epileptic drug).

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In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients. The scientific and clinical interest in topiramate has generated a large body of data from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, patient registries, cohort studies, and claims data analyses that have more fully characterized its role as a migraine preventive.

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To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the benefits and harms of medications (US FDA-approved and others) for adults with alcohol use disorders.

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To evaluate the efficiency of topiramate (TPM), an antiepileptic medication (AEM) which possesses multiple mechanisms of action and good pharmacokinetics, in the different types of childhood epilepsy and to make an appraisal of its value in migraines, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and neuropathic pain, according to studies that have been published. To do so, we have made use of an analysis of the literature, together with a multi centre study conducted in Spain and personal casuistry.

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A case control study was conducted to assess the effects of long-term ingestion of Topiramate on fertility, body and reproductive organ weight and level of sex hormones in Sprague-Dawley male rats.

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Two electroconvulsive tests were used: maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) and maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests in mice. Acute adverse effects of the studied combinations were investigated in the chimney test, step-through passive avoidance task, and grip-strength test. Total brain and free plasma concentrations of AEDs were also determined.

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A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, crossover, clinical trial was conducted from October 2003 to September 2004. A total of 64 patients with migraine headache, aged 14 to 57 years, were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups. The first group received topiramate (25 mg daily increment over 1 week to 50 mg) for a total of 2 months. The second group received sodium valporate (200 mg daily increment over 1 week to 400 mg) for 2 months. Response to treatment was assessed at 0, 1, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after start of therapy.

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To report the case of a patient who experienced adverse events in succession to antiepileptic medications being used for both antiepileptic and mood-stabilization benefit.

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We performed a literature synthesis to identify the full spectrum of compounds implicated in drug-induced, bilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma (2° ACG).

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Topiramate (TPM) is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue.

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Pooled intention-to-treat analysis of six similarly designed double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, including 481 patients treated with doses of TPM 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/day, and 265 patients receiving placebo.

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The eating disorders (DCA) are complex systemic diseases with high social impact, which tend to become chronic with significant medical and psychiatric comorbidities. The literature data showed that there is good evidence to suggest the use of SSRIs, particularly at high doses of fluoxetine, in the treatment of BN reducing both the crisis of binge that the phenomena compensates and reducing the episodes of binge in patients with BED in the short term. Also, the topiramate (an AED) showed a good effectiveness in reducing the frequency and magnitude of episodes of binge with body weight reduction, both in the BN that is in the therapy of BED. To date, modest data support the use of low doses of second-generation antipsychotics in an attempt to reduce the creation of polarized weight and body shapes, the obsessive component, and anxiety in patients with AN. Data in the literature on long-term drug treatment of eating disorders are still very modest. It is essential to remember that the pharmacotherapy has, however, a remarkable efficacy in treating psychiatric disorders that occur in comorbidity with eating disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety, insomnia, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders and behavior.

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Further research on evidence-based treatment of IGE with new AEDs is needed. New data from molecular genetics of IGE might have the potential to help clinicians choose the most appropriate antiepileptic therapy.

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A MEDLINE search (1966-1997) was done to identify pertinent literature. Chapters in epilepsy textbooks, pregnancy registries, and their respective bibliographies were also evaluated.

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A cohort study was performed of children started on the ketogenic diet for intractable epilepsy from 2000 to 2005 (n = 195). Children who developed kidney stones were compared with those without in terms of demographics, urine laboratory markers, and intervention with urine alkalinization (potassium citrate). Thirteen children (6.7%) developed kidney stones. The use of oral potassium citrate significantly decreased the prevalence of stones (3.2% vs 10.0%, P = .049) and increased the mean time on the ketogenic diet before a stone was first noted (260 vs 149 patient-months, P = .29). The prevalence of kidney stones did not correlate with younger age or use of carbonic anhydrate inhibitors (eg, topiramate or zonisamide) but trended toward higher correlation with the presence of hypercalciuria (92% vs 71%, P = .08). No child stopped the diet due to stones; in fact, the total diet duration was longer (median 26 vs 12 months, P < .001). Kidney stones continue to occur in approximately 1 in 20 children on the ketogenic diet, and no statistically significant risk factors were identified in this cohort. As oral potassium citrate was preventative, prospective studies using this medication empirically are warranted.

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Many studies address the neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol craving. The study results obtained so far show that there may be at least three subtypes of craving, which may be linked to changes in different neurotransmitter systems. Actually in Germany acamprosate and disulfiram are approved for clinical use for the prevention of alcohol relapse. Also off-label therapy with naltrexone is possible. However studies show that these substances are not effective in all patients. In the light of hypothetical changes in different neurotransmitter systems, subtype specific therapy may be necessary for successful prevention of alcohol relapse. Therefore new therapy options are needed in order to treat alcohol dependent persons. Substances that seem to have efficacy in preclinical or preliminary clinical studies are baclofen, topiramate, odansetron, rimonabant and memantine.

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topamax drug classification 2017-01-30

No statistically significant differences between fixed doses buy topamax of TPM and CBZ or VPA were observed in efficacy measures: time to exit, time to first seizure, and the proportion of patients seizure-free during the last 6 months of treatment. TPM 100 mg/day was associated with the fewest discontinuations due to adverse events.

topamax 15 mg 2016-07-31

To establish whether TPM-induced neuropsychological impairment emerges buy topamax in a dose-dependent fashion and whether early cognitive response (6-week) predicts later performance (24-week).

topamax 150 mg 2017-03-15

Prophylactic therapy response varies in migraine buy topamax patients. The present study investigated the relationship between the resistance to the drugs commonly used in prophylactic therapy and the possible polymorphic variants of proteins involved in the metabolism of these drugs. Migraine patients with the MDR1 3435TT genotype exhibited a better treatment response to topiramate than migraine patients with the CC and CT genotypes (p=0.020). The MDR1 C3435T polymorphism was also found to be a higher risk factor for topiramate treatment failure in a comparison of the number of days with migraine (β2=1.152, p=0.015). However, there was no significant relationship between the treatment response to topiramate and either the CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 polymorphism, and there were no significant correlations between the treatment responses to amitriptyline, propranolol, and valproic acid and the MDR1, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms. This is the first study to investigate the effect of the polymorphic variants on prophylactic therapy response in migraine patients.

topamax 25 mg 2017-08-27

Writing tremor (WT) is a task-specific tremor that occurs only or mostly while writing with the dominant hand. Secondary cases are extremely uncommon. We report on a patient who, after developing a WT after buy topamax an ischemic stroke, had a remarkable response to topiramate (TPM).

topamax drug class 2016-01-23

A 56-week randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy of a controlled-release combination of phentermine and topiramate (PHEN/TPM CR) for weight loss (WL) and metabolic improvements. Men and women with class II and III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) were randomized to placebo, PHEN/TPM CR 3.75/23 mg, or PHEN/TPM CR 15/92 mg, added to a reduced-energy diet. Primary end points were percent WL and proportions of patients achieving 5% WL. Secondary end points included waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, and lipid measures. In the primary analysis (randomized patients with at least one postbaseline weight measurement who took at least one dose of assigned drug or placebo), patients in the placebo, 3.75/23, and 15/92 groups lost 1.6%, 5.1%, and 10.9% of baseline body weight (BW), respectively, at 56 weeks (P < 0.0001). In categorical analysis, 17.3% of placebo patients, 44.9% of 3.75/23 patients, and 66.7% of 15/92 patients, lost at least 5% of baseline BW at 56 weeks (P < 0.0001). The 15/92 group had significantly greater changes relative to placebo for WC, systolic and diastolic BP, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The most common adverse events were paresthesia, dry mouth, constipation, dysgeusia, and insomnia. Dropout rate from the study was 47 buy topamax .1% for placebo patients, 39.0% for 3.75/23 patients, and 33.6% of 15/92 patients. PHEN/TPM CR demonstrated dose-dependent effects on weight and metabolic variables in the direction expected to be beneficial with no evidence of serious adverse events induced by treatment.

topamax maximum dosage 2015-11-28

Patients treated with topiramate showed a faster decrease buy topamax in arm strength (33.3%) during 12 months (0.0997 vs 0.0748 unit decline/month, p = 0.012). Topiramate did not significantly alter the decline in FVC and ALSFRS or affect survival. Topiramate was associated with an increased frequency of anorexia, depression, diarrhea, ecchymosis, nausea, kidney calculus, paresthesia, taste perversion, thinking abnormalities, weight loss, and abnormal blood clotting (pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis).

topamax xr generic 2017-05-05

Recordings of neurons in the trigeminocervical complex (TCC) and the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) of anesthetized rats were made using electrophysiological techniques. The effects of intravenous or microiontophorezed topiramate on trigeminovascular buy topamax activation of second- and third-order neurons in the trigeminothalamic pathway were characterized. The potential interactions of topiramate with the ionotropic glutamate receptors were studied using microiontophoresis.

topamax 60 mg 2016-03-12

Compound biotransformation is a very important research area for drug discovery and development. In this review, publications from the metabolism studies of ten compounds, seven CNS and three cardiovascular agents, from the Johnson & Johnson Corp. were reviewed. The seven CNS compounds are: three antipsychotic agents, mazapertine (arypiperazine analog), RWJ-46344 (arypiperidine analog) and risperidone (aryisoxazole-piperidine analog), one antidepressant, etoperidone (arypiperazine analog), one anxiolytic agent, fenobam (aryimidazole urea analog), one muscle relaxant, xilobam (pyrrolidinylidene urea analog), and one antiepileptic agent, topiramate (fructopyranose sulfamate analog). The three cardiovascular agents are: two arylalkylamine calcium channel blockers, bepridil and RWJ-26240, and one thioindolaminidine antianginal agent, RWJ-34130. Other antipsychotic and antidepressant agents with similar analogs (ziprasidone, trazodone and nefazodone) as well as other similar analogs of calcium channel blockers (verapamil) are discussed. In this article, excretion and metabolism (in vitro, in vivo) of compounds are reviewed from the buy topamax CNS agents to the cardiovascular agents, including structures of parent compounds, their metabolites, metabolic pathways, and methods for the isolation, profiling, quantification and structural identification of unchanged compounds and metabolites. Pharmacological activities of parent compounds and their metabolites are also briefly discussed.

topamax reviews migraine 2017-06-10

Of the fourteen anticonvulsants that had been employed, the most often used agents were oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine, and levetiracetam. Individuals whose seizures at the most recent visit were fully controlled (seizure-free) for 6 months or longer were more likely to have ever tried, or currently used, oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine than those with uncontrolled seizures. Thirty-nine of 69 individuals (56.5%) were seizure-free with oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine history versus 11 of 35 individuals (31.4%) who had not taken these agents (P < 0.05); 38 of 62 patients (61.3%) were seizure-free while currently buy topamax taking these anticonvulsants versus 12 of 42 (28.6%) not taking them (P < 0.01). Patients with seizure control for 6 months or longer were less likely to have ever tried, or to currently be taking, levetiracetam than those without control. Sixteen of 56 individuals (28.6%) were seizure-free with levetiracetam history versus 34 of 48 (70.8%) without it (P < 0.001); 14 of 43 individuals (32.6%) were seizure-free and currently taking levetiracetam versus 36 of 61 (59.0%) not taking it (P < 0.01). When topiramate was added as second-line medication, five of nine patients (55.6%) experienced decreased seizure severity, and worsening of glaucoma was not reported.

topamax drug company 2016-09-01

Eyelid myokymia is an underreported side-effect of topiramate in patients with migraine, of unknown cause, so that in future, further studies are need to examine whether patients with migraine buy topamax are predisposed or not to this adverse effect.

topamax generic topiramate 2015-05-25

After market launch, new information on adverse effects of medicinal products is almost exclusively first highlighted by spontaneous reporting. As data sets of spontaneous reports have become larger, and computational capability has increased, quantitative methods have been increasingly applied to such data sets. The screening of such data sets is an application of knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Effective KDD is an iterative and interactive process made up of the following steps: developing an understanding of an application domain, creating a target data set, data cleaning and pre-processing, data reduction and projection, choosing the data mining task, choosing the data mining algorithm, data mining, interpretation of results and consolidating and using acquired knowledge. The process of KDD as it applies to the analysis of spontaneous reports can be exemplified by its routine use on the 3.5 million suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in the WHO ADR database. Examples of new adverse effects first highlighted by the KDD process on WHO data include topiramate glaucoma, infliximab vasculitis buy topamax and the association of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and neonatal convulsions. The KDD process has already improved our ability to highlight previously unsuspected ADRs for clinical review in spontaneous reporting, and we anticipate that such techniques will be increasingly used in the successful screening of other healthcare data sets such as patient records in the future.

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To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in children with epilepsy younger than 2 years of age, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients treated at our institution between 2001 and 2003. Thirteen children ages 5 to 23 months, five boys and eight girls, were identified. Seizure types were partial (five), generalized tonic-clonic (three), myoclonic (one), and infantile spasms (four). The mean age at seizure onset was 9.7 months. Topiramate was started at a mean age of 11.4 months ( buy topamax 4-23 months). The number of antiepileptic drugs prior to topiramate therapy ranged from zero to four. One patient had been on the ketogenic diet. Topiramate was used as monotherapy in seven children and as polytherapy in six children. Mean follow-up was 14 months. The mean dose of topiramate was 8.8 mg/kg/day (2.5-18 mg/kg/day). The degree of seizure reduction was as follows: > 75% in five (38.5%) children, 50% to 75% in three (23%) children, and 0 to 25% in five (38.5%) children. Three of four (75%) patients with infantile spasms had a > 75% reduction in seizures. Adverse effects occurred in two children, including lethargy, hyperthermia, and anorexia. In children younger than 2 years of age, for whom the antiepileptic drug armamentarium is limited, topiramate appears to be an efficacious and safe therapeutic alternative for a variety of seizure types.

topamax seizure medication 2015-10-29

The primary objective of this guideline is to assist the practitioner in choosing an appropriate prophylactic medication for an individual with migraine, based on current evidence in buy topamax the medical literature and expert consensus. This guideline is focused on patients with episodic migraine (headache on ≤ 14 days a month).

topamax usual dosage 2017-03-18

Due to the multifactorial effects topiramate may have upon the central nervous system and its anorectic effect, buy topamax abuse of this drug by adolescents should be considered upon presentation of an adolescent with mental status changes.

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The described method compared well when assessed by Heathcontrol TDM theme program (r>0 Celebrex Reviews 2013 .99). The suitability of the developed method for TDM was demonstrated by measuring TPM in human plasma samples of epileptic patients treated with TPM. The proposed method is appropriate for routine TDM of TPM.

topamax alcohol addiction 2017-06-03

Topiramate has an early dose-dependent effect on ictal Zetia And Alcohol seizures.

topamax drug interactions 2016-04-12

Ms Q is a 52-year-old woman Eulexin 250 Mg who has had progressive polyneuropathy in the setting of diabetes for the past 8 years. Ms Q's major disability is that of increasingly severe neuropathic pain and cramps that have been poorly responsive to a variety of therapies, including gabapentin and topiramate. The diagnosis of and differential diagnosis for diabetic polyneuropathy are reviewed herein. In general, treatment options for diabetic polyneuropathy remain primarily symptomatic. Improving the metabolic profile through weight loss, exercise, and if necessary, medications may help slow neuropathy progression. Many medications are effective in reducing pain, and newly developed ones, such as pregabalin and duloxetine, while specifically marketed for diabetic neuropathy, are likely to be no better and are considerably more expensive than older ones. Alpha-lipoic acid appears to be effective as well.

topamax diet pill 2015-09-09

This case presents a young woman with a clinically significant non-anion gap Avodart Overdose metabolic acidosis believed to be caused by topiramate. She had been taking the medication for several months without prior adverse effects. Once she began having dyspnea as a respiratory response to the renal tubule acidosis, she had decreased oral intake of food and fluids, which induced a pre-renal acute renal failure that worsened her acidemia. In the Emergency Department, she received intravenous fluids and sodium bicarbonate, and later was intubated for mechanical ventilation due to respiratory fatigue. With the topiramate withdrawn, the patient had a full recovery of her renal function and metabolic acid-base status over the next 72 h. This case serves to increase awareness of this possible adverse effect and the recommended treatment as topiramate becomes more widely used.

topamax alcohol reviews 2015-03-31

More double-blind studies are necessary to assess efficacy in monotherapy or as coadjuvants, in short-term or even Lipitor Normal Dosage in monotherapy, and to compare the different treatments with each other as well as with the conventional treatment. The authors agree in pointing out the efficacy of gabapentin and topiramate associated to another stabilizer, and also of lamotrigine in depressed phases.

topamax 50 mg 2015-02-16

Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is a rare subtype of migraine with aura, characterized by transient hemiparesis during attacks. Diagnosis is based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria (ICHD-II). Two types of HM are recognized: familial (FHM) and sporadic hemiplegic migraine (SHM). HM is genetically heterogeneous. Three genes have been identified (CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and SCN1A) but more, so far unknown genes, are involved. Clinically, attacks of the 3 subtypes cannot be distinguished. The diagnosis can be confirmed but not ruled out by genetic testing, because in some HM patients other, not yet identified, genes are involved. The presence of additional symptoms (such as chronic ataxia or epilepsy) may increase the likelihood of identifying a mutation. Additional diagnostics like imaging, CSF analysis, or an EEG are mainly performed to exclude other causes of focal neurological symptoms associated with headache. Conventional cerebral angiography is contraindicated in HM because this may provoke an attack. Because HM is a rare condition, no clinical treatment trials are available in this specific subgroup of migraine patients. Thus, the treatment of HM is based on empirical data, personal experience of the treating neurologist, and involves a trial-and-error strategy. Acetaminophen and NSAIDs often are the first choice in acute treatment. Although controversial in HM, triptans can be prescribed when headaches are not relieved sufficiently with common analgesics. An effective treatment for the severe and often prolonged aura symptoms is more warranted, but currently no such acute treatment is available. Prophylactic treatment can be considered when attack frequency exceeds 2 attacks per month, or when severe attacks pose a great burden that requires reduction of severity and frequency. In no strictly preferred Cost Of Retrovir order, flunarizine, sodium valproate, lamotrigine, verapamil, and acetazolamide can be tried. While less evidence is available for prophylactic treatment with topiramate, candesartan, and pizotifen, these drugs can also be considered. The use of propranolol in HM is more controversial, but evidence of adverse effects is insufficient to contraindicate beta-blockers.

topamax alcohol dependence 2015-06-12

Changes in BMI (kg/m2) standard deviation scores (S.D.S.) from baseline to the follow-up periods of 12, 24 and 36 months were evaluated. The repeated measures t-test for paired samples, revealed significant decreases for BMI S.D.S. at 12 months (P = 0.004; n = 53) and 24 months (P = 0.044; n = 35), but no significant decrease at 36 months (n = 21). Analysis of variance Voltaren 75mg Medication revealed a predictor value of sex for BMI S.D.S. at 12 months (females more likely to lose weight; P = 0.037) and a predictor value of baseline BMI for BMI S.D.S. at 24 months (patients with a higher baseline BMI were more likely to lose weight; P = 0.047).

topamax 20 mg 2017-03-22

A total of 360 patients entered the core phase (ITT population); 37.6% (97 patients) discontinued prematurely, mainly due to adverse events (AEs; 23.6%). Mean topiramate dosage was 90 mg/day. Migraine days decreased from 8.30/28 days to 5.65/28 days and QoL (HIT-6 and MIDAS) was improved. Efficacy, tolerability and satisfaction were rated as 'good' or better by 56, 61 and 63% of patients, respectively. A total of 321 of 364 patients (88.2%) reported at least one treatment emergent AE, and the most common during the core phase were paraesthesia (46.4% of 364 patients), fatigue (17.0%), nausea (15.4%), dizziness (12.9%), viral infection (12.9%), weight decrease (12.6%) and impaired concentration (10.2%). Of 227 patients completing Exelon 10 Mg the core phase, 199 (88%) participated in the follow-up phase. A total of 187 patients received topiramate and 38 (20.3%) of these stopped treatment prematurely due to insufficient efficacy (6.4%), AEs (4.8%) or other reasons (10.2%). Reduction in migraine days and improvements in QoL (HIT-6) were maintained or improved (MIDAS) during follow-up, and 84% rated their satisfaction with topiramate therapy as 'good to very good'.

topamax generic cost 2015-03-31

Management of seizures in learning disabled people is challenging. This prospective study Elavil 50mg Tablets explored the efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive topiramate (TPM) in patients with learning disability and refractory epilepsy attending a single centre.

topamax overdose symptoms 2015-10-09

To investigate the relationship between antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy in pregnant women and the risk of fetal malformations as prescribing practice changed, with valproate being used less often and at lower doses. Specifically, the risks associated with two of the most common AEDs included in polytherapy over recent years, levetiracetam and topiramate, were examined.

topamax generic 2015-09-12

Chronic migraine is a disease that affects 0.5-2.5% of the population, depending on the statistics that are analysed and the definition of chronic migraine that is used. It is extraordinarily disabling, since it does not allow the sufferer to carry out any of their scheduled personal, professional or social activities, and it has a great impact on the patients' quality of life, as measured on disability, quality of life and impact on daily activities scales. Yet, nowadays there are treatments that have proven to be effective in cases of chronic migraine, such as OnabotulinumtoxinA. It is a treatment that is well tolerated and with a high rate of efficacy. Yet it is not only a therapeutic tool, but in the world of headaches it has also opened up the doors to invasive treatments, to the learning of techniques and, in short, to placing headaches in referral units that are usually located in tertiary care hospitals. Furthermore, it has also helped to overcome the idea that patients with headache should be visited exclusively by primary care physicians or general neurologists. This is an opportunity to redefine the field of study and the care for headaches that must be seized. In the future, this is going to be complemented by novel treatments with neurostimulation and probably with monoclonal antibodies against the calcitonin gene-related peptide. A revolution has begun in our knowledge and capacity to act. It is our duty to give it the importance and usage it deserves both for our patients and for us as specialists.

topamax 40 mg 2016-09-02

The onset occurred between the age of 8 months and 12 years, with the peak at 1-4 years of age, accounting for 61%; a late onset which occurred after 8 years of age, was unusual. Furthermore, one patient who developed LGS at the age of 13 years and remained to have all the features of seizures and EEG at 35 years of age was identified as adult's LGS. Forty-three patients were classified as symptomatic, perinatal events were the predominant factors in this group. The others were cryptogenic. It was noted that 11 cases had a history of West syndrome. A transformation process from West syndrome to LGS was observed in another 7 cases. Every patient had two or more seizure types during the course of the disease; tonic seizure, atypical absence seizure, head drop or sudden falls were the characteristic types. The degree of mental deficit was variable from slight to profound deterioration, but mental and behavioral disturbances existed in every case as a rule. In all cases electroencephalogram (EEG) background was abnormal and consisted of diffuse slow spike-and-waves (1-1.5CPS), predominant in frontal and temporal regions. Twenty-four cases had the polyspike-wave. Bursts of fast rhythms (10-14CPS) were observed in 29 patients during sleep. The choice of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was based on the seizure types; routinely, 2 or more kinds of AEDs were used in combination, the classic drugs, valproate and clonazepam were firstly recommended; the other drugs, such as lamotrigine and topiramate that are used as add-on therapy were further consideration. Although the total effect was not satisfactory, the severity and frequency of seizures in almost all cases had lessened to some extent.

topamax 50mg tab 2017-03-13

Cluster headache is marked by its circadian rhythmicity and the hypothalamus appears to have a significant influence over cluster pathogenesis. However, as not all cluster patients present in the same manner and not all respond to the same combination of medications, there is likely a nonhypothalamic form of cluster headache. A patient is presented who began to develop cluster headaches after receiving bilateral greater occipital nerve (GON) blockade. His headaches fit the IHS criteria for cluster headache but had some irregularities including frequent side shifting of pain, irregular duration and time of onset and the ability of the patient to sit completely still during a headache without any sense of agitation. This article will suggest that some forms of cluster headache are not primarily hypothalamic influenced and that the GON may play a significant role in cluster pathogenesis in some individuals.

topamax buy online 2016-02-01

To investigate the risk of glaucoma development after being prescribed topiramate.

topamax off brand 2015-07-01

A drug that is only modestly efficacious but has a favourable safety profile may look better than a drug that is more efficacious but produces clinically meaningful adverse events. Therefore, a drug's retention rate is mainly determined by its side effect profile. As a consequence, retention rate was highest for lamotrigine and lowest for topiramate. Intermediate retention rates were seen with levetiracetam use.

topamax 200 mg 2017-08-24

Although well-tolerated, this pilot study did not demonstrate an antiepileptic effect of topiramate monotherapy for treatment of CAE.