Chronic daily headache (CDH), a heterogeneous group of headache disorders occurring on at least 15 days per month, affects up to 4% to 5% of the general population. CDH disorders include transformed (or chronic) migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Patients with CDH have greater disability and lower quality of life than episodic migraine patients and often overuse headache pain medications. To date, only topiramate, gabapentin, tizanidine, fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) have been evaluated as prophylactic treatment of CDH in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, or active comparator-controlled trials. The evidence supporting the use of BoNTA as prophylaxis of CDH is composed of larger and longer trials, as over 1000 patients were evaluated for up to 11 months duration. Compared with placebo BoNTA has significantly reduced the frequency of headache episodes, a recommended efficacy measure for headache trials and has been demonstrated to be safe and very well tolerated with few discontinuations due to adverse events. Side effects are generally transient, mild to moderate, and nonsystemic. The results of clinical trials using traditional oral pharmacotherapy, while supportive of their use as prophylactic treatment of CDH, are limited by several factors, including small numbers of patients, the choice of efficacy measures, and short treatment periods. The use of oral agents was associated with systemic side effects, which may limit their effectiveness as prophylactic treatment of CDH.
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We describe a 53-year-old patient with broken-heart syndrome, who developed serious tizanidine withdrawal symptoms after high-dosed long-term treatment within the framework of stress cardiomyopathy.
Seventy-one healthy young volunteers (male and female nonsmokers, male smokers) ingested 4 mg tizanidine. Plasma concentrations and pharmacodynamics of tizanidine were measured, and a caffeine test was performed.
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Tizanidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, is a centrally active muscle relaxant and a spasmolytic drug. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity of tizanidine on maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in mice. In the first part of the study, convulsive current 50 (CC 50) value to produce seizures was found. Then, tizanidine was given intraperitoneally (IP) at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, and orally (PO) at the doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg. We found that tizanidine at the doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg IP and 40 mg/kg PO caused a significant protection against MES. In the second part of the study, after pretreatment with yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor blocker, at the dose of 2 mg/kg, anticonvulsant effect of tizanidine is diminished. We concluded that the mode of action of the anticonvulsant effect of tizanidine may be mediated by the central alpha-2 adrenergic receptors.
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To conduct a meta-analysis of the antispastic efficacy and tolerability of tizanidine, we reviewed records of the European sponsor of tizanidine trials and selected double-blind, randomized studies of moderate duration in which oral tizanidine was compared with baclofen or diazepam. Studies were required to have individual patient data; three key outcome measures (Ashworth Rating Scale for muscle tone, a measure of muscle strength, and Global Tolerability to Treatment Rating); and patients with multiple sclerosis or cerebrovascular lesions. Ten trials involving 270 patients met these criteria. Seven studies used baclofen as the positive control; three used diazepam. As measured by Total and Lower Body Ashworth scores, tizanidine and similar spasticity-reducing effects to both baclofen and diazepam. Muscle strength was affected less by tizanidine than by either comparator, and investigators judged tizanidine to have greater tolerability. Within the limits of these comparisons, tizanidine, baclofen, and diazepam were equally effective in decreasing excessive muscle tone in patients with multiple sclerosis or cerebrovascular lesions. Muscle strength improved in all three treatment groups, but improvement was greatest with tizanidine.
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From 2000-2011, there was a significant increase (5.9% per year, CI 3.6, 8.2) in unintentional pediatric exposures to National Poison Data System for central alpha-2 agonists. There were 27,825 clonidine exposures (67.3% male, median age: 4 years), 6143 guanfacine exposures (69.8% male, median age: 6 years), and 856 tizanidine exposures (51.9% male, median age: 2 years). Guanfacine had the greatest proportional increase among the medications. Clonidine was associated with the most respiratory (799, 2.9%) and central nervous system symptoms (12,612, 45.3%), as well as the most episodes of bradycardia (2847, 10.2%) and hypotension (2365, 8.5%). Seven-hundred twenty-eight (2.0%) patients were intubated, and 141 patients (0.5%) were administered vasopressors. There were 7 cardiac arrests and 3 deaths from clonidine.
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To investigate the antinociceptive interaction of intrathecal amiloride and the α2-adrenoceptor agonist tizanidine using a rat formalin test.
This study included 18 subjects (12 men, 6 women; mean [SD] age, 26  years). The mean height and body weight of the subjects were 176 (8) cm and 70.1 (9.6) kg, respectively. The peak exposure, as measured by mean natural logarithm-transformed C(max) values, was significantly lower with the capsule compared with the tablet (2.7 vs 4.0 ng/mL; P < 0.019), and mean TmaX was significantly longer (2.6 vs 1.2 hours; P < 0.001). The 90% CIs for the capsule:tablet treatment ratios were 70.55 to 121.94 for AUC(0-lat) and 70.12 to 118.75 for AUC(0-infinity). The capsule did not achieve the protocol-defined definition of bioequivalence when given after a high-fat meal. All AEs were transient and mild in intensity, with asthenia being the most common event with the capsule and tablet formulations, occurring in 5 (28%) and 8 (44%) subjects, respectively.
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The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tizanidine with placebo in terms of postoperative pain scores, analgesic consumption, return to daily activity and health-related quality of life.
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Clonus is an involuntary rhythmic muscle contraction after sudden muscle stretch that occurs as a result of a lesion in the upper motor neurons. The real mechanism behind clonus remains obscure. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of central-acting tizanidine treatment and peripheral extremity cooling on clonus.
The authors' results show that intrathecal tizanidine and clonidine synergistically interact with lidocaine so that the degree of antinociception to somatic noxious stimuli are enhanced. The antinociceptive synergistic interaction between tizanidine and lidocaine may be useful in clinical practice without affecting blood pressure, heart rate, or motor function.
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A double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, 3-treatment, 2-way crossover, comparative, placebo-controlled study was conducted in a neuroimmunology clinic of a university-affiliated medical center (December 2005 to March 2006). Enrolled patients received placebo once nightly and were then randomized to receive oral tizanidine HCl following sublingual tizanidine HCl or sublingual tizanidine HCl following oral tizanidine HCl, each arm for 7 days. The patients were evaluated for spasticity (Ashworth scale), mobility, Global Assessments of Disease Severity and Change, and safety parameters, including next-day somnolence (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fatigue, hypotension, and hepatotoxicity.
Symptomatic therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important part of a comprehensive treatment plan that aims to improve patients' quality of life. In the current era of medical progress, several factors have led to the development of guidelines for MS management. There is continued need for an evidence-based approach supported by high-quality data from controlled clinical trials. Most healthcare systems require this approach and include it in the reimbursement process. Guidelines are usually committed by national or continental neurological societies. The Spanish Society of Neurology demyelinating diseases working group has developed a consensus document on spasticity in patients with MS. MS experts from the group used the metaplan method to sum up the most important recommendations about spasticity for inclusion in the guidance. Recommendations were classified according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network system and approved by all members of the group. In Germany, the guideline panel of the German Neurological Society endorsed the national competence network for multiple sclerosis (Krankheitsbezogenes Kompetenznetz Multiple Sklerose) to update the existing recommendations. The most recent fifth edition of the guidelines (dated April 2012) now also includes recommendations for treatment of key symptoms such as spasticity. More than 30 MS neurologists contributed to the new edition reflecting the need for broad expertise. After a first round in which key topics were defined, a web-based decision process was undertaken to further develop individual topics such as symptomatic therapy. The draft manuscript was reviewed once again by the group prior to submission to the official review process. The aims of spasticity treatment are to improve mobility and dexterity, achieve physiological movement patterns, reduce pain, facilitate nursing measures and avoid complications such as contractures. Representative antispasticity medications include baclofen, tizanidine, gabapentin, dantrolene, tolperisone, benzodiazepines and Sativex® oromucosal spray. Botulinum toxin and intrathecal baclofen may also be required in selected cases. Plans are currently in motion to develop next-level European guidelines through a concerted approach coordinated by the European Federation of Neurological Societies.
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The technique of polarised light goniometry was used to quantify objectively parameters of the spastic gait during a double-blind cross-over trial comparing the spasmolytic effects of DS103-282, baclofen and placebo. Only minimal objective and subjective changes in gait were found when the results of treatment with DS103-282 or baclofen were compared with those of treatment with placebo.
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The antagonist profile from the current study is most consistent with the theory that the alpha2B-adrenergic receptor subtype mediates the analgesic effect of intrathecally administered tizanidine on CCI-associated neuropathic pain.
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Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted the data. We assessed the included studies for both quality and risk of bias. We contacted study authors to request further information when necessary.
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This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study in healthy, nonsmoking adult subjects was conducted at MDS Pharma Services, Belfast, United Kingdom. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive the capsule-tablet or tablet-capsule treatment. The 2 treatment periods were separated by a 6-day washout period. All treatments were administered after a standardized high-fat meal. To determine plasma tizanidine pharmacokinetic properties, blood samples were collected over 24 hours after administration. The predetermined bioequivalence range for the test drug (capsule) was 80% to 125% of the reference drug (tablet). Drug tolerability was assessed using routine physical examination, including vital-sign measurements; laboratory analysis (hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis); 12-lead electrocardiography; direct observation; spontaneous reporting; and non specific questioning.
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The antinociceptive actions of morphine and tizanidine (an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist) administered intrathecally in a rat model of mononeuropathic pain were investigated. Tizanidine increased to normal levels the intensity of a noxious pressure stimulus required to induce paw withdrawal (p < 0.01) and decreased the duration of limb withdrawal from both normal-temperature and cooled floors in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01). Tizanidine had virtually no effect on the latency of paw withdrawal from a noxious heat stimulus. In comparison, morphine significantly decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, limb withdrawal from the normal-temperature and cooled floors and increased to cutoff values the withdrawal latencies of both noxious heat and pressure stimuli (p < 0.01). The effect of tizanidine was limited to the hyperalgesic limb and served to normalize reactive latencies, whereas morphine affected both hindlimbs and increased latencies to supranormal cutoff values. These data suggest that intrathecal tizanidine may be more specific than morphine in reversing the allodynia and hyperpathia associated with neuropathic pain states and may be of value in the management of patients with these clinical syndromes.
This study performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare injection of BoNT-Type A into spastic upper limb muscles versus oral tizanidine (TZD), or placebo, in 60 subjects with upper-limb spasticity due to stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Wrist flexors were systematically injected, while other upper limb muscles were injected as per investigator judgement. Participants were randomised into three groups: (1) intramuscular BoNT plus oral placebo; (2) oral TZD plus intramuscular placebo; (3) intramuscular placebo plus oral placebo. The primary outcome was the difference in change in wrist flexor modified Ashworth score (MAS) between groups. Other outcome measures included MAS at elbow and finger joints, Disability Assessment Scale (DAS) and adverse events (AE).
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Spasticity is a serious problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) and many patients do not achieve a satisfactory response to currently available oral antispasticity drugs. Tizanidine hydrochloride, an alpha 2-noradrenergic agonist, has been shown to have an antispasticity effect in single center trials of patients with MS.
Spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral lower limb weakness and spasticity. Most affected individuals have proximal or generalized weakness in the legs and impaired vibration sense. Onset is mostly in adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age 11 years and as late as age 72 years. Additional features such as hyperreflexia in the arms, sphincter disturbances, spastic dysarthria, dysphagia, pale optic disks, ataxia, nystagmus, strabismus, decreased hearing, scoliosis, pes cavus, motor and sensory neuropathy, and amyotrophy may be observed.
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Brimonidine, clonidine, and tizanidine reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate- and sulprostone-induced allodynia in wild-type mice, but not alpha-2A knockout mice. In alpha-2C knockout mice, brimonidine and tizanidine reduced allodynia in both models, whereas clonidine only reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced allodynia. In vitro, clonidine and tizanidine activated alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors with similar potencies, whereas brimonidine was selective for alpha-2 receptors. In alpha-2C knockout mice with sulprostone-induced allodynia, blockade of clonidine's alpha-1 receptor agonist activity restored clonidine's analgesic efficacy. In wild-type mice, the analgesic potency of intrathecal clonidine and tizanidine was increased 3- to 10-fold by coadministration with the alpha-1A-selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil without affecting sedation. Following intraperitoneal administration, the therapeutic window was negligible for clonidine and tizanidine, but greater for brimonidine. 5-Methylurapidil enhanced the therapeutic window of intraperitoneal clonidine and tizanidine approximately 10-fold.
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Ciprofloxacin greatly elevates plasma concentrations of tizanidine and dangerously potentiates its hypotensive and sedative effects, mainly by inhibiting its CYP1A2-mediated metabolism, at least when administered 1 hour before tizanidine. Tizanidine seems to be a useful probe drug for measuring presystemic metabolism by CYP1A2. Care should be exercised when tizanidine is used concomitantly with ciprofloxacin.
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Forty-four patients were treated with tizalud and botulotoxin A in different doses in complex with rehabilitation measures or without them.
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Effects of drugs affecting the central nervous system on the spinal reflexes and the descending modulations of the reflexes were simultaneously evaluated in rats. Mono- and polysynaptic reflexes were, respectively, increased and decreased by conditioning stimulation of the nucleus raphe in the medulla, with a deflection in resting dorsal root potential being evoked by the stimulation. Baclofen exclusively depressed the segmental responses without affecting the descending modulatory systems. On the other hand, KW-6629 (7-chloro-N,N,3-trimethylbenzo[b]furan-2-carboxamide) significantly depressed the descending modulations without affecting the segmental responses which were sensitive to baclofen. Diazepam and suriclone reduced the descending influence without affecting the ventral root reflexes. Tolperisone and chlorphenesin carbamate as well as tizanidine depressed not only the segmental reflexes but also the descending modulations. Thus, sites of drug actions were estimated.
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To assess the efficacy of oral drugs in the treatment of spasticity in patients with nonprogressive neurologic disease (NPND).
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The effect of tizanidine [5-chloro-4-(2-imidazolin-2-yl-amino)-2,1, 3-benzothiadiazole] on core temperature in the mouse was investigated in comparison with that of clonidine. Tizanidine decreased core temperature in unanaesthetized, freely-moving normal mice. Clonidine produced hypothermia in normal mice. The alpha 2-antagonist yohimbine produced an antagonism to tizanidine- and clonidine-induced hypothermia, while naloxone failed to antagonize the hypothermia. It is concluded that tizanidine and clonidine produce a similar hypothermic effect via an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor, but not an endogenous opioid system.
The activity of myorelaxant sirdalud (tizanidine) was studied in 36 patients aged 20-79 with pain syndrome (reflex muscular-tonic, myofascial, acute compression radiculopathy). The condition of the patients was evaluated according to the visual analog scale where the scores were assigned to the intensity of muscular spasm, pain at rest, exercise and at altitude tension and functional decline. Pain symptoms diminished as early as the treatment day 3. The same was true for muscular spasms. The highest effect of sirdalud occurred in acute phases of the diseases. Pain relief was so material that 20 patients were able to discontinue analgetics and tranquilizers. For 12 patients the doses of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs were noticeably reduced. Side effects of sirdalud were minimal: slight sleepiness and xerostomia.
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To define the current understanding of these entities and to review various treatment options.
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To describe an outpatient regimen for analgesic detoxification and resolution of analgesic rebound headache.