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Patients were assigned to sertraline 50 mg/day or imipramine 150 mg/day.
We analysed 136 Caucasian depressed inpatients treated with amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, doxepin, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, paroxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine, who underwent weekly plasma concentration measurements, assessment of the severity of illness and side effects during their stay in the hospital. Patients were genotyped with respect to CYP2C9 alleles *1 and *2, the CYP2C19 alleles *1, *2 and *3 and the CYP2D6 alleles *1 to *9 and CYP2D6 gene duplication.
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Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are efficacious treatments for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) when given daily or for half of the menstrual cycle during the luteal phase. Preliminary studies suggest that SRI treatment can be shortened to the interval from symptom onset through the beginning of menses.
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The was no clinical measurement of disease severity, partial coverage of the Medicare-eligible population, and short follow-up.
Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT(1A) receptors have been suggested to play a pivotal role in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs, particularly in the case of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In the rat learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, a valid animal model of human depression, repeated treatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.125 and 0.5mg/kg) and several classes of antidepressants such as the tricyclic agent desipramine (30 and 60mg/kg), the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) pargyline (60mg/kg) and the SSRIs fluoxetine (15 and 30mg/kg), paroxetine (15 and 30mg/kg) and sertraline (30mg/kg) improved behavioural deficit in helpless rats. The involvement of serotonergic mechanisms in the antidepressant-like effect of these agents was investigated using the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100,635 and the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Pretreatment with WAY 100,635 blocked the 8-OH-DPAT-induced reduction in escape failures, but did not counteract the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine and paroxetine. PCPA given alone did not modify helpless behaviour nor did it affect the behavioural effect of 8-OH-DPAT, fluoxetine and paroxetine. Adaptive changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor function were studied by measuring 8-OH-DPAT-mediated hypothermia and lower lip retraction (LLR) in the animals 24h after LH test session. Fluoxetine and paroxetine treatments caused a marked reduction in agonist-induced responses, an effect completely prevented by WAY 100,635 and PCPA. In conclusion, whereas direct agonist activity at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors attenuated helpless behaviour, the antidepressant-like effect of SSRIs was found to be independent of their actions on either 5-HT(1A) receptor function or extracellular 5-HT.
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This study assessed the effects of co-administration of bupropion with SSRIs: sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram, fluvoxamine, SNRIs: venlafaxine and milnacipran and NRI: desipramine, using an animal model of depression, the forced swimming test in mice. Subactive doses of bupropion (4 and 8mg/kg) and antidepressants: sertraline (2mg/kg), paroxetine, citalopram, fluvoxamine, venlafaxine, milnacipran and desipramine (4mg/kg) were given i.p. 45 and 30min, respectively, before the test.
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A group of 480 patients, aged 19-78 with an HRSD score of at least 17 and who met DSM-III criteria for major depressive disorder were studied. Patients were given placebo for a one-week single-blind run-in period, after which sertraline was administered for eight weeks. This was followed by 44 weeks in which patients received sertraline or placebo on a double-blind, randomised basis. Patients were assessed periodically using the 17-item HRSD and the Clinical Global Impression scales. During the entire double-blind period 24 (13.0%) sertraline patients relapsed compared with 48 (45.7%) placebo patients (P less than 0.001). The protective effect of sertraline was maintained throughout the 44 weeks. The study provides evidence that sertraline prevents relapse of the index episode of depression as well as recurrence of further episodes and has few side-effects.
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VNTR and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms were investigated in 126 CTTH patients and 138 healthy control subjects. The patients were being treated with amitripytyline or citalopram or sertraline (SSRI). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to investigate the polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter protein gene.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of substitution between unbranded generics on persistence and adherence to therapy in two Italian Local Health Units (ASL) in real-world clinical practice in 5 therapeutic areas using tracing drugs. Substitution of generic drugs is any change in the name of the manufacturer of the generic drug. The therapeutic areas were: diabetes (metformin); hypertension (amlodipine); dyslipidemia (simvastatin); psychiatry (sertraline); cardiology (propafenone); osteoporosis (alendronate). The retrospective analysis was carried out on the administrative databases of two Local Healthcare Units (ASL - Azienda sanitaria locale Bergamo (BG) and Pavia (PV)) in the Lombardy Region of Italy. The correlation between persistence and adherence with the different cohorts of generic substitution frequency within each therapeutic area was then calculated.
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Drugs with potential cardiac adverse effects are commonly prescribed in Parkinson's disease (PD). To describe demographic and clinical characteristics in a group of PD patients with cardiac events and to evaluate risk factors.
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This observational cross-sectional study included 100 patients attending a university or private psychiatry clinic who, after an interview based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition criteria, were considered depressed. These patients had no history of depression, sexual dysfunction or use of psychiatric medications. Sexual functioning of patients was evaluated at the start of the study, and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Data were evaluated using SPSS software and t and χ(2) tests.
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The purpose of this article was to determine the relative efficacy of a psychotherapy program when combined with pharmacotherapy versus medication and clinical management in more severely depressed patients.
In vitro evidence suggests that some serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) inhibit P-glycoprotein, a multidrug efflux pump responsible for the elimination of several drugs including digoxin. We sought to determine if some SSRIs cause digoxin toxicity in the clinical setting.
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We have previously identified 204 partial cDNA fragments (ADRG1-204) as antidepressant related genes/expressed sequence tags. Then, we developed our original cDNA microarrays, on which the 194 clones out of ADRG1-204 were spotted. With this ADRG microarray, we found that the expression of a spot, ADRG55, which representing cysteine string protein (CSP), was significantly increased in rat brain after chronic treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, sertraline. In the present study, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the induction of CSP at mRNA levels in rat frontal cortex after chronic treatment with two different classes of antidepressants, imipramine or sertraline. Western blot analysis also revealed that CSP-immunoreactivity was increased after antidepressant treatment. In conclusion, our data suggest that CSP is one of the common functional molecules induced after chronic antidepressant treatment.
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Two hundred ninety nine (299) patients completed the acute studies and were eligible for the extension study. Of these, 226 enrolled, but 5 did not receive treatment. Of 221 patients (107 children and 114 adolescents), 62.4% completed the study. The endpoint mean daily dose was 109.9 mg/day. The mean decrease in CDRS-R score from double-blind baseline was 34.8 points (p < 0.001), with patients showing continued improvement in CDRS-R scores regardless of which treatment they received in the double-blind studies. At endpoint, 86% of patients met CDRS-R responder and 58% CDRS-R remitter criteria.
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The authors report a case of a young woman for whom autopsy confirmed the cause of death to be due to an acute asthma attack. In addition, she had high serum levels of sertraline hydrochloride (Zoloft). The decedent had a recent prescription for sertraline filled, from which most of the pills were missing, suggesting a large consumption of medication. She was found dead at home, immersed in a bath. Autopsy revealed anatomic evidence of a severe recent asthma attack. Quantitative blood assay for sertraline was very high (620 ng/ml). Fatalities from sertraline alone are virtually nonexistent. The effects of sertraline on asthma, however, are not well-studied. Why the patient ingested so much sertraline is unclear. However, it is possible that, in a variant of the serotonin syndrome, a large dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor participated in precipitating an asthma attack or prevented her from being aware of the evolution of such an exacerbation. Additional observations in the future will be useful in assessing the role of this class of drugs in patients with asthma.
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Antidepressants, in particular tricyclic ones (TCA), and inhibitors of monoaminooxidase (IMAO) exert a number of undesirable cardiovascular effects. TCA and IMAO frequently cause postural hypotension (PH). IMAO administration is associated with the risk of hypertensive crisis. TCA raises the heart rate and can cause abnormalities in the conduction of the cardiac excitation. TCA are contraindicated after myocardial infarction and are the cause of death after overdosage. When PH is undesirable, in hypertension and cardiac insufficiency the following safe antidepressants are recommended: nortriptyline, mianserine, trazodone and viloxazine. In abnormalities of conduction of the cardiac excitation and after myocardial infarction only mianserine, trazodione and viloxazine are recommended. With regard to cardiovascular toxicity, antidepressants from the series of selective inhibitors of serotonin reabsorption are very promising: fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine and sertraline. The same applies also to the reversible IMAO type A moclobemide.
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To assess the comparative-effectiveness of three antidepressants (escitalopram, citalopram, sertraline) commonly-prescribed for depression in Medicare.
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We used data from a large national insurer to identify patients who initiated a study (acarbose tablets, salmon calcitonin nasal spray, enoxaparin injection, vancomycin capsules, venlafaxine extended-release tablets) or control drug (nateglinide, glimepiride, alendronate, fondaparinux, metronidazole, sertraline, paroxetine) in each calendar month between 2003 and 2012 and to determine rates of claims-based proxies for lack of effectiveness outcomes following initiation. We used segmented time-series analyses to evaluate level (short-term) and slope (longer-term) changes in outcomes upon introduction of a generic study or control drug.
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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) trials for major depressive disorder (MDD) have shown positive but mixed results.
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Expert guidelines recommend cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as a first-line treatment in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the addition of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors when CBT is not effective. However, the recommendations for CBT non-responders are not supported by empirical data. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of sertraline (SRT) versus continued CBT in children and adolescents that did not respond to an initial course of CBT. Randomized controlled trial conducted in five sites in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 54 children and adolescents, age 7-17 years, with DSM-IV primary OCD were randomized to SRT or continued CBT for 16 weeks. These participants had been classified as non-responders to CBT following 14 weekly sessions. Primary outcomes were the CY-BOCS total score and clinical response (CY-BOCS <16). The study was a part of the Nordic Long-Term OCD Treatment Study (NordLOTS). Intent-to-treat sample included 50 participants, mean age 14.0 (SD = 2.7) and 48 (n = 24) males. Twenty-one of 28 participants (75%) completed continued CBT and 15 of 22 participants (69.2%) completed SRT. Planned pairwise comparison of the CY-BOCS total score did not reveal a significant difference between the treatments (p = .351), the response rate was 50.0% in the CBT group and 45.4% in the SRT group. The multivariate χ (2) test suggested that there were no statistically significant differences between groups (p = .727). Within-group effect sizes were large and significant across both treatments. These large within-group effect sizes suggest that continued treatment for CBT non-responders is beneficial. However, there was no significant between-group differences in SRT or continued CBT at post-treatment.
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Antidepressants (imipramine, venlafaxine and paroxetine) were found to be superior to placebo in treating GAD. The calculated NNT for antidepressants in GAD is 5.15. Dropout rates did not differ between antidepressants. Only one study presented data on imipramine and trazodone. Imipramine was chosen as the reference drug and, therefore, data on trazodone could not be included in the meta analysis. Only one study was conducted among children and adolescents (Rynn 2001). The latter study showed very promising results of sertraline in children and adolescents with GAD, which warrants its replication in larger samples.
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Long-term sertraline treatment was effective in preventing relapse of panic disorder, well tolerated and associated with minimal discontinuation symptoms.
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A total of 240 participants with modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale breathlessness of level 2 or higher will be randomised to receive either sertraline or placebo for 28 days in this multisite, double-blind study. The dose will be titrated up every 3 days to a maximum of 100 mg daily. The primary outcome will be to compare the efficacy of sertraline with placebo in relieving the intensity of worst breathlessness as assessed by a 0-100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A number of other outcome measures and descriptors of breathlessness as well as caregiver assessments will also be recorded to ensure adequate analysis of participant breathlessness and to allow an economic analysis to be performed. Participants will also be given the option of continuing blinded treatment until either study data collection is complete or net benefit ceases. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used to describe the wealth of data obtained.
Patients (N = 97) diagnosed with primary dysthymia, but no other current comorbid disorder, received either sertraline or placebo in a double-blind design over 12 weeks. In addition, a subgroup of the patients (N = 49) received a structured, weekly group cognitive behavior therapy intervention.
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Inflammatory responses contribute to the morbidity and mortality of severe influenza. Current antiviral therapy offers limited success in treating severe influenza infection with both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses. We evaluated the effect of a neuraminidase inhibitor in combination with immunomodulatory drugs in vitro and in a mouse model of influenza A H1N1 infection by determining survival rate, lung inflammation markers and histopathology. Sertraline and rolipram significantly improved survival in mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A H1N1 virus. Prophylactic treatment resulted in survival rates of 40% (rolipram), 30% (oseltamivir), 0% (sertraline), 100% (rolipram/oseltamivir) and 70% (sertraline/oseltamivir). Treatment in a therapeutic setting (24 h post-infection) resulted in 80% (rolipram/oseltamivir) and 40% (sertraline/oseltamivir) survival. Sertraline and rolipram had no effect on virus replication in vitro and in vivo, but significantly reduced lung inflammation. A significant reduction in cellular infiltration (10-fold) along with inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (10-fold), interleukin-6 (5-fold) and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (5-fold) was observed in the animals treated with the combination compared to oseltamivir alone. Lung histopathology of mice treated with combinations revealed significantly reduced consolidation, infiltration and alveolitis compared to oseltamivir alone. Rolipram and sertraline reduced H1N1 virus-induced lung inflammation and mortality. These data support further development of immunomodulatory agents for severe influenza.
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This pilot study has shown that sertraline has the potential to be a safe and effective therapy for dialysis hypotension. Long-term clinical and pathophysiological studies are currently in progress.
Postpartum depression (PMD) occurs in roughly 10 % of postpartum women and negatively impacts the mother and her offspring, but there are few placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant treatment in this population.
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Same authors regard gambling as addiction. A detailed psychiatric examination revealed the obsessive-compulsive syndrome in the patient. The authors treated the patient systematically using the individual psychotherapy and sertraline from low doses up to the maximal dose (i.e., about 200 mg daily). A complete remission of the obsessive-compulsive syndrome was achieved. A number of indirect proofs demonstrate a significant role of sertraline in the etiology of the obsessive-compulsive syndrome. The most important evidence is the effectiveness of the drugs from the group of selective inhibitors of serotonin central reuptake (SI-SHT) in the treatment of the obsessive-compulsive syndrome. Sertraline is safe and effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive syndrome (Ref. 7).
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Participants were randomly assigned to receive CBT alone, sertraline alone, combined CBT and sertraline, or pill placebo for 12 weeks.