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Ten 30-week-old rats received pure titanium implants in both tibiae, and were then divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was administered simvastatin daily. Thirty days later, all animals were killed and then specimens were prepared. The bone contact ratio (BCR) to the implant and bone density (BD) around the implant, as well as histological findings, were obtained.
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20 male Wistar Albino rats weighing 230-250 gr were used. The rats were housed for 12 hours day and 12 hours night cycles in cages and were divided into two groups, namely study and control group. Microscopic evaluation of adhesion was assessed under 5 main topics which are the signs of inflammatory response; inflammation, activation, fibroblast activity, vascularity, presence of giant cell. Activation was scored as follows: (0) no activation, (1) while activation was accepted as present the score for other parameters was evaluated between 0 to 3 according to the increased severity. After evaluating all topics separately, the average of all scores has been assessed in both groups.
Compared with the model group, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), MDA, and atherosclerotic index (AI) were significantly lowered in the MZTC groups (P<0.05, P<0.01), while serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), SOD, and NO obviously increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and in the MZTC groups were obviously higher than those of the simvastatin group (P<0.01), and there was insignificant difference in other indices. The ratio of the aortic tunica intima plaque percentage to the total tunica intima area was also markedly lower than that of the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Results under light microscope indicated the pathological changes of the aorta was obviously attenuated.
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Simvastatin (SMV) has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA) with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control. Our hypothesis is that simvastatin has protective therapeutic effects against early postburn gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness. To test this hypothesis, we compared untreated thermal injury (TI) adult male mice with TI littermates treated with simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg i.p., TI + SMV) immediately following burn injury and two hours before being sacrificed the day after; melatonin-treated (Mel) (1.86 mg/kg i.p., TI + Mel) mice were compared as a positive control. Mice were assessed for the following: (1) tissue oxidation and neutrophil infiltration in terminal ileum mucosa using classic carbonyl, Gr-1, and myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical or biochemical assays, (2) NETosis in terminal ileum and colon mucosa homogenates and peritoneal and fluid blood samples utilizing flow cytometric analyses of the surrogate NETosis biomarkers, picogreen and Gr-1, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as measured in terminal ileum and colon with FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Our results reveal that simvastatin and melatonin exhibit consistently comparable therapeutic protective effects against the following: (1) gut mucosa oxidative stress as revealed in the terminal ileum by markers of protein carbonylation as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Gr-1 infiltration, (2) NETosis as revealed in the gut milieu, peritoneal lavage and plasma utilizing picogreen and Gr-1 flow cytometry and microscopy, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as assessed in the ileum and colon by FITC-dextran leakiness and TEER. Thus, simvastatin exhibits strong acute anti-inflammatory actions associated with marked decreases in gut tissue and systemic NETosis and decreased gut mucosa leakiness.
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At the end of the treatment course there was a significant elevation of HDLP2 and HDLP3 cholesterol and reduction in the levels of LDLP1-3 and LDLP cholesterol. DAS28 decreased by 0.89 points to the end of the treatment.
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* Statins reduce cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular events in randomized clinical trials. * Much less is known about their impact in the setting of normal care.
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The purpose of this study was to formulate novel triple-layered tablet (TLT) matrices employing modified polyamide 6,10 (mPA6,10) and salted-out poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (s-PLGA) in an attempt to achieve stratified zero-order drug release.
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To evaluate the effects of simvastatin combined with omega-3 fatty acids on high sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP), lipidemia, and fibrinolysis in coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD risk equivalent patients with mixed dyslipidemia.
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The study was aimed to assess paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, pleiotropic effects of simvastatin, and its relationship to Q192R and M55L polymorphisms in obese and non-obese subjects with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Lipid metabolism contributes to the formation of obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP or FABP3) is involved in lipid metabolism and was predicted to relate to renal lesions in obesity.
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In 69 UK hospitals, 20,536 men and women aged 40-80 years at high risk of vascular events were randomly assigned to simvastatin 40 mg daily versus matching placebo for a mean of 5·0 years. Patients were categorised into six baseline CRP groups (<1·25, 1·25-1·99, 2·00-2·99, 3·00-4·99, 5·00-7·99, and ≥8·00 mg/L). The primary endpoint for subgroup analyses was major vascular events, defined as the composite of coronary death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or revascularisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN48489393.
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Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses.
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Statins affect the production of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), both in vitro and in vivo. Various studies have shown the effects of statins on the pattern of n-6 fatty acids (FA), but limited attention has been paid to the n-3 FA. We investigated, in THP-1 and in HepG2 cells, the effects of simvastatin on the conversion of the 18C FA precursors in the n-3 and n-6 series, [1-(14)C] alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) and [1-(14)C] linoleic acid (LA) respectively, and on the metabolism of [1-(14)C] stearic acid (SA). THP-1 cells, as in the case of LA, actively converted alpha-LNA to its products, and after simvastatin treatment, the total conversion was significantly increased (from 57.2+/-7.2 to 74.3+/-8.5%, p<0.05). HepG2 cells also converted LA and alpha-LNA, but simvastatin increased significantly only the conversion of LA (9.5+/-1.9% versus 23.8+/-5.1%, p<0.02). SA conversion was similar in untreated cells (about 50%), while statin increased the production of oleic acid in HepG2, but in THP-1 cells there was a decrease. In conclusion, LA, alpha-LNA and SA are differentially metabolized in THP-1 and in HepG2 cells and their increased conversion by simvastatin is lower in HepG2 than in THP-1. These differences may reflect the distinct features of the two cell lines: monocytes, precursors of phagocytic cells, versus hepatocytes with mainly metabolic functions. Substantial differences concern also cellular FA pools: structural in THP-1 cells, and also depot, resulting in sequestering of the substrates, in HepG2. The greater n-3 FA metabolism in THP-1 cells may have favourable functional effects.
Porcine retinal arterioles (internal diameter, 71 +/- 2 microm) were isolated and pressurized without flow for in vitro study. Diameter changes were recorded using videomicroscopic techniques. Dihydroethidium (DHE) was used to detect superoxide production.
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Clinically relevant plethoric effects associated with statin therapy in CKD patients might be restricted to the decrease of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Self-nanoemulsifying granules were formulated with the objective of improving the bioavailability of the ezetimibe and simvastatin when administered together. Composition of self-nanoemulsifying system (SNS) was optimized using various modified oils, surfactant, and cosurfactant mixtures. SNSs were mixed with water and resultant emulsions were characterized for mean globule size and stability. SNSs were adsorbed on hydrophilic colloidal silicon dioxide to give free-flowing self-nanoemulsifying granules. Self-nanoemulsifying granules were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy, dissolution profile, and for in vivo performance in hypercholesterolemic rats. X-ray diffraction studies and scanning electron microscopy indicated loss of crystallinity and/or solubilization of both drugs in the self-nanoemulsifying granules. Self-nanoemulsifying granules effected substantial increase in dissolution of the drugs as compared with pure powder of drugs. In vivo evaluation in rats showed significant decrease in the total cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels in rats as compared with positive control confirming potential of self-nanoemulsifying granules as a drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drugs.
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Osteoclasts, together with osteoblasts, control the amount of bone tissue and regulate bone remodeling. Osteoclast differentiation is an important factor related to the pathogenesis of bone-loss related diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) acts as a signal mediator in osteoclast differentiation. Simvastatin, which inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, is a hypolipidemic drug which is known to affect bone metabolism and suppresses osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we analyzed whether simvastatin can inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through suppression of the subsequently formed ROS and investigated whether simvastatin can inhibit H2O2-induced signaling pathways in osteoclast differentiation. We found that simvastatin decreased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a genetic marker of osteoclast differentiation, and inhibited intracellular ROS generation in RAW 264.7 cell lines. ROS generation activated NF-κB, protein kinases B (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways such as c-JUN N-terminal kinases, p38 MAP kinases as well as extracellular signal- regulated kinase. Simvastatin was found to suppress these H2O2-induced signaling pathways in osteoclastogenesis. Together, these results indicate that simvastatin acts as an osteoclastogenesis inhibitor through suppression of ROS-mediated signaling pathways. This indicates that simvastatin has potential usefulness for osteoporosis and pathological bone resorption.
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Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by high-cholesterol feeding, and the serum was obtained from the rabbits after administration of the aqueous solution of Tongxinluo or simvastatin by gavage. U937 monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with the sera at different concentrations for 24 hours, and the changes in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 gene expression and secretion were detected by RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
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Epidemiological studies have shown a positive correlation between environmental particulate matter and adverse health effects. In particular, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) induces inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), exerting not only local, but also systemic adverse effects. Previously, in an experimental animal model, we found that simvastatin (Sv) pretreatment was effective in preventing ROFA induced lung inflammation. Herein, using the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as a neurotoxicity in vitro model, we studied the potential Sv protective effect on ROFA cytotoxicity. We evaluated cell viability by the MTT assay, superoxide anion generation by NBT test, Nrf2 activation by immunofluorescence, apoptosis by cleaved-PARP and active-caspase 3 expressions, and senescence by β-galactosidase activity. SH-SY5Y cells exposed to ROFA (10 and 50μg/ml) for 24h showed decreased cell viability, increased superoxide anion generation, apoptosis and senescence. Pretreatment with Sv (1μM) for 6 days, restored cell viability to basal levels, reduced ROFA-induced O2(-) generation as well as the number of apoptotic and senescent cells. Sv pretreatment stimulated the basal and ROFA-induced levels of Nrf2 nuclear translocation suggesting that activation of the cellular antioxidant defense system prevented particle-induced oxidative stress. In parallel, rescue experiments with mevalonate did not modify the effects of SV pretreatment in any of the parameters evaluated in this study. We conclude that simvastatin may provide neuroprotection against air particulate matter-induced neurotoxicity independently of its ability to inhibit cholesterol synthesis.
Obesity is associated with coronary artery disease. Intensive weight reducing therapy can result in improving outcome of patients after myocardial revascularization.
It has been suggested that inflammation status, as assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, modifies the vascular protective effects of statin therapy. In particular, there have been claims that statins might be more beneficial in people with raised CRP concentrations, and might even be ineffective in people with low concentrations of both CRP and LDL cholesterol. This study aimed to test this hypothesis.
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If severe hypotension occurs, aggressive fluid resuscitation is the first step, followed by administration of vasoactive drugs and, if necessary, by intraaortic balloon counterpulsation. If unstable angina or myocardial infarctions occurs after the use of sildenafil, the patient is treated according to the guidelines, but without nitrates.
We noninvasively investigated 23 consecutive patients (18 men, 5 women; mean age, 56+/-7.6 years) with a mean LDL level of 165+/-34 mg/dL at baseline by PET for myocardial blood flow measurement with [13N]ammonia at rest and under dipyridamole stress (0.56 mg/kg) before and after lipid-lowering therapy with simvastatin for 6 months. Between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, total cholesterol concentration fell from 241+/-44 to 168+/-34 mg/dL, and the LDL level decreased from 165+/-34 to 95+/-26 mg/dL (P<0.001). Overall, coronary flow reserve increased from 2.2+/-0.6 to 2.64+/-0.6 (P<0.01). Maximal coronary flow increased significantly from 182+/-36 to 238+/-58 mL/minx100 g (P<0.001) at follow-up. Minimum coronary resistance declined significantly from 0. 51+/-0.12 to 0.40+/-0.14 mm Hg. mL-1. minx100 g (P<0.001). Concomitantly, a regression of anginal symptoms was observed in most patients.
To describe the original ALS signal and to provide additional context for interpreting the signal by conducting retrospective analyses of data from long-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials of statins.
Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and thrombomodulin (TM) mRNA and protein expression were evaluated in human abdominal aortic endothelial cells (HAAEC) treated with simvastatin (0.1, 1 or 10 microM) at various levels of LSS (0, 1.25, 12.5 or 25 dynes/cm(2)).
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Statins inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, preventing synthesis of mevalonate but also of isoprenoids, which affect osteoclast activity. Amino-bisphosphonates share this effect. In vitro and in vivo, statins show convincing anabolic and anti-resorptive bone effects. However, in a clinical meta-analysis (MA), they did not prevent hip fractures.