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Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Triphala churnam were carried out. The churnam of triphala consists of equal quantities of deseeded fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is exclusively used in more than 200 drug formulations in Indian system of Medicine. The present study involved the pharmacognostical evaluation of Triphala, in which morphological and powder microscopical characters were established. In addition, physico-chemical parameters such as ash values viz, total ash (10.21± 0.42), acid insoluble ash (2.54 ± 0.06), water-soluble ash (5.46±0.24) and sulphated ash (13.12 ± 0.63), extractive values viz, alcohol soluble extractive (11.20±0.18)) and water-soluble extractive (52.56±2.04), fluorescent analysis and microchmical tests were determined. The preliminary phytochemical study revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugar and tannins in aqueous extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins in alcoholic extract. This standardization would be very much helpful for the identification of Triphala churnam to differentiate from other powdered sources.
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Mean zone of inhibition in descending order was found as sodium hypochlorite > Propolis > AI > Triphala > C. longa = MC > ethanol. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance which showed a significant difference in the zone of inhibition of sodium hypochlorite and Propolis (P < 0.001).
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Growth-inhibitory effects of Triphala were evaluated in Capan-2, BxPC-3 and HPDE-6 cells by Sulphoradamine-B assay. Apoptosis was determined by cell death assay and western blotting. Triphala was administered orally to nude mice implanted with Capan-2 xenograft. Tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.
We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers. In the liver and kidney of aged animals, enhanced oxidative stress was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of aqueous extract of T. cheubla effectively modulated oxidative stress and enhanced antioxidant status in the liver and kidney of aged rats. The results of the present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. cheubla inhibits the development of age-induced damages by protecting against oxidative stress.
Background. Searching for drugs or herbal formulations to improve the immunity of HIV/AIDS positive people is an important issue for researchers in this field. Triphala, a Thai herbal formulation, is reported to have immunomodulatory effects in mice. However, it has not yet been investigated for immunostimulatory and side effects in healthy human volunteers. Objective. To evaluate the immunostimulatory and side effects of Triphala in a clinical phase I study. Materials and Methods. All volunteers took Triphala, 3 capsules per day for 2 weeks. Complete physical examination, routine laboratory analysis, and immunological studies were performed before ingestion and after initial meeting for 4 consecutive weeks. Results. We found that Triphala demonstrated significant immunostimulatory effects on cytotoxic T cells (CD3(-)CD8(+)) and natural killer cells (CD16(+)CD56(+)). Both of them increased significantly when compared with those of the control samples. However, no significant change in cytokine secretion was detected. All volunteers were healthy and showed no adverse effects throughout the duration of the study. Conclusion. Triphala has significant immunostimulatory effects on cellular immune response, especially cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. Increases in the absolute number of these cells may provide a novel adjuvant therapy for HIV/AIDS positive people in terms of immunological improvement.
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E. faecalis American Type Culture Collection 21292 was inoculated onto brain heart infusion agar plate. Discs impregnated with herbal medicaments were placed on the inoculated plates and incubated at 37°C aerobically for 24 h and growth inhibition zones were measured.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were extracted from gingival tissue samples from 10 patients (six males, four females) with chronic periodontitis. Tissue extracts were treated with the drug solutions, the inhibition was analyzed by gelatin zymography, and the percentage of inhibition was determined by a gel documentation system.
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A total of 57 children completed the study. Both chlorhexidine and triphala groups showed significantly lower mean gingival and plaque index scores at follow up than baseline (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage change in the mean gingival index between the two groups (P = 0.826). The percentage change in the mean plaque index was significantly higher in the chlorhexidine group compared to the triphala group (P = 0.048).
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To evaluate Antigingivitis, Antiplaque and Antihalitosis effect of Triphala and Ela decoction. A randomized sample of 60 patients with plaque induced gingivitis was enrolled and equally divided into two groups group A and group B. Group A was given Trifala and Ela decoction and Group B Chlorehexidine mouthwash for 21 days twice daily. Gingival inflammation index, plaque index and Organoleptic scoring scale was recorded at baseline, 14th day and 21st day. Comparing the plaque index for Group A with group B the reduction in from baseline to 14 day was 42.59 % and 38.62% respectively while from baseline to 21 day was 56.20% and 68.57% respectively. On comparing Gingival index for group A with group B the reduction from baseline to 14 day was 31.95% and 38.62 % respectively while from baseline to 21 day was 69.95 % and 68.57% respectively. Halitosis Percentage reduction at 14th day from base line was 33.33% and 38.18%; at 21 day from baseline 66.66% and 72.72% respectively for group A and group B. No statistical significant difference for intergroup comparison was found using paired t test. Intra group analysis using unpaired t test was significant for all the indices at different time intervals. Triphala and Ela decoction is organic, easy to prepare economical and equally effective as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash.
The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor burden was 7.27 +/- 1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.00 +/- 0.82 (p < 0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p < 0.001) by 5% dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17 +/- 0.75 (p < 0.001) and 2.00 +/- 0.71 (p < 0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala, respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential.
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Triphala is a botanical preparation consisting of equal parts of three herbal fruits. Much revered in Ayurveda, triphala has been proven to have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal actions.
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The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators.
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LSP (a part of IAYT) is a safe and useful procedure for patients with essential hypertension. LSP with triphala is more useful.
The anti-diarrhoeal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were studied employing castor oil-induced-diarrhoeal model in rats. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. All the extracts, at various doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg displayed remarkable anti-diarrhoeal activity as evidenced by a significant increase in first defecation time, cumulative fecal weight and intestinal transit time. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were considered safe up to a dose of 1750 mg/kg when evaluated for acute oral toxicity in accordance with the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. In conclusion, the remarkable anti-diarrhoeal effect of Triphala and Triphala Mashi extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea suggest its potential for application in a wide range of diarrhoeal states.
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Functional constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms across the globe. Its high prevalence rate, economic burden, and adverse implications on the quality of life make constipation a major public health issue. Though various treatment options are available for the management of constipation, evidence for their efficacy and safety are limited. An open-label, prospective, interventional, and exploratory clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of "TLPL/AY/01/2008" in 34 patients suffering from functional constipation. "TLPL/AY/01/2008" is an Ayurvedic proprietary polyherbal formulation in powder form, containing Isabgol husk, Senna extract, and Triphala extract. Administration of "TLPL/AY/01/2008" for 14 days showed a significant increase in mean weekly bowel movements from 10.19 ± 05.64 to 18.29 ± 05.72 (P<0.05). The mean average time spent on toilet for bowel evacuation reduced significantly from 11.02 ± 05.43 minutes (baseline value) to 08.70 ± 04.72 minutes on day 14 (P<0.05). Mean stool form score assessed on Bristol stool form scale was improved from 02.97 ± 00.48 (baseline value) to 04.61 ± 00.84 (P<0.05) on day 14. A significant improvement (P<0.05) was also noted in straining during defecation, sensation of incomplete evacuation, sensation of anorectal blockage, and other associated symptoms of functional constipation. The significant improvement in most of the above symptoms was endured for a post-treatment observatory period of one week. All the study patients showed an excellent tolerability to the study drug. These findings suggest that "TLPL/AY/01/2008" is an effective, safe, and non-habit-forming herbal laxative formulation for the management of constipation. Comparative clinical studies with larger sample size would be able to confirm the above findings.
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LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and "nectarization" (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies.
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The results suggest that these steps are necessary to obtain a good quality of bhasma and also make it acceptable for trituration during Bhasmikarana process. It is found that T. lauha bhasma was prepared properly in 20 puta at a temperature of 650 °C. The particle size of 20 puta T. lauha bhasma is 100-500 nm in range.
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With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective.
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Group-A (combined therapy group) showed statistically significant improvement in clinical symptoms, biochemical parameters-liver function test, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, and body mass index (P < 0.001) in comparison to Group-B (pathya group).
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Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala's pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex's absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These differences can possibly be due to the source of plant preparation, storage condition and period of Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid.
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Present study evaluates efficacy of Trifala and Ela as plaque controlling agent and compares it with chlorhexidine.
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Several antiplaque agents are being available in the market in spite of vast development of modern medical science, satisfactory treatment of 'oral diseases' by newer drugs is not fully achieved, rather the chemical compounds has exposed the patients to it is different ill effects, therefore, there is interest to find out effective remedy of any disease by harmless herbal drugs thus the aim of this study was to compare plaque formation at 24 hours after the use of Triphala, Hi ora, Chlorhexidine and Colgate Plax mouth washes.