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The data for the treatment of late-life bipolar disorder are limited, but the available evidence shows efficacy for some commonly used treatments. Lithium, divalproex sodium, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants have all been found to be beneficial in the treatment of elderly patients with bipolar disorder. Although there are no specific guidelines for the treatment of these patients, monotherapy followed by combination therapy of the various classes of drugs may help with the resolution of symptoms. ECT and psychotherapy may be useful in the treatment of refractory disease. There is a need for more controlled studies in this age group before definitive treatment strategies can be enumerated.
This naturalistic study confirms clinical trial data that 100 mg/day is an effective target dose for patients with migraine and presents the possible beneficial effect in transformed migraine.
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These findings suggest that topiramate reduces HICs during alcohol withdrawal and alcohol-conditioned behaviours during conditioned abstinence in Swiss-Webster mice.
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Several new antiepileptic drugs have become available recently. Since seizures and epilepsy are common, primary care physicians are likely to encounter a patient who is taking one of these new medications. Successful medical management of epilepsy requires a proper understanding of medication half-life, indications, and side effects. Felbamate has a broad spectrum of efficacy but is limited by side effects and idiosyncratic reactions. Fosphenytoin has the efficacy of phenytoin and offers the advantage of intramuscular and intravenous dosing without the significant adverse effects associated with intravenous phenytoin; however, it is expensive. Gabapentin has minimal side effects and drug interactions yet has limited efficacy for seizures. Lamotrigine has broad seizure efficacy but requires a slow adjustment to therapeutic levels. Topiramate has minimal drug interactions, but therapy must be initiated slowly to avoid side effects. All of the new antiepileptics hold great promise in the management of patients with recurrent seizures.
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In this study, prescription of topiramate was associated with greater persistence with prophylactic treatment than the other prophylactic drugs. Furthermore, greater reductions in acute treatment utilization, particularly triptans, were observed among patients prescribed topiramate compared with the other prophylactic cohorts.
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We conclude that the lowering of carbon dioxide serum levels induced by topiramate is mostly asymptomatic, but may facilitate the occurrence of metabolic acidosis. Since patients in use of topiramate have refractory epilepsy, they may need epilepsy surgery, and must be carefully monitored for the risk of metabolic acidosis during surgery.
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To describe the dose-concentration relationship of a continuous intravenous infusion of valproic acid (VPA) in pediatric patients when a dosing protocol is used.
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Topiramate, orally administrated to rabbits, may cause a significant reduction of the retinal function demonstrated by the reduced b-wave amplitude in the full-field ERG, as well as changes in immunohistology characterized by a severe accumulation of GABA in the inner retina. The retinal dysfunction and the morphological changes indicate that topiramat may damage the retina, similarly to vigabatrin (another anti-epileptic drug).
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In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients. The scientific and clinical interest in topiramate has generated a large body of data from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, patient registries, cohort studies, and claims data analyses that have more fully characterized its role as a migraine preventive.
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To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the benefits and harms of medications (US FDA-approved and others) for adults with alcohol use disorders.
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To evaluate the efficiency of topiramate (TPM), an antiepileptic medication (AEM) which possesses multiple mechanisms of action and good pharmacokinetics, in the different types of childhood epilepsy and to make an appraisal of its value in migraines, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and neuropathic pain, according to studies that have been published. To do so, we have made use of an analysis of the literature, together with a multi centre study conducted in Spain and personal casuistry.
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A case control study was conducted to assess the effects of long-term ingestion of Topiramate on fertility, body and reproductive organ weight and level of sex hormones in Sprague-Dawley male rats.
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Two electroconvulsive tests were used: maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) and maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests in mice. Acute adverse effects of the studied combinations were investigated in the chimney test, step-through passive avoidance task, and grip-strength test. Total brain and free plasma concentrations of AEDs were also determined.
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A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, crossover, clinical trial was conducted from October 2003 to September 2004. A total of 64 patients with migraine headache, aged 14 to 57 years, were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups. The first group received topiramate (25 mg daily increment over 1 week to 50 mg) for a total of 2 months. The second group received sodium valporate (200 mg daily increment over 1 week to 400 mg) for 2 months. Response to treatment was assessed at 0, 1, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after start of therapy.
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To report the case of a patient who experienced adverse events in succession to antiepileptic medications being used for both antiepileptic and mood-stabilization benefit.
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We performed a literature synthesis to identify the full spectrum of compounds implicated in drug-induced, bilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma (2° ACG).
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Topiramate (TPM) is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue.
Pooled intention-to-treat analysis of six similarly designed double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, including 481 patients treated with doses of TPM 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/day, and 265 patients receiving placebo.
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The eating disorders (DCA) are complex systemic diseases with high social impact, which tend to become chronic with significant medical and psychiatric comorbidities. The literature data showed that there is good evidence to suggest the use of SSRIs, particularly at high doses of fluoxetine, in the treatment of BN reducing both the crisis of binge that the phenomena compensates and reducing the episodes of binge in patients with BED in the short term. Also, the topiramate (an AED) showed a good effectiveness in reducing the frequency and magnitude of episodes of binge with body weight reduction, both in the BN that is in the therapy of BED. To date, modest data support the use of low doses of second-generation antipsychotics in an attempt to reduce the creation of polarized weight and body shapes, the obsessive component, and anxiety in patients with AN. Data in the literature on long-term drug treatment of eating disorders are still very modest. It is essential to remember that the pharmacotherapy has, however, a remarkable efficacy in treating psychiatric disorders that occur in comorbidity with eating disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety, insomnia, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders and behavior.
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Further research on evidence-based treatment of IGE with new AEDs is needed. New data from molecular genetics of IGE might have the potential to help clinicians choose the most appropriate antiepileptic therapy.
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A MEDLINE search (1966-1997) was done to identify pertinent literature. Chapters in epilepsy textbooks, pregnancy registries, and their respective bibliographies were also evaluated.
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A cohort study was performed of children started on the ketogenic diet for intractable epilepsy from 2000 to 2005 (n = 195). Children who developed kidney stones were compared with those without in terms of demographics, urine laboratory markers, and intervention with urine alkalinization (potassium citrate). Thirteen children (6.7%) developed kidney stones. The use of oral potassium citrate significantly decreased the prevalence of stones (3.2% vs 10.0%, P = .049) and increased the mean time on the ketogenic diet before a stone was first noted (260 vs 149 patient-months, P = .29). The prevalence of kidney stones did not correlate with younger age or use of carbonic anhydrate inhibitors (eg, topiramate or zonisamide) but trended toward higher correlation with the presence of hypercalciuria (92% vs 71%, P = .08). No child stopped the diet due to stones; in fact, the total diet duration was longer (median 26 vs 12 months, P < .001). Kidney stones continue to occur in approximately 1 in 20 children on the ketogenic diet, and no statistically significant risk factors were identified in this cohort. As oral potassium citrate was preventative, prospective studies using this medication empirically are warranted.
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Many studies address the neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol craving. The study results obtained so far show that there may be at least three subtypes of craving, which may be linked to changes in different neurotransmitter systems. Actually in Germany acamprosate and disulfiram are approved for clinical use for the prevention of alcohol relapse. Also off-label therapy with naltrexone is possible. However studies show that these substances are not effective in all patients. In the light of hypothetical changes in different neurotransmitter systems, subtype specific therapy may be necessary for successful prevention of alcohol relapse. Therefore new therapy options are needed in order to treat alcohol dependent persons. Substances that seem to have efficacy in preclinical or preliminary clinical studies are baclofen, topiramate, odansetron, rimonabant and memantine.