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Omeprazole, 20 mg, is the most effective initial therapy for relief of GORD symptoms.
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The clinical value of ranitidine, 75 b. d. versus 175 mg b. d. in 48 patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer was evaluated in a randomised double-blind study. In the two groups of patients there was no significant difference of ulcer healing. After 4 weeks of treatment in each group healing of 79% and after 6 weeks of 92% of the ulcers was observed. After 8 weeks the healing rate was 96% in patients who received 75 mg b. d. and 100% in those receiving 150 mg of ranitidine b. d. Smoking prolonged ulcer healing in both groups. Upon ulcer healing in 34 patients a ranitidine dosis of 75 mg nocte for prophylaxis of ulcer recurrence was compared with a 150 mg dosis nocte. Within 12 months in the two groups recurrence of duodenal ulcer was found by endoscopy in 21% and 20% of the patients. 7 out of 8 patients with ulcer recurrence were smokers. According to the results of these studies it appears that the recommended standard dosis of ranitidine for treatment of duodenal ulcer could be reduced by one half. To confirm our conclusions, further studies with a greater number of duodenal ulcer cases are necessary.
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Nonrandomized controlled study.
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Factors precipitating persistence of gastrocutaneous fistulas (GCFs) are not clearly understood. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine receptor antagonists in GCF closure is not yet studied. We aimed to identify whether these medications influence spontaneous GCF closure.
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A total of 15,495 patients registered with eight general practitioners in seven general practices in Dundee, UK.
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In the prevention of stress acute gastric lesions Sucralfate might be indicated as a partial cytoprotector and Omeprazole or Lanzoprazole as antisecretant and lesion preventive drugs.
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Meta-analysis combining the odds ratios (OR) of the individual studies in a global OR (Peto method). OUTCOMES EVALUATED: Persistent or recurrent bleeding, need for surgery, or mortality.
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Inflammation of the liver may be caused by a variety of factors that include infectious agents and toxins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the NADPH oxidase in Kupffer cells and infiltrating leukocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of early alcohol-induced hepatitis. Histamine dihydrochloride (histamine) suppresses the generation of ROS through the histamine type-2 receptor (H2 receptor). Histamine was studied as a potential protective treatment against early alcohol-induced liver injury in an experimental hepatitis model. Female Wistar rats were given ethanol (5 g/kg) intragastrically by gavage once daily for 4 weeks, while a control group not receiving ethanol was fed an isocaloric high-fat diet. Animals receiving ethanol had elevated serum levels of alanine and aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) and developed steatosis, inflammation, and necrosis of the liver. Histamine treatment (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg, twice daily) protected against this liver injury as evident by normal serum transaminase levels and significantly reduced liver pathology scores. Ranitidine (10 mg/kg), an H2 receptor antagonist, blocked the protective effect of histamine, indicating that the histamine effect is predominantly mediated through the H2 receptor. In conclusion, these results suggest that histamine protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.
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We observed that patients in group 1 had a higher incidence of overt upper GI haemorrhage, which was statistically significant (P <0.014) compared to patients in group 2.
Triple therapy with ranitidine, clarithromycin, and metronidazole provides a safe and effective treatment of H. pylori infection, resulting in a high eradication rate, and in significant decrease in semiquantitative histology scores. Further prospective studies are warranted.
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Convulsive potency was evaluated to investigate the mechanism of neurotoxic convulsion induced by histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2 blockers). Four H2 blockers, cimetidine (721-1236 nmol), ranitidine (477-954 nmol), famotidine (7.4-44 nmol), and nizatidine (226-603 nmol) were administered intracerebrally (i.c.) to mice. Dose dependency of clonic and/or tonic convulsion was observed, and the ED50 values of convulsive occurrence for cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, and nizatidine were 997, 662, 23.4, and 404 nmol, respectively. Intraperitoneal pretreatment of muscimol, aminooxy acetic acid, diazepam, (+/-)2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (APH), or (+)MK801 suppressed the tonic convulsion after i.c. administration of ranitidine, but had no effect on clonic convulsion. Furthermore, the convulsive threshold concentration in the brain determined by constant rate infusion of ranitidine was not affected by the pretreatment of muscimol, diazepam, APH, and MK801. Ed50 values for convulsive occurrence after i.c. administration of four H2 blockers correlated well with the EC50 values for gastric acid secretion inhibition. The convulsive threshold concentrations of cimetidine and ranitidine in the brain were 11 and 2.5 microM, respectively, which were similar to the dissociation constants determined from the inhibition of gastric acid output in mice. From these results, tonic convulsion induced by H2 blockers can be suppressed by GABAergic or glutamatergic anticonvulsants, while clonic convulsion induced by H2 blockers may be associated with the blockade of H2 receptor in the brain and not be directly associated with the GABA and glutamate-mediated neurotransmission.
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Even with the current most effective treatment regimens, about 10% to 20% of patients will fail to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection. Therefore, in designing a treatment strategy, we should not focus on the results of primary therapy alone but also on the final (overall) eradication rate. The choice of a second-line treatment depends on which treatment was used initially, because retreatment with the same regimen is not recommended. Therefore, it seems that performing culture after a first eradication failure is not necessary and assessing H. pylori sensitivity to antibiotics only after failure of the second treatment is suggested in clinical practice. Different possibilities of empirical treatment are suggested. After failure of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-amoxicillin-clarithromycin, quadruple therapy has been generally used. More recently, replacing the PPI and the bismuth compound by ranitidine bismuth citrate has also achieved good results. After PPI-amoxicillin-nitroimidazole failure, retreatment with PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin has proved to be effective. Finally, the first therapy should not combine clarithromycin and metronidazole in the same regimen because of the problem of resistance against both antibiotics. Recently, rifabutin-based rescue therapies have been shown to constitute an encouraging strategy for eradication failures because they are effective for H. pylori strains resistant to antibiotics.
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We present a survey on the incidence, demography and natural history (re-dilatation rates) of patients with oesophageal acid-peptic stricture seen between 1977 and 1995.
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In vitro studies and animal experiments as well as clinical observations in humans concerning cardiovascular effects of H2-receptor antagonists have been published shortly after the development. Thus, clinical studies were performed to investigate these effects. The following review summarizes the results from in vitro studies up to the clinical investigations performed.
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The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, contraindications and precautions, adverse effects, dosage, and cost of misoprostol are reviewed. Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. Misoprostol is extensively absorbed from the stomach and undergoes rapid de-esterification to its biologically active metabolite, misoprostol acid. The average absorption after an oral dose is 88%; peak plasma concentrations of misoprostol acid are achieved in less than 30 minutes. Clinical trials have demonstrated ulcer healing rates of approximately 60-80% in patients with duodenal ulcers who received misoprostol 800 micrograms daily for four weeks. Misoprostol was generally no more efficacious than conventional therapy with the H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine. The healing rate observed for gastric ulcers was less than that observed for duodenal ulcers. In trials involving healthy volunteers and patients with arthritis receiving aspirin, naproxen, tolmetin, ibuprofen, or piroxicam, misoprostol was consistently superior to placebo, cimetidine, and sucralfate in the prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. The majority of these studies have been of short duration; however, long-term studies (up to three months) have corroborated superiority over placebo. Misoprostol is an abortifacient and is contraindicated in pregnant women and women of childbearing potential not using effective contraception. The most common adverse effect of misoprostol therapy is diarrhea, which is often mild and self-limiting and can be minimized by administration of misoprostol after meals and at bedtime. The cost (based on retail price) of four weeks of therapy with misoprostol is comparable to that of other antiulcer agents. Misoprostol has been shown to be an effective agent for the prevention of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. However, there is no evidence that it offers any clinical advantage over H2-receptor antagonists for the treatment of gastric or duodenal ulcer disease.
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To compare the rates of clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding and the number of blood units and endoscopies required for gastrointestinal hemorrhage between patients receiving or not receiving stress-ulcer prophylaxis.
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Sequential therapy was associated with a higher eradication rate of H. pylori compared with both 7-day triple regimen and 10-day triple regimen.
Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) are suspected of inducing angioedemas in up to 0.2% of all patients. These angioedemas are mainly localized in the upper airways and therefore can cause severe airway obstruction and even death due to suffocation. We report the case of a 64-year-old man, who underwent emergency tracheotomy because of severe angioedema of the larynx, which was refractory to pharmacological treatment. We conclude that patients with ACE inhibitor-induced angioedemas should be observed by monitoring in an intensive care unit to ensure the possibility of early intubation, because conventional antiallergic-antiedematous therapy by histamine-receptor antagonists and corticosteroids is an insufficient, unreliable form of therapy in severe cases. Especially otolaryngologists should know about this uncommon potentially life-threatening side-effect of ACE inhibitors.
We conducted a masked trial comparing metoclopramide, 0.2 mg/kg/dose q 6 hours, and ranitidine, 2 mg/kg/dose q 8 hours, with saline placebo. Each infant served as his own control. Preterm infants having >3 bradycardia episodes per 2 days were eligible if the clinician intended to begin anti-reflux medications for bradycardia attributed to GER.
The use and adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in outpatients with rheumatic diseases has not yet been studied enough. The aim of this study was to evaluate the data about the efficacy and safety of NSAIDs obtained from the questionnaires submitted to the outpatients receiving these drugs.
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We have investigated the possibility of measuring acid secretion from human gastric mucosa in vitro as a potential pharmacological preparation. We used open-ended 10 microns-tip, lix-based glass microelectrodes to measure the pH of the mucus layer of gastric biopsies superfused with a HEPES buffered solution in an organ bath. With no drugs added the pH of the mucus layer of biopsies from the body of the stomach stayed constant but the pH of antral biopsies fell slightly by a median of 0.12 pH units over 80 min (P < 0.05). Stimulation of the biopsies with 1-100 microM histamine produced a dose-dependent decrease in pH which was significantly greater in biopsies from the gastric body than from the antrum. 500 pM pentagastrin produced a median fall in pH of 1.20 (P < 0.01) which was prevented by the prior addition of 100 microM omeprazole or 10 microM ranitidine. Omeprazole or ranitidine alone produced slight rises in the median pH of 0.47 (P < 0.05) and 0.26 (P < 0.05) units respectively. Those biopsies which were infected with Helicobacter pylori had a slightly elevated initial pH of about 0.2 of a pH unit (P < 0.05). This novel system provides a means to study human gastric acid secretion in vitro and may be valuable in the testing of new drugs on the stomach.
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The absorption of ranitidine from different segments of the intestinal tract was studied in a subject who had an anatomically divided small intestine. The results indicate that the drug is maximally absorbed from the small bowel rather than the stomach. Subsequent animal studies have shown that absorption of ranitidine in dogs is primarily duodenal followed by jejunal and ileal. The lack of gastric absorption, with predominantly small bowel absorption, may have investigational and therapeutic implications in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases.
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The hypothesis that the histamine H2 receptor blocker ranitidine potentiates neuromuscular paralysis during anaesthesia was tested in vivo in urethane anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats. Succinylcholine was administered as a bolus and constant-rate infusion to maintain 48.5% (+/- 2.5 SEM) tibialis anterior muscle paralysis in 14 rats. Ranitidine 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg.kg-1 iv, was then administered into groups of three or five rats. Ranitidine produced an immediate potentiation of neuromuscular paralysis followed by a transient reversal and then a continued steady-state potentiation. Peak potentiation occurred within 20 (+/- 3.3) sec and was maintained in all the rats to steady-state. Peak reversal was evident 70 (+/- 8.1) sec after ranitidine administration. There was an excellent relationship (r2 = 0.98, P < 0.001) between peak potentiation and serum ranitidine concentration with 50% potentiation occurring at 25.8 (+/- 1.1) micrograms.ml-1. There was a weak relationship (r2 = 0.39, P < 0.05) between peak reversal and serum ranitidine but potentiation at steady-state was not correlated to serum ranitidine concentration (r2 = 0.19, P > 0.05). These results show that ranitidine alters the neuromuscular action of succinylcholine in rats in a similar manner to cimetidine.
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Utilizing 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6')-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)-fluorescence, basal gastric acid secretion was determined from Na(+)-independent pH recovery (∆pH/min) following an ammonium pulse, which reflects H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Experiments were performed in gastric glands from gene-targeted mice (gsk3 ( KI )) with PKB/serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK)-insensitive GSKα,β, in which the serines within the PKB/SGK phosphorylation site were replaced by alanine (GSK3α(21A/21A), GSK3β(9A/9A)).
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To evaluated the gastroprotective effects of standardized aqueous extract of Ziziphus jujuba (Z. jujuba) stem bark against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers as well as anti helicobacter pylori activity of the plant extract in rats.
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Histamine appears to induce IL-6 production through H1R in human amnion cells.
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Ranitidine, procainamide and its active N-acetyl metabolite (NAPA) are renally secreted bases which can compete for carrier-mediated transport processes. The effect of ranitidine on the disposition of procainamide and NAPA was evaluated in 13 healthy men. Subjects were randomized to receive p.o. procainamide (1000 mg) alone (base line) and after p.o. ranitidine, 150 mg twice a day for 4 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at frequent intervals for 24 hr after the procainamide dose. There were no significant differences in the mean pharmacokinetic parameters of procainamide and NAPA after ranitidine coadministration compared to base line. However, individual changes did occur and regression analysis revealed a correlation between base-line procainamide renal clearance (CLR) and the change (delta) in CLR after ranitidine (r = 0.69, P less than .01). Subsequently, individuals were separated into Group I (n = 7) if they had a decrease or Group II (n = 6) if they had an increase in procainamide CLR after ranitidine. Mean +/- S.D. base-line procainamide CLR was 539 +/- 114 ml/min for Group I vs. 410 +/- 61 ml/min for Group II (P less than .01). During ranitidine coadministration, Group I had a 23% decrease in mean procainamide CLR (P less than .05), whereas Group II had a 21% increase (P less than .05). There were no significant differences in the metabolic clearance (CLM) of procainamide between the two groups at base line. However, Group I had a 45% increase (P less than .01) whereas Group II had a 41% decrease (P less than .05) in mean procainamide CLM with concomitant ranitidine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)