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Vasotec (Enalapril)

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Vasotec is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure. Vasotec can be also helpful for patients after heart attack. Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Other names for this medication:

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Lotensin, Capoten, Monopril, Prinivil, Zestril, Univasc, Aceon, Accupril, Altace, Mavik


Also known as:  Enalapril.


Vasotec is created by pharmacy specialists to combat not also diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure but it can be helpful for patients after heart attack.

Target of Vasotec is to control and decrease level of blood pressure.

Vasotec is also known as Enalapril, Renitec, BQL, Benalipril, Amprace, Alphapril, Converten, Enalagamma, Enatec, Envas, Invoril, Xanef.

Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Vasotec can be used in combination with medicines for heart failure treatment.

Vasotec is ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor.

Generic name of Vasotec is Enalapril.

Brand name of Vasotec is Vasotec.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Vasotec once or twice a day at the same time with meals or without it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.


If you overdose Vasotec and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Vasotec overdosage: fainting, dizziness.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Vasotec if you are allergic to Vasotec components.

Be very careful with Vasotec if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of having angioedema, throat, heart disease, diabetes, hands, kidney disease, lower legs, lupus, scleroderma.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of taking diuretics; aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) as indomethacin (Indocin); potassium supplements; lithium (such as Eskalith, Lithobid).

Nimotop can be not safety for elderly people.

Avoid dehydration.

Be careful with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.

vasotec and alcohol

The effects of hypotensive agents (captopril, enalaprilate, and lisinopril) on the activities of components of the fibrinolytic system (FS) and the effects of antifibrinolytic agents (6-aminohexanoic acid (6-AHA) and tranexamic acid (t-AMCHA)) on the activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were studied in vitro. Enalaprilate did not affect the FS activity. Captopril considerably inhibited the amidase activities of urokinase (u-PA), plasminogen tissue activator (t-PA), and plasmin ([I]50 (2.0-2.6) +/- 0.1 mM), and the activation of Glu-plasminogen affected by t-PA and u-PA ([I]50 (1.50-1.80) +/- 0.06 mM), which may be due to the presence of a mercapto group in the inhibitor molecule. Lisinopril did not affect the amidase activities of FS enzymes, but stimulated Glu-plasminogen and u-PA activation and inhibited activation of t-PA-fibrin-bound Glu-plasminogen ([I]50 (12.0 +/- 0.5) mM). Presumably, these effects can be explained by the presence in lisinopril of a Lys side residue, whose binding to lysine-binding Glu-plasminogen centers resulted, on the one hand, in the transformation of its closed conformation to a semi-open one and, on the other hand, in its desorption from fibrin. Unspecific inhibition of the activity of ACE, a key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system, in the presence of 6-AHA and t-AMCHA ([I]50 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 7.5 +/- 0.4 mM, respectively) was found. A decrease in the ACE activity along with the growth of the fibrin monomer concentration was revealed. The data demonstrate that, along with endogenous mediated interactions, relations based on the direct interactions of exogenous inhibitors of one system affecting the activities of components of another system can take place.

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The vasodilator effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been ascribed to systemic inhibition of the angiotensin II generation. However, local mechanisms of vasodilation also have been suggested. We tested whether the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat mediated local vasodilation in human dorsal hand veins.

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Enalapril clearance after single doses is reduced in the elderly. The influence of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chronic enalapril treatment was examined in six young (22 to 31 years) and six elderly (65 to 78 years) healthy subjects who took enalapril, 10 mg, daily for 8 days. The blood pressure fall was greater in the elderly even with chronic administration. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition was similar in both groups. Steady-state serum enalaprilat concentrations were achieved more slowly in the elderly subjects and were correspondingly higher for all subjects. Clearance/bioavailability and volume of distribution/bioavailability diminished with repeated administration. Repeated exposure also led to a reduction in sensitivity of plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme to the inhibitor. Prolonged inhibition probably induces synthesis of new angiotensin-converting enzyme.

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Bradykinin (BK) has been proposed as the principal mediator of hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) in patients dialyzed using negatively charged membranes and concomitantly treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. We investigated the metabolism of exogenous BK added to the sera of 13 patients dialyzed on an AN69 membrane with a history of HSR (HSR+ patients) and 10 others who did not present such a reaction (HSR- patients) while dialyzed under the same conditions. No significant difference in the t1/2 of BK was found between the patient groups. However, the t1/2 of generated des-Arg9-BK was significantly increased (2.2-fold) in HSR+ patients compared to HSR-subjects. Preincubation of the sera with an ACE inhibitor (enalaprilat) significantly increased the t1/2 of both BK and des-Arg9-BK in both groups. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the t1/2 of BK, but there was a significantly greater increase (3.8-fold) in the t1/2 of des-Arg9-BK in HSR+ patients compared to HSR-subjects. The level of serum aminopeptidase P (APP) activity showed a significant decrease in the HSR+ sera when compared to HSR-samples. In HSR- and HSR+ patients, a significant inverse relation (r2 = 0.6271; P < 0.00005) could be calculated between APP activity and des-Arg9-BK t1/2. In conclusion, HSR in hemodialyzed patients who are concomitantly treated with a negatively charged membrane and an ACE inhibitor can be considered as a multifactorial disease in that a decreased APP activity resulting in reduced degradation of des-Arg9-BK may lead to the accumulation of this B1 agonist that could be responsible, at least in part, for the signs and symptoms of HSR.

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1. Isolated perfused rat tail artery preparations were used to investigate the effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat on the actions of a series of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. The agonist used was phenylephrine. 2. Enalaprilat (1 mumol/L) potentiated the competitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist actions of phentolamine (10-100 nmol/L) and yohimbine (0.3-3.0 mumol/L) as well as the non-competitive antagonist action of phenoxybenzamine (50-100 pmol/L). 3. The competitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist action of prazosin (1-10 nmol/L) was not affected by enalaprilat. 4. For the competitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists, including prazosin, there appeared to be an inverse relationship between antagonist potency and the extent of potentiation by enalaprilat. 5. The results support the hypothesis and angiotensin II modulates vascular smooth muscle alpha 1-adrenoceptor function.

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TGF-beta1 mRNA and its protein concentration in the medium of podocytes increased when exposed to the medium of mesangial cells, which were stimulated by IgA1 from IgAN patients. Angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNAs, as well as angiotensin II, were also increased by the medium (p <0.05). Enalaprilat and valsartan partly lowered overproduction of TGF-beta1 mRNA and excreted protein of podocytes, whereas enalaprilat plus valsartan completely restored them to the level as control.

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Intracoronary enalaprilat at a dosage that did not cause systemic neurohormonal activation improved LV diastolic chamber distensibility and regional relaxation and filling in patients with LV hypertrophy due to aortic stenosis. In contrast, these effects of intracoronary enalaprilat on diastolic function were not observed in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy who did not have concentric hypertrophy. These observations support the hypothesis that the cardiac renin-angiotensin system is activated in patients with concentric pressure-overload hypertrophy and that this activation may contribute to impaired diastolic function.

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We examined the effects of propofol (50 μM), quinaprilat and enalaprilat (10(-5) M) on fibrinolysis (t-PA, PAI-1, TAFI antigen levels), oxidative stress parameters (H2O2 and MDA antigen levels and SOD and NADPH oxidase mRNA levels) and nitric oxide bioavailability (NO2/NO3 concentration and NOS expression at the level of mRNA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

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The effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril, enalaprilat and enalapril, and the bioactive peptides angiotensin II (Ang II), [Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin II ([Sar1,Ile8]Ang II), bradykinin and D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7]bradykinin) on mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes were evaluated in C57 mouse spleen cells. Captopril (CP) dose-dependently enhanced concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes, with the effective stimulatory concentration range between 0.02-10 mM. The mitogen-induced proliferative response was inhibited at high concentrations (> 10 mM) of CP which affected the number of viable cells. Enalapril dose-dependently inhibited Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation at 0.44-20 mM. This was comparable to the ACE inhibitory peptide, which had a similar range. Enalaprilat, the active parent diacid of enalapril, also showed a weaker inhibitory effect on the Con A-induced proliferative response (4-20 mM). The bioactive peptides had little effect, except at a relatively high concentration. Angiotensin II (Ang II) at 0.05 mM inhibited the Con A-induced proliferative response while [Sar1,Ile8]Ang II, a specific antagonist of Ang II, had no effect. Both bradykinin and its specific antagonist, D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7]bradykinin, had no effect on Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The ACE inhibitors and bioactive peptides had little or no cytotoxic effects, except when present at or more than 5 mM. In conclusion, the effects of ACE inhibitors such as captopril and enalapril on Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation were confirmed after a pilot study recently reported. These effects, especially with the stimulatory effect of CP, are unrelated to their ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme and perturbation of the bioactive peptides such as angiotensin II and bradykinin.

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Inhibition of the action of endothelially-located angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in blood vessels of the human forearm was studied using enalaprilat, the active metabolite of the prodrug enalapril. In a dose of 5 micrograms/min enalaprilat inhibits arteriolar vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin I (Ang I) and enhances vasodilation in response to bradykinin. At this dose enalaprilat had no effect on resting forearm blood flow, or on the reduction in forearm blood flow in response to application of lower body negative pressure, in subjects with normal sodium intake. Following sodium depletion, however, enalaprilat produced an increase in resting forearm blood flow compared with the response in the same subjects under normal-sodium conditions. It appears that local ACE within forearm resistance vessels of healthy volunteers is unlikely to play an important role in regulation of local vascular tone in the sodium-replete state. However, in sodium-depleted subjects, and perhaps also in other circumstances where circulating concentrations of Ang I are elevated, local ACE may significantly affect vascular tone.

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The combination with candesartan in nephrotic rats significantly changed the pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat, showing increased accumulation and decreased elimination. In view of these findings, we should lower dosage and prolong dosing interval for nephrotic patients in the combination of enalapril and candesartan.

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Production of nitrite, a metabolite of NO in aqueous solution, in coronary microvessels and O2 consumption in myocardium were quantified with the use of in vitro tissue preparations, the Greiss reaction, and a Clark-type O2 electrode. In coronary microvessels, kininogen (the precursor of kinin; 10 micrograms/mL) and three ACE inhibitors (captopril, enalaprilat, or ramiprilat; 10(-8) mol/L) increased nitrite production from 76 +/- 6 to 173 +/- 15, 123 +/- 12, 125 +/- 12, and 153 +/- 12 pmol/mg, respectively (all P < .05). In myocardium, kininogen (10 micrograms/mL) and captopril, enalaprilat, or ramiprilat (10(-4) mol/L) reduced cardiac O2 consumption by 41 +/- 2%, 19 +/- 3%, 25 +/- 2%, and 35 +/- 2%, respectively. The changes in both nitrite release and O2 consumption in vitro were blocked by N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or N omega-nitro-L-arginine, inhibitors of endogenous NO formation. The effects were also blocked by HOE 140, which blocks the bradykinin B2-kinin receptor, and serine protease inhibitors, which inhibit local kinin formation.

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Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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High-affinity binding sites for angiotensin II (Ang II) in the ventrolateral medulla suggest that Ang II may act at cell groups that are known to modulate blood pressure. This hypothesis was investigated by the topical application of angiotensin I (Ang I), Ang II, the Ang II antagonist [Sar1, Thr8]Ang II, and the Ang I converting enzyme inhibitor MK 422 to a restricted region of the ventral medullary surface known as the glycine-sensitive area. Both Ang I (100 pmol) and Ang II (100 pmol) produced significant (p less than 0.01) increases in blood pressure (+20 +/- 4 and +31 +/- 5 mm Hg, respectively) that were associated with no change in heart rate. Furthermore, the relationship between the peak increases in blood pressure and Ang II was dose-dependent. Blockade of endogenous Ang II by [Sar1, Thr8]Ang II (13 nmol) produced a significant decrease in baseline blood pressure (-8 +/- 1 mm Hg; p less than 0.001). Similarly, topical application of MK 422 prevented the pressor effect of Ang I. Taken together, these experiments indicate that at least some components of the renin-angiotensin system exist in the ventrolateral medulla and they may modulate vasomotor outflow.

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Nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the kidney enhances tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responsiveness. This may reflect either the effect of reduced basal nitric oxide (NO) availability or the effect of impaired NO release that is physiologically induced by TGF activation. However, it is unknown whether the latter actually takes place. In this study, it was hypothesized that NO is released (from macula densa cells or endothelium) as part of the normal TGF loop, and mitigates the TGF response. In Sprague Dawley rats, TGF responsiveness was assessed (fall in tubular stop flow pressure, deltaSFP, upon switching loop of Henle perfusion rates from 0 to 40 nl/min) during an intrarenal NO clamp (systemic infusion of nitro-L-arginine, 10 microg/kg per min, followed by intrarenal nitroprusside infusion adjusted to restore renal blood flow [RBF]). This maneuver was presumed to fix intrarenal NO impact at a physiologic level. To validate the approach, TGF responsiveness during an intrarenal angiotensin II (AngII) clamp (systemic infusion of enalaprilat 0.2 mg/kg per min, followed by intrarenal AngII infusion) was also studied. AngII is presumed to modulate but not mediate, TGF, thus not to increase as part of the TGF loop. In untreated animals, RBF was 7.4 +/- 0.4 ml/min, and deltaSFP was 5.7 +/- 1.6 mmHg. Nitro-L-arginine infusion alone reduced RBF to 5.3 +/- 0.5 ml/min (P < 0.05); with nitroprusside infusion, RBF was restored to 8.3 +/- 0.7 ml/min. In this condition (NO clamp), deltaSFP was markedly increased to 19.6 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P < 0.05). By contrast, deltaSFP, which was virtually abolished during enalaprilat alone (0.2 +/- 0.3 mmHg), was not significantly different from controls during AngII clamp (8.2 +/- 1.0 mmHg). These data suggest that NO may well be released upon TGF activation. By contrast, AngII is not dynamically involved in TGF activation, but may modulate the TGF response. Thus, dynamic release of NO during TGF activation mitigates the TGF response, so that it will offset the action of a primary, as yet undefined, vasoconstrictor mediator. The source of this NO, macula densa or endothelium, remains to be elucidated.

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Fourteen chronically instrumented dogs were studied in the control state and in pacing-induced HF (250 bpm for 3 weeks). The dose-dependent decrease in mean aortic pressure (MAP) induced by acetylcholine was significantly blunted in HF. In contrast, in both control and HF, bradykinin infusion caused similar dose-dependent decreases in MAP and increases in cardiac output (CO). This vasodilator effect of exogenous bradykinin was potentiated similarly in both states by enalaprilat, which blocks both angiotensin conversion and bradykinin degradation. For evaluating the role of endogenous bradykinin, the effects of enalaprilat were compared with those of ciprokiren, a pure renin inhibitor. In control, ciprokiren did not produce any effect. Enalaprilat, however, produced a significant decrease in MAP and a significant increase in CO, which were attributed to the inhibition of bradykinin degradation, because these effects were absent after pretreatment with Hoe 140 (a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist). In contrast, in HF, vasodilator effects of ciprokiren were observed, but enalaprilat produced larger changes in MAP and CO, and after Hoe 140, the hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat were significantly decreased, showing the effects of endogenous bradykinin, which were similar to those measured in control.

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We investigated 45 patients (age 55 +/- 10 years) with stable CHF who presented with a maintenance dosage of enalapril of either 5 mg given twice daily (E10; n = 16), 10 mg given twice daily (E20; n = 18), or 20 mg given twice daily (E40; n = 11). This dosage was changed 3 times to treat all patients with lower, higher, and the initial dosages for 4 weeks each. Neurohormones (atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP], brain natriuretic peptide [BNP], and norepinephrine) and enalaprilat trough levels were measured, and ergospirometry was performed.

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When three intravenous doses of lisinopril were administered to healthy volunteers, area under the curve (to infinity) vs dose was linear with a positive intercept. Subtracting area under the extrapolated terminal phase of the serum profile from zero to infinity retained the linear relationship, but shifted the regression line to a zero intercept. It is postulated that the terminal phase reflects binding of drug to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The half-life for the terminal phase (approximately 40 h) was not predictive of steady-state parameters when ten daily doses (q24h) of lisinopril were administered orally to healthy volunteers. The mean effective half-life for accumulation was 12.6 h. The mean accumulation ratio was 1.38. Steady state was attained after the second daily dose. The observations in these studies with lisinopril are similar to those reported for enalaprilat, the active metabolite of the ACE inhibitor, enalapril maleate.

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This study shows a previously undescribed expression of ACE by IEL. SBS was associated with an increase in IEL-derived ACE. ACE appears to be associated with an up-regulation of intestinal EC apoptosis. ACE-I significantly decreased EC apoptosis.

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This study aimed to develop low-viscosity aqueous eyedrops containing enalaprilat and its prodrug enalapril maleate in solution, and to evaluate the eyedrops in rabbits.

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A novel human zinc metalloprotease that has considerable homology to human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (40% identity and 61% similarity) has been identified. This metalloprotease (angiotensin-converting enzyme homolog (ACEH)) contains a single HEXXH zinc-binding domain and conserves other critical residues typical of the ACE family. The predicted protein sequence consists of 805 amino acids, including a potential 17-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide sequence and a putative C-terminal membrane anchor. Expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of a soluble, truncated form of ACEH, lacking the transmembrane and cytosolic domains, produces a glycoprotein of 120 kDa, which is able to cleave angiotensin I and angiotensin II but not bradykinin or Hip-His-Leu. In the hydrolysis of the angiotensins, ACEH functions exclusively as a carboxypeptidase. ACEH activity is inhibited by EDTA but not by classical ACE inhibitors such as captopril, lisinopril, or enalaprilat. Identification of the genomic sequence of ACEH has shown that the ACEH gene contains 18 exons, of which several have considerable size similarity with the first 17 exons of human ACE. The gene maps to chromosomal location Xp22. Northern blotting analysis has shown that the ACEH mRNA transcript is approximately 3. 4 kilobase pairs and is most highly expressed in testis, kidney, and heart. This is the first report of a mammalian homolog of ACE and has implications for our understanding of cardiovascular and renal function.

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We studied the mechanism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition-induced changes in hippurate renography of the poststenotic kidney.

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vasotec drug 2015-09-04

Intracoronary (IC) enalaprilat was administered to 25 patients with and without LVH secondary to essential hypertension. Indexes of diastolic and systolic LV function were determined from pressure (micromanometer)-volume (conductance) analysis at steady state and with occlusion of the inferior vena cava. Patients were divided into those receiving high- (5.0 mg, n = 15) and low-dose (1.5 mg, n = 10) IC enalaprilat during a 30-minute infusion at 1 mL/min. The high-dose patients were further divided along the median normalized LV wall thickness of 0.671 cm/m2. The time constant of isovolumic relaxation (TauL) was prolonged at baseline in patients receiving high-dose enalaprilat with wall thickness > 0.671 cm/m2 (TauL, 56 +/- 2 versus 44 +/- 2 and 45 +/- 2 milliseconds, respectively, P < .01 by ANOVA) and shortened only in this patient group (TauL, 49 +/- 3 versus 46 +/- 2 and 43 +/- 2 milliseconds, respectively, P < .01 versus baseline and other groups by ANOVA). The improvement in TauL was directly proportional to the degree of LVH (r = .92, P < .001). Although there was a decrease in LV end-diastolic pressure (23 +/- 2 to 15 +/- 1 mm Hg, P < .01) and volume (86 +/- 8 to 67 +/- 9 mL/m2, P < .05) in those patients with a reduction in TauL, this is due to movement down a similar diastolic pressure-volume relation with no change in chamber elastic stiffness (0.023 +/- 0. buy vasotec 002 to 0.025 +/- 0.004 mL-1, P = NS).

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Enalaprilat did not alter either resting coronary vascular tone or dilation with sodium nitroprusside, but potentiated BK-mediated dilation. Epicardial segments that constricted abnormally with pacing (-5+/-1%) dilated (3+/-2%) with pacing in the presence of enalaprilat (p = 0 buy vasotec .002). Similarly, BK at a concentration (62.5 ng/min) that did not alter resting diameter in the constricting segments also improved the abnormal response to a 6+/-1% dilation (p < 0.001). Cardiac pacing-induced reduction in coronary vascular resistance of 27+/-4% (p < 0.001) remained unchanged after enalaprilat.

vasotec tablets 2016-07-11

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has two enzymatically active domains: a C-domain in the carboxy terminal region and an N-domain in the amino terminal region. We based the pharmacologic characterization of these sites on the rat testis-lung model. In testis, only a truncate buy vasotec form of ACE is present (C-site), whereas both N- and C-sites are present in lung. In this model, captopril was shown to be N-selective and delaprilat to be C-selective. Ro 31-8472, a cilazapril derivative, and enalaprilat proved to be not site selective. We used these drugs to evaluate the affinity of C and N sites in various human tissues involved in the cardiovascular actions of ACE and used [125I]Ro31-8472 as ligand. The number and affinity of ACE binding sites were 17,680 +/- 2,345 fmol/mg protein (Kd = 0.32 +/- 0.04 nM) in lung, 560 +/- 65 (Kd = 0.36 +/- 0.05 nM) in heart, 237 +/- 51 (Kd = 0.37 +/- 0.06 nM) in coronary artery, 236 +/- 63 (Kd = 0.14 +/- 0.05 nM) in saphenous vein, and 603 +/- 121 (Kd = 0.50 +/- 0.06 nM) in mammary artery. The affinity (pKi) of captopril for the N sites ranged from 9.40 +/- 0.14 (lung) to 8.41 +/- 0.10 (coronary artery). The affinity for the C-site by delaprilat ranged from 9.97 +/- 0.15 (coronary artery) to 9.10 +/- 0.14 (mammary artery). Therefore, the affinity of C- and N-sites of ACE for ACE inhibitor (ACEI) drugs is different according to the organ involved. Because ACE is a glycosylated enzyme and glycosylation is organ dependent, we suggest that organ-specific glycosylation affects the binding characteristics of ACE inhibitors to N- or C-site of human tissular ACE.

vasotec suspension 2015-08-22

Eight borderline hypertensive ADPKD patients with (near) normal renal function and seven matched healthy control subjects were investigated at three levels of daily dietary sodium intake: 150, 50 and 450 mmol. In the 450-mmol sodium intake period we studied the effects of renally formed dopamine by infusing its precursor DOPA (DOPAi.v., 7 buy vasotec micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the 50-mmol sodium intake period we studied the influence of the RAAS by administering enalaprilate (42 micrograms kg-1), followed by angiotensin II (12 ng kg-1 min-1) intravenously. GFR and ERPF were measured by continuous infusion of inulin and PAH.

vasotec tab 10mg 2017-10-27

This experimental study was undertaken to determine whether using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors during surgical revascularization of acutely ischemic myocardium would improve wall motion and limit infarct size. buy vasotec

vasotec generic 2017-03-31

The synthesis of a series of novel, potent angiotensin converting enzyme buy vasotec (ACE) inhibitors containing 1(S)-carboxy-omega-(4-piperidyl)alkyl group at the N-terminal of the dipeptide is described. These 1-carboxy-omega-(4-piperidyl)alkyl derivatives possess greater or equivalent in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy than captopril and enalapril. The length (n) of the carbon chain in the omega-(4-piperidyl)alkyl moiety was varied from two to six to investigate the optimal structure for long-acting ACE inhibitors. 1-[N-[1(S)-Carboxy-6-(4- piperidyl)hexyl]-L-alanyl]-(2a,3a beta, 7a beta)-octahydro- 1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid (9b), the most potent member of the series, had an in vivo area under the curve (AUC) of 685, which was calculated by the inhibition of angiotensin I-induced pressor response vs. time curves (0 to 8 h) after p.o. administration.

vasotec medication 2016-04-30

Reperfusion after myocardial ischaemia is associated with a distinct ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Since ACE-inhibition, beyond its influence on cardiac angiotensin buy vasotec II formation and kinin metabolism, has been shown to be cardioprotective by decreasing leucocyte adhesion and endothelin-1 (ET-1) release, we investigated the effects of intracoronary (i.c.) enalaprilat during primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction.

vasotec drug label 2016-05-14

The hypotonic preswelling method for encapsulation of drugs in intact human erythrocytes was evaluated using enalaprilat as a model peptide-like drug. Several process variables, including volume, concentration, pH, and method of addition of buy vasotec drug solution, type of erythrocyte-suspending medium, temperature, initial packed density of erythrocytes, and individual process steps, were exploited with respect to their effects on the loading parameters (i.e., loaded amount, efficiency of entrapment, and cell recovery). In addition, the probable mechanism by which the erythrocytes were loaded by enalaprilat at the point of lysis was shown to be a simple concentration gradient-based diffusion through membrane openings occurring on hemolysis. Finally, the adopted method was validated, and the results showed a considerable degree of reproducibility and recovery for the entire loading procedure.

vasotec normal dosage 2016-10-03

Experimental design methodologies are applied to the development of a capillary zone electrophoretic method for the separation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril and its derivative enalaprilat and the diuretics xipamide and hydrochlorothiazide. The effects of pH, buffer concentration, proportion of boric acid in the mixed boric acid-potassium dihydrogen phosphate background electrolyte, temperature, applied voltage, and buy vasotec percentage of organic modifier are studied. Critical factors are identified in a screening design (a 2(6-2) fractional factorial design), and afterwards, optimal conditions for the separation are reached by means of an optimization design (a 2(2) + 2 x 2 + k central composite design). The studied response is the resolution between peaks. The four studied compounds can be separated in less than 3.5 min using an electrolyte of 20mM boric acid-potassium dihydrogen phosphate (75:25, v/v) with 5% MeOH adjusted to pH 8.0 with KOH, at a potential of 30 kV. The detection wavelength and temperature are 206 nm and 35 degrees C, respectively.

vasotec generic name 2015-11-14

The inflammatory effects of enalaprilat and cilazaprilat were tested in an experimental model of ovalbumin-sensitised guinea-pigs. Enalaprilat, but not cilazaprilat, enhanced the ovalbumin-induced inflammatory skin responses. The effect of enalaprilat was dose-dependent. Enalaprilat significantly increased the skin content of substance P and histamine. Cilazaprilat did not alter the level of these inflammatory mediators. Enalaprilat, applied locally, but not cilazaprilat, enhanced the inflammatory reactions caused by intradermal injections of allergen and substance P. Both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors enhanced the inflammatory skin response evoked by bradykinin. Our study strongly indicates that enalaprilat has pro-inflammatory properties, whereas the new long-acting buy vasotec ACE inhibitor cilazaprilat does not. This might give a better safety profile of cilazaprilat.

vasotec 15 mg 2015-09-03

Intensive care unit (ICU) of a buy vasotec university hospital.

vasotec medication interactions 2017-07-05

The effects of ACE-inhibitors on bradykinin metabolism and bradykinin-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation were studied in isolated coronary arteries and endothelial cells in culture. The results suggest that ACE-inhibitors affect coronary vascular tone by at least two endothelium-dependent and bradykinin-mediated mechanisms: First, ACE-inhibitors decrease endothelial bradykinin degredation which is accompanied by an augmented bradykinin mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation. Second, ACE-inhibitors evoke endothelium-dependent relaxations in coronary arteries stimulated with threshold concentrations of bradykinin, which cannot be attributed to buy vasotec an inhibition of bradykinin degradation. The effect appears to represent a new mechanism which may be based on an interaction of the bradykinin receptor and the angiotensin converting enzyme on the cellular level.

vasotec generic drug 2017-10-29

These findings suggest that ANGII plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis of the IECs. AT1R may be of crucial buy vasotec importance for the modulation of intestinal EC apoptosis.

vasotec 5 mg 2015-11-23

Eight patients with left ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery. Patients were defined as having left ventricular dysfunction if the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure persisted above 18 mmHg in spite of conventional vasoactive medication (inotropic buy vasotec or vasodilating and diuretic drugs) and intermittent mandatory ventilation during the first postoperative week.

vasotec overdose symptoms 2016-08-16

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril is commonly used to treat pediatric hypertension. Because some children are unable to swallow tablets or require doses less than the lowest available enalapril tablet, an enalapril suspension was developed. This study examined the relative bioavailability of enalapril suspension (10 mg) (S) compared with 10-mg marketed VASOTEC tablets (T) in 16 healthy adult subjects. The geometric mean ratio ( Periactin Suspension S/T) estimate of urinary recovery of free enalaprilat, the active moiety, was 0.92 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.07). Urinary recovery data indicate that approximately 50% of the dose was absorbed (50% recovered in urine as enalapril plus enalaprilat) with about 30% of the dose recovered as free enalaprilat for both S and T. The geometric mean ratios (S/T) of serum AUC and C(max) were 1.01 (90% CI: 0.90, 1.13) and 0.98 (90% CI: 0.83, 1.16), respectively. Suspension T(max) was slightly shorter (0.5 h) than that for tablet, but this difference is not clinically significant. Both formulations were well tolerated and there were no clinically significant adverse experiences. We conclude that the bioavailability of enalapril oral suspension 10-mg is similar to that of VASOTEC 10-mg tablet. Instructions for compounding enalapril are provided.

vasotec user reviews 2017-05-10

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the new ACE inhibitor trandolapril was able to inhibit brain ACE activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Therefore, we have measured ex vivo ACE activity in discrete brain areas of SHRs after a 2-week oral treatment with trandolapril (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg/day). The effects of trandolapril were compared to those of enalapril (10 mg/kg/day), used as a reference compound. Enalapril induced a decrease in ACE activity in brain areas not protected by the blood brain barrier (subfornical organ and median eminence) and in cerebral cortex Asacol Maintenance Dose . Conversely, trandolapril at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day and above induced a dose-dependent inhibition of ACE activity in all brain areas assayed, including the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, septum, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellar and cerebral cortex, nucleus of the tractus solitary and caudate nucleus. The inhibition was roughly similar in all brain areas studied. These data suggest that after chronic oral administration in SHRs, trandolapril or its metabolite, in contrast to enalapril or enalaprilat, was able to reach all brain areas of SHRs, including those protected by the blood brain barrier.

vasotec usual dosage 2017-08-05

Impaired baroreflex function is a characteristic feature of congestive heart failure (CHF), although the mechanism is obscure. This study examined the hypothesis that activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to baroreflex dysfunction in CHF. The acute effects Allegra 60mg Dosage of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, on baroreflex-mediated changes in heart rate (HR), total and renal noradrenaline (NA) spillover rates were examined in conscious rabbits with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathic CHF. Studies were performed under resting conditions and in response to changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusions. Seven saline-treated (normal group) and 11 doxorubicin-treated rabbits (1 mg/kg administered intravenously twice weekly) were studied after 4 and 6 weeks' treatment. Five CHF rabbits received saline (C group) and 6 enalaprilat infusion (ACEI group) during each study period. After 4 weeks of doxorubicin, baroreflex-HR responses were normal, whereas baroreflex-NA spillover responses were enhanced. Enalaprilat infusion shifted the HR-MAP curve downwards to the left but had no effect on the NA spillover-MAP curves. After 6 weeks of doxorubicin, when CHF was established, baroreflex-HR and NA spillover curves were depressed. At this stage, enalaprilat had little effect on the HR-MAP curve but restored towards normal the NA spillover-MAP curves. The results suggest that the endogenous renin-angiotensin system contributes to attenuated baroreflex responses when CHF is established.

vasotec online 2017-03-20

The prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption is a major problem of increasing proportions throughout the world. Although alcohol sensitizing drugs and more recently serotonin uptake inhibitors are drug interventions with some following, their long term beneficial consequences have yet to be demonstrated. In recent years, we have demonstrated that manipulating activity in the renin-angiotensin system will dramatically alter voluntary alcohol consumption in rats. Based on these findings, the present study evaluated the ability of a class of drugs known as the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to reduce voluntary alcohol drinking in laboratory animals. These drugs prevent the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. They have been licensed for use in Europe and North America and are indicated in the treatment of hypertension. Our experiments showed that both captopril (Capoten, Squibb) and enalapril (Vasotec, Merck Sharpe & Dohme) can reduce alcohol drinking in both normotensive and hypertensive animals regardless of whether the pattern of intake is in a bout or of a less exaggerated nature. Furthermore, this change in Minipress Overdose Symptoms alcohol intake can occur without concomitant changes in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, overall fluid balance, or the distribution and metabolism of alcohol. Taken together these findings suggest that the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors should be evaluated in a clinical setting for they may prove to be a useful new treatment or treatment adjunct for alcohol abuse in humans.

vasotec tabs 2017-07-05

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for indirect determination of enalapril in human plasma, was developed and validated. An exogenous angiotensin converting enzyme after drug inhibition was determined by reacting with hippuryl-histidyl-leucine to produce hippuric Altace Tablets acid (HA) which was inversely proportional to the amount of enalaprilat in plasma. The HPLC was carried out on a Lichrosphere 60RP-select B, C18, 5 microm (125 mm x 4.0 mm i.d.) column at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The analysis time per injection was within 6.5 min. The lowest concentration of enalaprilat to be quantitated was 3.0 ng/ml with the acceptable accuracy and precision. This successfully developed method was practically and accurately used for pharmacokinetics and bioequivalent study of enalapril.

vasotec 200 mg 2017-03-18

Brief ischemia followed by reperfusion induces arteriolar microvascular endothelial dysfunction, while venular endothelial function is preserved in this porcine model. ACE inhibition enhances coronary blood flow at the time of reperfusion and can prevent impairment of endothelium-dependent arteriolar responses. However, ACE inhibition does not enhance ventricular segmental shortening acutely despite improved microvascular endothelial function and augmented Cymbalta 180mg Dosage postischemic coronary blood flow in this model of ischemia-reperfusion.

vasotec review 2017-05-07

Captopril (SQ 14225), an orally active angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI), increases natriuresis and diuresis in man and experimental animals in vivo, as well as in the isolated perfused rat kidney, raising the possibility of a direct renal action of the drug. We tested this hypothesis by studying its effects in the isolated toad skin, a model of the distal nephron devoid of vascular and nervous influences. When added to the dermal bath, captopril caused a reversible, concentration-related decrease in short-circuit current (SCC), a measure of active transepithelial Na transport. Keeping the toads in 0.1 M NaCl for 4 or more days increased sensitivity to the drug, which then inhibited SCC maximally (49 +/- 12% at 3.4 X 10(-3) M, P less than 0.01, n = 10), suggesting its effect might be modulated by endogenous mineralocorticoid activity. Captopril also inhibited the increase in SCC and in osmotic water permeability caused by neurohypophyseal peptides (NHP). The increases in SCC by non-peptidic agents (nystatin, a polyene antibiotic, or norepinephrine, an adrenergic agonist) were not altered, ruling out a generalized toxic effect, or any significant inhibition of the Na pump by captopril. The apparently specific effect of the drug on the permeability responses to NHP seems to be exerted proximally to the apical border, since the response of the latter to other agents was preserved. The present data Evista 10 Mg suggest SH groups may be involved, since other CEI lacking such groups (teprotide and MK-422) do not produce such effects. These observations support the notion that a direct tubular effect may be involved in the increased diuresis and natriuresis observed after administration of captopril.

vasotec medication doctor 2015-03-01

Fast atom bombardment, combined with high-energy collision-induced tandem mass spectrometry, has been used to investigate gas-phase metal-ion interactions with captopril, enalaprilat and lisinopril, all angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.Suggestions for the location of metal-binding sites are presented. For captopril, metal binding occurs most likely at both the sulphur Diflucan Dosage Pediatrics and the nitrogen atom. For enalaprilat and lisinopril, binding preferably occurs at the amine nitrogen. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

vasotec 20 mg 2015-01-23

1. Experiments were designed to evaluate the hypothesis that cyclo-oxygenase products modulate the influence of angiotensin II (AII) on the renal juxtamedullary microvasculature of enalaprilat-treated rats. 2. The in vitro blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron technique was utilized to provide access to afferent arterioles, efferent arterioles and descending vasa recta located in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. 3. Baseline afferent arteriolar diameter was 20.8 +/- 1.9 microns in kidneys subjected to cyclo-oxygenase blockade (1 mumol/L piroxicam), a value significantly lower than that observed in untreated kidneys (26.1 +/- 1.0 microns). Baseline diameters of efferent arterioles and outer medullary descending vasa recta did not differ between untreated and piroxicam-treated groups. 4. Topical application of 1 nmol/L AII reduced blood flow through outer medullary descending vasa recta by 22 +/- 6% in untreated kidneys and by 24 +/- 7% in piroxicam-treated kidneys. 5. In untreated kidneys, AII (0.01-100 nmol/L) produced concentration-dependent afferent and efferent arteriolar constrictor responses of similar magnitudes. Neither afferent nor efferent arteriolar AII responsiveness was significantly altered in Aggrenox Drugs piroxicam-treated kidneys, although afferent responses exceeded efferent responses at AII concentrations > or = 10 nmol/L. 6. We conclude that endogenous cyclo-oxygenase products exert a vasodilator influence on juxtamedullary afferent arterioles under baseline conditions. Although cyclo-oxygenase inhibition had little effect on juxtamedullary microvascular responses to AII, the response to high AII concentrations may be modulated by cyclo-oxygenase products in a manner which delicately alters the relative influence of the peptide on pre- vs postglomerular resistances.

vasotec 10 mg 2016-07-24

The intracardiac conversion rate of angiotensin (Ang) I to Ang II and the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA are amplified in rat hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). To examine whether the accelerated intracardiac Ang II generation in LVH Astelin Online Pharmacy is related to an induction of cardiac ACE, we studied localization and function of cardiac ACE in hypertrophied rat hearts using specific ACE inhibitors.

vasotec non generic 2016-09-20

Hypertensive emergency is a common problem requiring an effective, safe and easily administrable agent to reduce the blood pressure. Favorable data on injectable enalaprilat have been reported from the West but no Indian study has been done in such settings. We studied 10 patients (5 male, 5 female), with mean age 47+/-0.6 years and mean blood pressure 196+/-18.95/119.4+/-19.53 mmHg, who were given 1.25 mg intravenous enalaprilat. Reduction in their blood pressure started at 5 min with peak reduction noted at 4 hours (155.25+/-29.54/93.5+/-13.55 mmHg). No adverse symptoms or biochemical changes were noted. Thus, we conclude that intravenous enalaprilat is an effective, safe and well tolerated agent for managing severe hypertension in patients requiring an emergency reduction in Imitrex Dosage Pediatric blood pressure.

vasotec brand name 2017-09-29

Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland

vasotec overdose death 2017-10-19

A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determine enalapril and enalaprilat in human plasma. With benazepril as internal standard, sample pretreatment involved in a one-step protein precipitation (PPT) with methanol of 0.2 ml plasma. Analysis was performed on an Ultimate XB-C(18) column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, i.d., 3 microm) with mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-formic acid (62:38:0.2, v/v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Each plasma sample was chromatographed within 2.5 min. The linear calibration curves for enalapril and enalaprilat were both obtained in the concentration range of 0.638-255 ng/ml (r(2) > or = 0.99) with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.638 ng/ml. The intra-day precision (R.S.D.) was below 7.2% and inter-day R.S.D. was less than 14%, while accuracy (relative error R.E.) was within +/-8.7 and +/-5.5%, determined from QC samples for enalapril and enalaprilat which corresponded to requirement of the guidance of FDA. The HPLC-MS/MS method herein described was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of enalapril maleate capsules in 20 healthy male volunteers after oral administration.

vasotec normal dose 2016-01-17

1. Isolated perfused male Sprague-Dawley rat tail artery segments were used to investigate interactions between the alpha-1-adrenoceptor antagonist, doxazosin, and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalaprilat, using phenylephrine (PE) as the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist. 2. In concentrations of up to 10(-5) mol/L, enalaprilat had no effect on arterial responses to PE. 3. Doxazosin produced a concentration-dependent competitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonism, yielding a mean pA2 value of 8.72. 4. In the continuous presence of 10(-6) mol/L enalaprilat, doxazosin with a pA2 value of 9.10 was a 2.4-fold more potent alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist than in the absence of enalaprilat. 5. These results are interpreted to indicate that endogenously produced angiotensin II can modulate the activity of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle.

vasotec drug classification 2016-09-11

MR phase-contrast waveform pattern analysis was 50% (9/18) sensitive and 78% (40/51) specific for the detection of renal artery stenosis equal to or greater than 60% as shown on MR angiography. Sensitivity (67%, 12/18) and specificity (84%, 42/50) increased slightly, but not significantly, after i.v. administration of an ACE inhibitor. Also, the accuracy of quantitative criteria such as acceleration time and acceleration index did not improve after the administration of ACE inhibitor.