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The model of co-payment on prescription drugs in the Spanish National Health System (NHS) changed on 1 July 2012. For more than three decades that it was not modified. This article provides a brief historical reminder of the evolution of this model of co-payment. The basic characteristics of this model are compared with the model of copayment on prescription drugs of the Administrative Mutualism (Civil Servants). The document provides detailed information on the percentage of effective copayment, fundraising effects, the economic participation of the patient, among others, in both models. Finally, listed pending improvements not addressed by 2012 changes such as the concentration of the co-payment in the active patient population and risk selection promoted by the differences in the financial contribution between the two models of co-payment (NHS and Mutualist).
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Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract.
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This observational study at 5 Spanish centers included 218 patients aged 4-64 years, of whom 117 were women and 122 were under 15 years old. Ultra-rush regimen consisted of incremental doses of an allergen extract comprising a 50% mixture of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (30, 60, 120, 240 IR every 30 min) followed by maintenance therapy. Adverse reactions were monitored and asthmatic patients underwent spirometric testing at baseline and after each dose. Follow-up was scheduled after 2 weeks of maintenance with 240 IR three times a week.
Question-generation training influenced how students learned and studied, specifically their metacognition, and it had a medium to large effect size, which was somewhat related to the prompts used.
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The microscopy study of aerial parts revealed that stem shows typical dicotyledonous characters with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the cortical region and dorsiventral leaf. Physicochemical constants such as moisture content, ash values, fluorescence analysis, and extractive values were established. Preliminary phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, etc.
This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants' root extracts.
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Argentina ha sido un campo fértil para los intentos de reforma del sector salud, en la búsqueda por mejorar la calidad de sus servicios y, consecuentemente, la accesibilidad y la equidad del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos no han sido proporcionales a los esfuerzos desarrollados. Aunque la bioética debería, como forma de reflexión interdisciplinaria, participar en la fundamentación de nuevas políticas sanitarias y sus efectos sobre los usuarios, parece haber permanecido ajena, en general, a los graves problemas derivados de la corrupción, prefiriendo enfocarse en cuestiones vinculadas a planteos abstractos de justicia y solidaridad, atribuyendo los fracasos a la imposición de modelos económicos foráneos.
Preliminary phytochemical screening and an acute toxicity testing of the extract were carried out. The antidiarrheal activity of JH extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was assessed at curative and preventive levels in castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content, and radical scavenging activity.
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Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) have been observed in a substantial proportion of schizophrenic patients. In this paper, the rate of occurrence of OCS and OCD in schizophrenic patients, and also the interrelationship between OCS and schizophrenic symptoms, depressive symptoms, cognitive function and age are reviewed. The author proposes to use the term "group of schizo-obsessive disorders" and proposes an integrate classification system.
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Many studies indicate the high prevalence of juvenile substance abuse. There is increasingly more dual diagnosis and mental illnesses in adolescents and many juvenile offenses are related to drug abuse.
Native Caribbean plants have been less studied that those from Africa, India and Europe. Chamaesyce hirta has scientific support but as a diuretic. Other plants with level 3 validity for reproductive issues are: Achyranthes indica, Coleus aromaticus, Hibiscus rosa-sinesis, Parthenium hysterophorus and Ruta graveolens. The non-experimental validation method can be used to advise the public on which plants are safe, effective and useful, and which are not; pending clinical trials. This is especially important since so few clinical trials are conducted on Caribbean plants.
Newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis appear to have increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients characterized by primary, enduring negative symptoms (deficit symptoms) differ from patients without such features with regard to course of illness, treatment response, risk factors and metabolic disturbances. We hypothesized that they would also differ on concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis were categorized into deficit (N=20) and nondeficit (N=42) groups, and were matched on age, gender, body mass index, smoking, cortisol level, socioeconomic status, and the severity of psychotic symptoms. Fasting concentrations of IL6 were significantly higher in deficit (mean [S.D.]) (8.0 pg/ml [12.7]) than nondeficit patients (0.3 pg/ml [1.3]). CRP levels were also significantly higher in the deficit patients (0.3 mg/dl [0.4]) vs. (0.2 mg/dl [0.4]), respectively. In contrast, 2-h glucose concentrations (2HG) in a glucose tolerance test were lower in the deficit than the nondeficit group. Our results show a double dissociation with regard to glucose intolerance and inflammation: the deficit group has greater inflammation, but less severe glucose intolerance. These results provide further evidence for the validity of the deficit/nondeficit categorization.
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The cumulative incidence of 0.013 claims (1.35%) in 23 years suggests that there is a very low risk of lawsuits in psychiatry, with a similarly low rate of sentences of professional liability and awards for financial compensation. Specific actions could improve clinical safety, particularly in suicide risk assessment.
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Justicia hypocrateriformis extract possesses antidiarrheal activity supported by its antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents.
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This model of ischemia caused early striatal infarction but delayed necrosis in the cortex. The striatum showed marked MRI changes from 4 hours of reperfusion. By 12 hours, the striatal ADC signal intensity ratio to the homologous contralateral region was 30% reduced, and the TTC staining evidenced infarction. Contrarily, the cortical ADC ratio was only 15% reduced, and TTC staining was normal at 12 hours. After this time, the cortex showed sudden and pronounced (>30%) ADC signal intensity changes coincidentally with the manifestation of infarction, accompanied with severe vacuolation and unambiguous signs of neuronal and astroglial death.
Data were obtained from 20 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to pollens and house-dust mites, and also from open studies concerning practical administration and the mechanism of action.
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Olean-12-en-3β-24 diol (A), auranamide (B), aurantiamide acetate (C), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (D) and quindoline (E) were isolated from the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) extract of the stems of Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae). Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection was used to acquire more knowledge of the chemical composition of this extract and to monitor variations in profiles of both the isolated and the other non-identified compounds in Justicia refractifolia and Justicia graciliflora. The compound classes, phenolic and olefinic amides, feruloyltyramine amides, 2,5-diaryl-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuranoid lignans, peptide alkaloids, phenylalanine derivatives, conjugated ynones, indolquinoline alkaloids, triterpenes and pigments, were tentatively identified based on the LC-DAD-APCI-MS analysis. The most frequently encountered compound among the species was auranamide while the distribution of quindoline was limited to J. secunda. Moreover, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds was determined.
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The plant was collected by local users. Methanol and acetone extracts of the plant were prepared with use of soxhlet extraction. The antimicrobial activity was assessed with the use of a modified Kirby-Baurer method. Concentrations of 200 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 1 mg/ml of the extract were used, with a standard ciprofloxacin 5 microg positive control, and a 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution negative control.
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Las emergencias humanitarias causan el desplome de los servicios de atención de salud esenciales y, a menudo, provocan que la atención sanitaria de las comunidades vulnerables pase a depender de organismos externos. En entornos con recursos limitados esto puede darse en un contexto de pobreza extrema, desnutrición, inseguridad, bajos niveles de alfabetización e infraestructuras deficientes. Bajo estas circunstancias, suministrar alimentos, agua y refugio, así como limitar la aparición de brotes de enfermedades transmisibles representan las principales preocupaciones. Cuando se dispone de vacunas eficaces y seguras para reducir el riesgo de aparición de brotes de enfermedades, la distribución potencial de las mismas constituye un factor clave en las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria. Las consideraciones éticas son fundamentales a la hora de decidir sobre la distribución de las vacunas. La asignación de vacunas con suministro limitado, los grupos destinatarios de las mismas, las estrategias de entrega, así como la monitorización y los estudios durante las emergencias humanitarias graves implican consideraciones éticas que, a menudo, derivan de un enfrentamiento entre el beneficio individual y el bien común. Los autores exponen los problemas éticos que los responsables políticos deben tener en cuenta a la hora de considerar cómo distribuir la vacunación masiva durante las emergencias humanitarias, lo cual incluye principios como la beneficencia (el deber de atención y la regla del rescate), la no maleficencia, la autonomía y el consentimiento, así como la justicia distributiva y procesal.
Data were analysed for paediatric patients (age 5-17 years, inclusive) included in the PETRA study, which included consecutive patients with allergic rhinitis attending respiratory specialists throughout Spain. Demographic information, disease characteristics (duration, severity according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma [ARIA] classification), diagnostic procedures, treatments and physicians' attitudes to treatment were recorded.
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Justicia spicigera is a plant used as immunostimulatory in Mexican traditional medicine. Recently, we showed that Justicia spicigera extracts exerted immunostimulatory effects and the major component of this extract was kaempferitrin (KM). This work shows a correlation between the medical traditional use of Justicia spicigera and kaempferitrin, its active compound.
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Central venous catheter (CVC) removal is indicated when persistent catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) occurs. This is a retrospective study to analyze the use of linezolid as a salvage therapy for CRBSIs due to coagulase-negative Staphylococci in children diagnosed with acute leukemia. Seven treatment courses of linezolid were administrated to six patients with port-type-CRBSI after non-effective intravenous vancomycin or teicoplanin treatment. Simultaneous lock and systemic therapy with linezolid avoided the removal of port-type-CVC in all cases. Treatment with linezolid was an alternative to catheter removal in these patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm linezolid effectiveness as a salvage treatment in CRBSI.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix and carry out key functions during development and after injury. By means of zymography, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we studied MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) in rat brain after focal cerebral ischemia. The control rat brain showed constitutive MMP-2 and, to a lesser extent, MMP-9, which were mainly present as prozymogens. MMP-2 protein was located in the cell body of neurons, glia, and endothelium, whereas MMP-9 was associated to neurons and myelinated fibre tracts. Ischemia greatly increased MMP activation in two temporal waves, in the first one, MMP-9 protein was induced from 4 h to 4 days, and also a small and short-lasting increase in MMP-2 was detected at 4 h. The second wave showed a massive increase in MMP-2 protein expression and activation by day 4, which was compatible with abundant MMP-2 in reactive microglia/macrophages. Our results are compatible with progressive induction of MMP-9 proform, likely in neurons, shortly after ischemia. For MMP-2, the results suggest a discrete production immediately after reperfusion, while a very enhanced expression and activation of MMP-2 attributable to microglia/macrophages occurs on day 4, and it might contribute to the phagocytic action of these reactive cells.
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether HJC, isolated from Justicia procumbens for the first time, can suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells and finally clarify its related mechanism. The chemical structure of HJC was validated by LC-ESI-MS/MS, cytotoxicity was assayed using MTT, and apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry. These assays indicated that HJC remarkably inhibited the growth in K562 cells by decreasing cell proliferation, reducing the SOD activity, enhancing ROS levels and inducing apoptosis. Activation of caspase-3 indicated that HJC may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways and that HJC-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. This study suggests that HJC is a high-potency anti-tumor agent, and it induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent pathway in human leukemia K562 cells. It also presents a potential alternative to leukemia therapy.